Abstract

In remote sensing applications, spectra measured by Fourier-transform spectrometers are routinely apodized. A rigorous analysis approach would explicitly account for correlations induced in the covariance matrix by apodization, but these correlations are often ignored to simplify and speed up the processing. Using spectra measured by the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy missions, we investigated the effect of apodization on the retrieval of volume mixing ratio profiles for the case in which these correlations are ignored. Minor discrepancies occur between results for apodized and unapodized spectra, particularly when lines with a low signal-to-noise ratio are fitted. A set of microwindows is reported for O3 in the range of 1550–3350 cm-1.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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2000

H. A. Michelsen, F. W. Irion, G. L. Manney, G. C. Toon, M. R. Gunson, “Features and trends in Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) version 3 stratospheric water vapor and methane measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 22713–22724 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Ridolfi, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. Hopfner, P. E. Morris, P. Raspollini, G. Stiller, R. J. Wells, “Optimized forward model and retrieval scheme for MIPAS near-real-time data processing,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1323–1340 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

1998

1995

G. P. Stiller, M. R. Gunson, L. L. Lowes, M. C. Abrams, O. F. Raper, C. B. Farmer, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, “Stratospheric and mesospheric pressure-temperature profiles from rotational analysis of CO2 lines in atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy/ATLAS 1 infrared solar occultation spectra,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 3107–3117 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1991

1988

1982

1979

A. Goldman, R. S. Saunders, “Analysis of atmospheric infrared spectra for altitude distribution of atmospheric trace constituents. I. method of analysis,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 21, 155–161 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1976

Abrams, M. C.

G. P. Stiller, M. R. Gunson, L. L. Lowes, M. C. Abrams, O. F. Raper, C. B. Farmer, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, “Stratospheric and mesospheric pressure-temperature profiles from rotational analysis of CO2 lines in atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy/ATLAS 1 infrared solar occultation spectra,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 3107–3117 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Amato, U.

Beer, R.

Carli, B.

Carlotti, M.

De Canditiis, D.

de Haseth, J. A.

P. R. Griffiths, J. A. de Haseth, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (Wiley, New York, 1986).

Desbiens, R.

R. Desbiens, P. Tremblay, “Families of optimal parametric windows having arbitrary secondary lobe profile,” in Fourier Transform Spectroscopy, Vol. 51 of 2001 OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), pp. 41–43.

Dinelli, B. M.

Drijard, D.

W. T. Eadie, D. Drijard, F. James, M. Roos, B. Sadoulet, Statistical Methods in Experimental Physics (American Elsevier, New York, 1971), pp. 204–205.

Dudhia, A.

Eadie, W. T.

W. T. Eadie, D. Drijard, F. James, M. Roos, B. Sadoulet, Statistical Methods in Experimental Physics (American Elsevier, New York, 1971), pp. 204–205.

Farmer, C. B.

G. P. Stiller, M. R. Gunson, L. L. Lowes, M. C. Abrams, O. F. Raper, C. B. Farmer, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, “Stratospheric and mesospheric pressure-temperature profiles from rotational analysis of CO2 lines in atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy/ATLAS 1 infrared solar occultation spectra,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 3107–3117 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, H.

Flannery, B. P.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in Fortran, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1992).

Flaud, J.-M.

Goldman, A.

A. Goldman, R. S. Saunders, “Analysis of atmospheric infrared spectra for altitude distribution of atmospheric trace constituents. I. method of analysis,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 21, 155–161 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Griffiths, P. R.

Gunson, M. R.

H. A. Michelsen, F. W. Irion, G. L. Manney, G. C. Toon, M. R. Gunson, “Features and trends in Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) version 3 stratospheric water vapor and methane measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 22713–22724 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Stiller, M. R. Gunson, L. L. Lowes, M. C. Abrams, O. F. Raper, C. B. Farmer, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, “Stratospheric and mesospheric pressure-temperature profiles from rotational analysis of CO2 lines in atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy/ATLAS 1 infrared solar occultation spectra,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 3107–3117 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hopfner, M.

Irion, F. W.

H. A. Michelsen, F. W. Irion, G. L. Manney, G. C. Toon, M. R. Gunson, “Features and trends in Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) version 3 stratospheric water vapor and methane measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 22713–22724 (2000).
[CrossRef]

James, F.

W. T. Eadie, D. Drijard, F. James, M. Roos, B. Sadoulet, Statistical Methods in Experimental Physics (American Elsevier, New York, 1971), pp. 204–205.

Lowes, L. L.

G. P. Stiller, M. R. Gunson, L. L. Lowes, M. C. Abrams, O. F. Raper, C. B. Farmer, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, “Stratospheric and mesospheric pressure-temperature profiles from rotational analysis of CO2 lines in atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy/ATLAS 1 infrared solar occultation spectra,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 3107–3117 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Manney, G. L.

H. A. Michelsen, F. W. Irion, G. L. Manney, G. C. Toon, M. R. Gunson, “Features and trends in Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) version 3 stratospheric water vapor and methane measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 22713–22724 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Michelsen, H. A.

H. A. Michelsen, F. W. Irion, G. L. Manney, G. C. Toon, M. R. Gunson, “Features and trends in Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) version 3 stratospheric water vapor and methane measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 22713–22724 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Morris, P. E.

Norton, R. H.

Oelhaf, H.

Park, J. H.

Phillips, B.

Press, W. H.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in Fortran, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1992).

Raper, O. F.

G. P. Stiller, M. R. Gunson, L. L. Lowes, M. C. Abrams, O. F. Raper, C. B. Farmer, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, “Stratospheric and mesospheric pressure-temperature profiles from rotational analysis of CO2 lines in atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy/ATLAS 1 infrared solar occultation spectra,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 3107–3117 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Raspollini, P.

Ridolfi, M.

Rinsland, C. P.

G. P. Stiller, M. R. Gunson, L. L. Lowes, M. C. Abrams, O. F. Raper, C. B. Farmer, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, “Stratospheric and mesospheric pressure-temperature profiles from rotational analysis of CO2 lines in atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy/ATLAS 1 infrared solar occultation spectra,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 3107–3117 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Norton, C. P. Rinsland, “ATMOS data processing and science analysis methods,” Appl. Opt. 30, 389–400 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roos, M.

W. T. Eadie, D. Drijard, F. James, M. Roos, B. Sadoulet, Statistical Methods in Experimental Physics (American Elsevier, New York, 1971), pp. 204–205.

Russwurm, G. M.

Sadoulet, B.

W. T. Eadie, D. Drijard, F. James, M. Roos, B. Sadoulet, Statistical Methods in Experimental Physics (American Elsevier, New York, 1971), pp. 204–205.

Saunders, R. S.

A. Goldman, R. S. Saunders, “Analysis of atmospheric infrared spectra for altitude distribution of atmospheric trace constituents. I. method of analysis,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 21, 155–161 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Serio, C.

Stiller, G.

Stiller, G. P.

G. P. Stiller, M. R. Gunson, L. L. Lowes, M. C. Abrams, O. F. Raper, C. B. Farmer, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, “Stratospheric and mesospheric pressure-temperature profiles from rotational analysis of CO2 lines in atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy/ATLAS 1 infrared solar occultation spectra,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 3107–3117 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Teukolsky, S. A.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in Fortran, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1992).

Toon, G. C.

H. A. Michelsen, F. W. Irion, G. L. Manney, G. C. Toon, M. R. Gunson, “Features and trends in Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) version 3 stratospheric water vapor and methane measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 22713–22724 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tremblay, P.

R. Desbiens, P. Tremblay, “Families of optimal parametric windows having arbitrary secondary lobe profile,” in Fourier Transform Spectroscopy, Vol. 51 of 2001 OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), pp. 41–43.

Vetterling, W. T.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in Fortran, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1992).

von Clarmann, T.

Wells, R. J.

Zander, R.

G. P. Stiller, M. R. Gunson, L. L. Lowes, M. C. Abrams, O. F. Raper, C. B. Farmer, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, “Stratospheric and mesospheric pressure-temperature profiles from rotational analysis of CO2 lines in atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy/ATLAS 1 infrared solar occultation spectra,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 3107–3117 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, C.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Spectrosc.

J. Geophys. Res.

H. A. Michelsen, F. W. Irion, G. L. Manney, G. C. Toon, M. R. Gunson, “Features and trends in Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) version 3 stratospheric water vapor and methane measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 22713–22724 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Stiller, M. R. Gunson, L. L. Lowes, M. C. Abrams, O. F. Raper, C. B. Farmer, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, “Stratospheric and mesospheric pressure-temperature profiles from rotational analysis of CO2 lines in atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy/ATLAS 1 infrared solar occultation spectra,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 3107–3117 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer

A. Goldman, R. S. Saunders, “Analysis of atmospheric infrared spectra for altitude distribution of atmospheric trace constituents. I. method of analysis,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 21, 155–161 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Other

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in Fortran, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1992).

R. Desbiens, P. Tremblay, “Families of optimal parametric windows having arbitrary secondary lobe profile,” in Fourier Transform Spectroscopy, Vol. 51 of 2001 OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), pp. 41–43.

A detailed description of the ACE mission can be found at http://www.ace.uwaterloo.ca .

P. R. Griffiths, J. A. de Haseth, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (Wiley, New York, 1986).

W. T. Eadie, D. Drijard, F. James, M. Roos, B. Sadoulet, Statistical Methods in Experimental Physics (American Elsevier, New York, 1971), pp. 204–205.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

HCl retrieval with and without apodization for ATMOS ATLAS-1, sunset 16. Error bars are shown for one data set only. Results from analysis of the apodized spectra often exhibit more of an oscillatory behavior. ppb, parts per billion.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Altitude ranges for the microwindows used in the ATMOS version 2 retrievals of ozone.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

O3 retrieval with and without apodization, ATMOS ATLAS-3, sunrise 47. Error bars are shown for one data set only. Discrepancies exist in the vicinity of the peak. ppm, parts per million.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

ATMOS ATLAS-3, sunrise 47, tangent height 35.2 km, center frequency 2167.8 cm-1, microwindow width 0.3 cm-1, no apodization. Observed and calculated spectra are plotted in the upper graph, and residuals are plotted in the lower graph.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

ATMOS ATLAS-3, sunrise 47, tangent height 35.2 km, center frequency 2167.8 cm-1, microwindow width 0.3 cm-1, Norton-Beer medium apodization. Observed and calculated spectra are plotted in the upper graph, and residuals are plotted in the lower graph.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

O3 retrieval with and without apodization by use of the new microwindow set, ATMOS ATLAS-3, sunrise 47. Error bars are not shown. Agreement between the two results is generally better than was observed with the old microwindow set. ppm, parts per million.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 O3 Microwindow Set for the 1550–3350-cm-1 Region

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