Abstract

The transfer of continuous-relief micro-optical structures from resist into GaAs by the use of direct-write electron-beam (e-beam) lithography followed by dry etching in an inductively coupled plasma is demonstrated. BCl3-Ar chemistry was found to give satisfactory results; N2 and Cl2 were added to change the selectivity between GaAs and e-beam resist. The transfer process generates smooth etched structures. Distortion of the diffractive structures in the transfer process was examined. Blazed gratings with a period of 10 µm were optically evaluated with a 940-nm VCSEL. This grating was a five-step approximation of a blazed profile. The diffraction efficiency was 67% in the first order, with a theoretical value of 87%. Also, simulations of the optical performance of the transferred diffractive elements were made by use of a Fourier transform of the grating profile. Our goal is to integrate micro-optical structures with VCSELs.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. Martinsson, J. Bengtsson, M. Ghisoni, A. Larsson, “Monolithic integration of vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser and diffractive optical element for advanced beam shaping,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 503–505 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. F. S. Pool, D. W. Wilson, P. D. Maker, R. E. Muller, J. J. Gill, D. K. Sengupta, J. K. Liu, S. V. Bandara, S. D. Gunapala, “Fabrication and performance of diffractive optics for quantum well infrared photodetectors,” in Infrared Detectors and Focal Plane Arrays V, E. L. Dereniak, R. E. Sampson, eds., Proc. SPIE3379, 402–409 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. F. Nikolajeff, T. A. Ballen, J. R. Leger, A. Gopinath, L. Tzu Chen, R. C. Williams, “Spatial-mode control of vertical-cavity lasers with micromirrors fabricated and replicated in semiconductor materials,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3030–3038 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. E. M. Strzelecka, G. D. Robinson, L. A. Coldren, E. L. Hu, “Fabrication of refractive microlenses in semiconductors by mask shape transfer in reactive ion etching,” Microelectr. Eng. 35, 385–388 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Sankur, R. Hall, E. Motamedi, W. Gunning, W. Tennant, “Fabrication of microlens arrays by reactive ion milling,” in Miniaturized Systems with Micro-Optics and Micromechanics, M. Motamedi, ed., Proc. SPIE2687, 150–155 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. J. Shul, G. B. McClellan, R. D. Briggs, D. J. Rieger, S. J. Pearton, C. R. Abernathy, J. W. Lee, C. Constantine, C. Barratt, “High-density plasma etching of compound semiconductors,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15, 633–637 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. Constantine, R. J. Shul, C. T. Sullivan, M. B. Snipes, G. B. McClellan, M. Hafich, C. T. Fuller, J. F. Mileham, S. J. Pearton, “Etching of GaAs/AlGaAs rib waveguide structures using BCl3/Cl2/N2/Ar electron cyclotron resonance,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2025–2030 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Maeda, J. W. Lee, R. J. Shul, J. Han, J. Hong, E. S. Lambers, S. J. Pearton, C. R. Abernathy, W. S. Hobson, “Inductively coupled plasma etching of III–V semiconductors in BCl3-based chemistries. I. GaAs, GaN, GaP, GaSb and AlGaAs,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 143, 174–182 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Agarwala, O. King, S. Horst, R. Wilson, D. Stone, M. Dagenais, Y. J. Chen, “Response surface study of inductively coupled plasma etching of GaAs/AlGaAs in BCl3/Cl2,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 17, 52–55 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. W. Lee, J. Hong, E. S. Lambers, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, W. S. Hobson, F. Ren, “Plasma etching of III–V semiconductors in BCl3 chemistries. I. GaAs and related compounds,” Plasma Chem. Plasma Process. 17, 155–167 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Z. Juang, Y. K. Su, S. C. Shei, B. C. Fang, “Comparing reactive ion etching of III–V compounds in Cl2/BCl3/Ar and CCl2F2/BCl3/Ar discharges,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 12, 75–82 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. Hedlund, H. O. Blom, S. Berg, “Microloading effect in reactive ion etching,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 12, 1962–1965 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  13. F. Nikolajeff, J. Bengtsson, M. Larsson, M. Ekberg, S. Hard, “Measuring and modeling the proximity effect in direct-write electron-beam lithography kinoforms,” Appl. Opt. 34, 897–903 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. I. V. Katardjiev, G. Carter, M. J. Nobes, S. Berg, H. O. Blom, “Three-dimensional simulation of surface evolution during growth and erosion,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 12, 61–68 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C. Hedlund, L. B. Jonsson, I. V. Katardjiev, S. Berg, H. O. Blom, “Angular dependence of the polysilicon etch rate during dry etching in SF6 and Cl2,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15, 686–691 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  16. W. Daschner, M. Larsson, S. H. Lee, “Fabrication of monolithic diffractive optical elements by the use of e-beam direct write on an analog resist and a single chemically assisted ion-beam-etching step,” Appl. Opt. 34, 2534–2539 (1995).
    [CrossRef]

1999 (4)

T. Maeda, J. W. Lee, R. J. Shul, J. Han, J. Hong, E. S. Lambers, S. J. Pearton, C. R. Abernathy, W. S. Hobson, “Inductively coupled plasma etching of III–V semiconductors in BCl3-based chemistries. I. GaAs, GaN, GaP, GaSb and AlGaAs,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 143, 174–182 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Agarwala, O. King, S. Horst, R. Wilson, D. Stone, M. Dagenais, Y. J. Chen, “Response surface study of inductively coupled plasma etching of GaAs/AlGaAs in BCl3/Cl2,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 17, 52–55 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Martinsson, J. Bengtsson, M. Ghisoni, A. Larsson, “Monolithic integration of vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser and diffractive optical element for advanced beam shaping,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 503–505 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Nikolajeff, T. A. Ballen, J. R. Leger, A. Gopinath, L. Tzu Chen, R. C. Williams, “Spatial-mode control of vertical-cavity lasers with micromirrors fabricated and replicated in semiconductor materials,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3030–3038 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (4)

C. Hedlund, L. B. Jonsson, I. V. Katardjiev, S. Berg, H. O. Blom, “Angular dependence of the polysilicon etch rate during dry etching in SF6 and Cl2,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15, 686–691 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Strzelecka, G. D. Robinson, L. A. Coldren, E. L. Hu, “Fabrication of refractive microlenses in semiconductors by mask shape transfer in reactive ion etching,” Microelectr. Eng. 35, 385–388 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Shul, G. B. McClellan, R. D. Briggs, D. J. Rieger, S. J. Pearton, C. R. Abernathy, J. W. Lee, C. Constantine, C. Barratt, “High-density plasma etching of compound semiconductors,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15, 633–637 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Lee, J. Hong, E. S. Lambers, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, W. S. Hobson, F. Ren, “Plasma etching of III–V semiconductors in BCl3 chemistries. I. GaAs and related compounds,” Plasma Chem. Plasma Process. 17, 155–167 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (3)

1994 (3)

I. V. Katardjiev, G. Carter, M. J. Nobes, S. Berg, H. O. Blom, “Three-dimensional simulation of surface evolution during growth and erosion,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 12, 61–68 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Y. Z. Juang, Y. K. Su, S. C. Shei, B. C. Fang, “Comparing reactive ion etching of III–V compounds in Cl2/BCl3/Ar and CCl2F2/BCl3/Ar discharges,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 12, 75–82 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. Hedlund, H. O. Blom, S. Berg, “Microloading effect in reactive ion etching,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 12, 1962–1965 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Abernathy, C. R.

T. Maeda, J. W. Lee, R. J. Shul, J. Han, J. Hong, E. S. Lambers, S. J. Pearton, C. R. Abernathy, W. S. Hobson, “Inductively coupled plasma etching of III–V semiconductors in BCl3-based chemistries. I. GaAs, GaN, GaP, GaSb and AlGaAs,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 143, 174–182 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Lee, J. Hong, E. S. Lambers, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, W. S. Hobson, F. Ren, “Plasma etching of III–V semiconductors in BCl3 chemistries. I. GaAs and related compounds,” Plasma Chem. Plasma Process. 17, 155–167 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Shul, G. B. McClellan, R. D. Briggs, D. J. Rieger, S. J. Pearton, C. R. Abernathy, J. W. Lee, C. Constantine, C. Barratt, “High-density plasma etching of compound semiconductors,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15, 633–637 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Agarwala, S.

S. Agarwala, O. King, S. Horst, R. Wilson, D. Stone, M. Dagenais, Y. J. Chen, “Response surface study of inductively coupled plasma etching of GaAs/AlGaAs in BCl3/Cl2,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 17, 52–55 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ballen, T. A.

Bandara, S. V.

F. S. Pool, D. W. Wilson, P. D. Maker, R. E. Muller, J. J. Gill, D. K. Sengupta, J. K. Liu, S. V. Bandara, S. D. Gunapala, “Fabrication and performance of diffractive optics for quantum well infrared photodetectors,” in Infrared Detectors and Focal Plane Arrays V, E. L. Dereniak, R. E. Sampson, eds., Proc. SPIE3379, 402–409 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Barratt, C.

R. J. Shul, G. B. McClellan, R. D. Briggs, D. J. Rieger, S. J. Pearton, C. R. Abernathy, J. W. Lee, C. Constantine, C. Barratt, “High-density plasma etching of compound semiconductors,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15, 633–637 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bengtsson, J.

H. Martinsson, J. Bengtsson, M. Ghisoni, A. Larsson, “Monolithic integration of vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser and diffractive optical element for advanced beam shaping,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 503–505 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Nikolajeff, J. Bengtsson, M. Larsson, M. Ekberg, S. Hard, “Measuring and modeling the proximity effect in direct-write electron-beam lithography kinoforms,” Appl. Opt. 34, 897–903 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berg, S.

C. Hedlund, L. B. Jonsson, I. V. Katardjiev, S. Berg, H. O. Blom, “Angular dependence of the polysilicon etch rate during dry etching in SF6 and Cl2,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15, 686–691 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Hedlund, H. O. Blom, S. Berg, “Microloading effect in reactive ion etching,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 12, 1962–1965 (1994).
[CrossRef]

I. V. Katardjiev, G. Carter, M. J. Nobes, S. Berg, H. O. Blom, “Three-dimensional simulation of surface evolution during growth and erosion,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 12, 61–68 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Blom, H. O.

C. Hedlund, L. B. Jonsson, I. V. Katardjiev, S. Berg, H. O. Blom, “Angular dependence of the polysilicon etch rate during dry etching in SF6 and Cl2,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15, 686–691 (1997).
[CrossRef]

I. V. Katardjiev, G. Carter, M. J. Nobes, S. Berg, H. O. Blom, “Three-dimensional simulation of surface evolution during growth and erosion,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 12, 61–68 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. Hedlund, H. O. Blom, S. Berg, “Microloading effect in reactive ion etching,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 12, 1962–1965 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Briggs, R. D.

R. J. Shul, G. B. McClellan, R. D. Briggs, D. J. Rieger, S. J. Pearton, C. R. Abernathy, J. W. Lee, C. Constantine, C. Barratt, “High-density plasma etching of compound semiconductors,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15, 633–637 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Carter, G.

I. V. Katardjiev, G. Carter, M. J. Nobes, S. Berg, H. O. Blom, “Three-dimensional simulation of surface evolution during growth and erosion,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 12, 61–68 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. J.

S. Agarwala, O. King, S. Horst, R. Wilson, D. Stone, M. Dagenais, Y. J. Chen, “Response surface study of inductively coupled plasma etching of GaAs/AlGaAs in BCl3/Cl2,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 17, 52–55 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Coldren, L. A.

E. M. Strzelecka, G. D. Robinson, L. A. Coldren, E. L. Hu, “Fabrication of refractive microlenses in semiconductors by mask shape transfer in reactive ion etching,” Microelectr. Eng. 35, 385–388 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Constantine, C.

R. J. Shul, G. B. McClellan, R. D. Briggs, D. J. Rieger, S. J. Pearton, C. R. Abernathy, J. W. Lee, C. Constantine, C. Barratt, “High-density plasma etching of compound semiconductors,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15, 633–637 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Constantine, R. J. Shul, C. T. Sullivan, M. B. Snipes, G. B. McClellan, M. Hafich, C. T. Fuller, J. F. Mileham, S. J. Pearton, “Etching of GaAs/AlGaAs rib waveguide structures using BCl3/Cl2/N2/Ar electron cyclotron resonance,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2025–2030 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dagenais, M.

S. Agarwala, O. King, S. Horst, R. Wilson, D. Stone, M. Dagenais, Y. J. Chen, “Response surface study of inductively coupled plasma etching of GaAs/AlGaAs in BCl3/Cl2,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 17, 52–55 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Daschner, W.

Ekberg, M.

Fang, B. C.

Y. Z. Juang, Y. K. Su, S. C. Shei, B. C. Fang, “Comparing reactive ion etching of III–V compounds in Cl2/BCl3/Ar and CCl2F2/BCl3/Ar discharges,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 12, 75–82 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fuller, C. T.

C. Constantine, R. J. Shul, C. T. Sullivan, M. B. Snipes, G. B. McClellan, M. Hafich, C. T. Fuller, J. F. Mileham, S. J. Pearton, “Etching of GaAs/AlGaAs rib waveguide structures using BCl3/Cl2/N2/Ar electron cyclotron resonance,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2025–2030 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ghisoni, M.

H. Martinsson, J. Bengtsson, M. Ghisoni, A. Larsson, “Monolithic integration of vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser and diffractive optical element for advanced beam shaping,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 503–505 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gill, J. J.

F. S. Pool, D. W. Wilson, P. D. Maker, R. E. Muller, J. J. Gill, D. K. Sengupta, J. K. Liu, S. V. Bandara, S. D. Gunapala, “Fabrication and performance of diffractive optics for quantum well infrared photodetectors,” in Infrared Detectors and Focal Plane Arrays V, E. L. Dereniak, R. E. Sampson, eds., Proc. SPIE3379, 402–409 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gopinath, A.

Gunapala, S. D.

F. S. Pool, D. W. Wilson, P. D. Maker, R. E. Muller, J. J. Gill, D. K. Sengupta, J. K. Liu, S. V. Bandara, S. D. Gunapala, “Fabrication and performance of diffractive optics for quantum well infrared photodetectors,” in Infrared Detectors and Focal Plane Arrays V, E. L. Dereniak, R. E. Sampson, eds., Proc. SPIE3379, 402–409 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gunning, W.

H. Sankur, R. Hall, E. Motamedi, W. Gunning, W. Tennant, “Fabrication of microlens arrays by reactive ion milling,” in Miniaturized Systems with Micro-Optics and Micromechanics, M. Motamedi, ed., Proc. SPIE2687, 150–155 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hafich, M.

C. Constantine, R. J. Shul, C. T. Sullivan, M. B. Snipes, G. B. McClellan, M. Hafich, C. T. Fuller, J. F. Mileham, S. J. Pearton, “Etching of GaAs/AlGaAs rib waveguide structures using BCl3/Cl2/N2/Ar electron cyclotron resonance,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2025–2030 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hall, R.

H. Sankur, R. Hall, E. Motamedi, W. Gunning, W. Tennant, “Fabrication of microlens arrays by reactive ion milling,” in Miniaturized Systems with Micro-Optics and Micromechanics, M. Motamedi, ed., Proc. SPIE2687, 150–155 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Han, J.

T. Maeda, J. W. Lee, R. J. Shul, J. Han, J. Hong, E. S. Lambers, S. J. Pearton, C. R. Abernathy, W. S. Hobson, “Inductively coupled plasma etching of III–V semiconductors in BCl3-based chemistries. I. GaAs, GaN, GaP, GaSb and AlGaAs,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 143, 174–182 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hard, S.

Hedlund, C.

C. Hedlund, L. B. Jonsson, I. V. Katardjiev, S. Berg, H. O. Blom, “Angular dependence of the polysilicon etch rate during dry etching in SF6 and Cl2,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15, 686–691 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Hedlund, H. O. Blom, S. Berg, “Microloading effect in reactive ion etching,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 12, 1962–1965 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hobson, W. S.

T. Maeda, J. W. Lee, R. J. Shul, J. Han, J. Hong, E. S. Lambers, S. J. Pearton, C. R. Abernathy, W. S. Hobson, “Inductively coupled plasma etching of III–V semiconductors in BCl3-based chemistries. I. GaAs, GaN, GaP, GaSb and AlGaAs,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 143, 174–182 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Lee, J. Hong, E. S. Lambers, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, W. S. Hobson, F. Ren, “Plasma etching of III–V semiconductors in BCl3 chemistries. I. GaAs and related compounds,” Plasma Chem. Plasma Process. 17, 155–167 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hong, J.

T. Maeda, J. W. Lee, R. J. Shul, J. Han, J. Hong, E. S. Lambers, S. J. Pearton, C. R. Abernathy, W. S. Hobson, “Inductively coupled plasma etching of III–V semiconductors in BCl3-based chemistries. I. GaAs, GaN, GaP, GaSb and AlGaAs,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 143, 174–182 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Lee, J. Hong, E. S. Lambers, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, W. S. Hobson, F. Ren, “Plasma etching of III–V semiconductors in BCl3 chemistries. I. GaAs and related compounds,” Plasma Chem. Plasma Process. 17, 155–167 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Horst, S.

S. Agarwala, O. King, S. Horst, R. Wilson, D. Stone, M. Dagenais, Y. J. Chen, “Response surface study of inductively coupled plasma etching of GaAs/AlGaAs in BCl3/Cl2,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 17, 52–55 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hu, E. L.

E. M. Strzelecka, G. D. Robinson, L. A. Coldren, E. L. Hu, “Fabrication of refractive microlenses in semiconductors by mask shape transfer in reactive ion etching,” Microelectr. Eng. 35, 385–388 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jonsson, L. B.

C. Hedlund, L. B. Jonsson, I. V. Katardjiev, S. Berg, H. O. Blom, “Angular dependence of the polysilicon etch rate during dry etching in SF6 and Cl2,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15, 686–691 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Juang, Y. Z.

Y. Z. Juang, Y. K. Su, S. C. Shei, B. C. Fang, “Comparing reactive ion etching of III–V compounds in Cl2/BCl3/Ar and CCl2F2/BCl3/Ar discharges,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 12, 75–82 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Katardjiev, I. V.

C. Hedlund, L. B. Jonsson, I. V. Katardjiev, S. Berg, H. O. Blom, “Angular dependence of the polysilicon etch rate during dry etching in SF6 and Cl2,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15, 686–691 (1997).
[CrossRef]

I. V. Katardjiev, G. Carter, M. J. Nobes, S. Berg, H. O. Blom, “Three-dimensional simulation of surface evolution during growth and erosion,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 12, 61–68 (1994).
[CrossRef]

King, O.

S. Agarwala, O. King, S. Horst, R. Wilson, D. Stone, M. Dagenais, Y. J. Chen, “Response surface study of inductively coupled plasma etching of GaAs/AlGaAs in BCl3/Cl2,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 17, 52–55 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lambers, E. S.

T. Maeda, J. W. Lee, R. J. Shul, J. Han, J. Hong, E. S. Lambers, S. J. Pearton, C. R. Abernathy, W. S. Hobson, “Inductively coupled plasma etching of III–V semiconductors in BCl3-based chemistries. I. GaAs, GaN, GaP, GaSb and AlGaAs,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 143, 174–182 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Lee, J. Hong, E. S. Lambers, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, W. S. Hobson, F. Ren, “Plasma etching of III–V semiconductors in BCl3 chemistries. I. GaAs and related compounds,” Plasma Chem. Plasma Process. 17, 155–167 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Larsson, A.

H. Martinsson, J. Bengtsson, M. Ghisoni, A. Larsson, “Monolithic integration of vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser and diffractive optical element for advanced beam shaping,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 503–505 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Larsson, M.

Lee, J. W.

T. Maeda, J. W. Lee, R. J. Shul, J. Han, J. Hong, E. S. Lambers, S. J. Pearton, C. R. Abernathy, W. S. Hobson, “Inductively coupled plasma etching of III–V semiconductors in BCl3-based chemistries. I. GaAs, GaN, GaP, GaSb and AlGaAs,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 143, 174–182 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Lee, J. Hong, E. S. Lambers, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, W. S. Hobson, F. Ren, “Plasma etching of III–V semiconductors in BCl3 chemistries. I. GaAs and related compounds,” Plasma Chem. Plasma Process. 17, 155–167 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Shul, G. B. McClellan, R. D. Briggs, D. J. Rieger, S. J. Pearton, C. R. Abernathy, J. W. Lee, C. Constantine, C. Barratt, “High-density plasma etching of compound semiconductors,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15, 633–637 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. H.

Leger, J. R.

Liu, J. K.

F. S. Pool, D. W. Wilson, P. D. Maker, R. E. Muller, J. J. Gill, D. K. Sengupta, J. K. Liu, S. V. Bandara, S. D. Gunapala, “Fabrication and performance of diffractive optics for quantum well infrared photodetectors,” in Infrared Detectors and Focal Plane Arrays V, E. L. Dereniak, R. E. Sampson, eds., Proc. SPIE3379, 402–409 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Maeda, T.

T. Maeda, J. W. Lee, R. J. Shul, J. Han, J. Hong, E. S. Lambers, S. J. Pearton, C. R. Abernathy, W. S. Hobson, “Inductively coupled plasma etching of III–V semiconductors in BCl3-based chemistries. I. GaAs, GaN, GaP, GaSb and AlGaAs,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 143, 174–182 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Maker, P. D.

F. S. Pool, D. W. Wilson, P. D. Maker, R. E. Muller, J. J. Gill, D. K. Sengupta, J. K. Liu, S. V. Bandara, S. D. Gunapala, “Fabrication and performance of diffractive optics for quantum well infrared photodetectors,” in Infrared Detectors and Focal Plane Arrays V, E. L. Dereniak, R. E. Sampson, eds., Proc. SPIE3379, 402–409 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Martinsson, H.

H. Martinsson, J. Bengtsson, M. Ghisoni, A. Larsson, “Monolithic integration of vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser and diffractive optical element for advanced beam shaping,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 503–505 (1999).
[CrossRef]

McClellan, G. B.

R. J. Shul, G. B. McClellan, R. D. Briggs, D. J. Rieger, S. J. Pearton, C. R. Abernathy, J. W. Lee, C. Constantine, C. Barratt, “High-density plasma etching of compound semiconductors,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15, 633–637 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Constantine, R. J. Shul, C. T. Sullivan, M. B. Snipes, G. B. McClellan, M. Hafich, C. T. Fuller, J. F. Mileham, S. J. Pearton, “Etching of GaAs/AlGaAs rib waveguide structures using BCl3/Cl2/N2/Ar electron cyclotron resonance,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2025–2030 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mileham, J. F.

C. Constantine, R. J. Shul, C. T. Sullivan, M. B. Snipes, G. B. McClellan, M. Hafich, C. T. Fuller, J. F. Mileham, S. J. Pearton, “Etching of GaAs/AlGaAs rib waveguide structures using BCl3/Cl2/N2/Ar electron cyclotron resonance,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2025–2030 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Motamedi, E.

H. Sankur, R. Hall, E. Motamedi, W. Gunning, W. Tennant, “Fabrication of microlens arrays by reactive ion milling,” in Miniaturized Systems with Micro-Optics and Micromechanics, M. Motamedi, ed., Proc. SPIE2687, 150–155 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Muller, R. E.

F. S. Pool, D. W. Wilson, P. D. Maker, R. E. Muller, J. J. Gill, D. K. Sengupta, J. K. Liu, S. V. Bandara, S. D. Gunapala, “Fabrication and performance of diffractive optics for quantum well infrared photodetectors,” in Infrared Detectors and Focal Plane Arrays V, E. L. Dereniak, R. E. Sampson, eds., Proc. SPIE3379, 402–409 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nikolajeff, F.

Nobes, M. J.

I. V. Katardjiev, G. Carter, M. J. Nobes, S. Berg, H. O. Blom, “Three-dimensional simulation of surface evolution during growth and erosion,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 12, 61–68 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pearton, S. J.

T. Maeda, J. W. Lee, R. J. Shul, J. Han, J. Hong, E. S. Lambers, S. J. Pearton, C. R. Abernathy, W. S. Hobson, “Inductively coupled plasma etching of III–V semiconductors in BCl3-based chemistries. I. GaAs, GaN, GaP, GaSb and AlGaAs,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 143, 174–182 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Shul, G. B. McClellan, R. D. Briggs, D. J. Rieger, S. J. Pearton, C. R. Abernathy, J. W. Lee, C. Constantine, C. Barratt, “High-density plasma etching of compound semiconductors,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15, 633–637 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Lee, J. Hong, E. S. Lambers, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, W. S. Hobson, F. Ren, “Plasma etching of III–V semiconductors in BCl3 chemistries. I. GaAs and related compounds,” Plasma Chem. Plasma Process. 17, 155–167 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Constantine, R. J. Shul, C. T. Sullivan, M. B. Snipes, G. B. McClellan, M. Hafich, C. T. Fuller, J. F. Mileham, S. J. Pearton, “Etching of GaAs/AlGaAs rib waveguide structures using BCl3/Cl2/N2/Ar electron cyclotron resonance,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2025–2030 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pool, F. S.

F. S. Pool, D. W. Wilson, P. D. Maker, R. E. Muller, J. J. Gill, D. K. Sengupta, J. K. Liu, S. V. Bandara, S. D. Gunapala, “Fabrication and performance of diffractive optics for quantum well infrared photodetectors,” in Infrared Detectors and Focal Plane Arrays V, E. L. Dereniak, R. E. Sampson, eds., Proc. SPIE3379, 402–409 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ren, F.

J. W. Lee, J. Hong, E. S. Lambers, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, W. S. Hobson, F. Ren, “Plasma etching of III–V semiconductors in BCl3 chemistries. I. GaAs and related compounds,” Plasma Chem. Plasma Process. 17, 155–167 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rieger, D. J.

R. J. Shul, G. B. McClellan, R. D. Briggs, D. J. Rieger, S. J. Pearton, C. R. Abernathy, J. W. Lee, C. Constantine, C. Barratt, “High-density plasma etching of compound semiconductors,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15, 633–637 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, G. D.

E. M. Strzelecka, G. D. Robinson, L. A. Coldren, E. L. Hu, “Fabrication of refractive microlenses in semiconductors by mask shape transfer in reactive ion etching,” Microelectr. Eng. 35, 385–388 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sankur, H.

H. Sankur, R. Hall, E. Motamedi, W. Gunning, W. Tennant, “Fabrication of microlens arrays by reactive ion milling,” in Miniaturized Systems with Micro-Optics and Micromechanics, M. Motamedi, ed., Proc. SPIE2687, 150–155 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sengupta, D. K.

F. S. Pool, D. W. Wilson, P. D. Maker, R. E. Muller, J. J. Gill, D. K. Sengupta, J. K. Liu, S. V. Bandara, S. D. Gunapala, “Fabrication and performance of diffractive optics for quantum well infrared photodetectors,” in Infrared Detectors and Focal Plane Arrays V, E. L. Dereniak, R. E. Sampson, eds., Proc. SPIE3379, 402–409 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shei, S. C.

Y. Z. Juang, Y. K. Su, S. C. Shei, B. C. Fang, “Comparing reactive ion etching of III–V compounds in Cl2/BCl3/Ar and CCl2F2/BCl3/Ar discharges,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 12, 75–82 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Shul, R. J.

T. Maeda, J. W. Lee, R. J. Shul, J. Han, J. Hong, E. S. Lambers, S. J. Pearton, C. R. Abernathy, W. S. Hobson, “Inductively coupled plasma etching of III–V semiconductors in BCl3-based chemistries. I. GaAs, GaN, GaP, GaSb and AlGaAs,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 143, 174–182 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Shul, G. B. McClellan, R. D. Briggs, D. J. Rieger, S. J. Pearton, C. R. Abernathy, J. W. Lee, C. Constantine, C. Barratt, “High-density plasma etching of compound semiconductors,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15, 633–637 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Constantine, R. J. Shul, C. T. Sullivan, M. B. Snipes, G. B. McClellan, M. Hafich, C. T. Fuller, J. F. Mileham, S. J. Pearton, “Etching of GaAs/AlGaAs rib waveguide structures using BCl3/Cl2/N2/Ar electron cyclotron resonance,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2025–2030 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Snipes, M. B.

C. Constantine, R. J. Shul, C. T. Sullivan, M. B. Snipes, G. B. McClellan, M. Hafich, C. T. Fuller, J. F. Mileham, S. J. Pearton, “Etching of GaAs/AlGaAs rib waveguide structures using BCl3/Cl2/N2/Ar electron cyclotron resonance,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2025–2030 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Stone, D.

S. Agarwala, O. King, S. Horst, R. Wilson, D. Stone, M. Dagenais, Y. J. Chen, “Response surface study of inductively coupled plasma etching of GaAs/AlGaAs in BCl3/Cl2,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 17, 52–55 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Strzelecka, E. M.

E. M. Strzelecka, G. D. Robinson, L. A. Coldren, E. L. Hu, “Fabrication of refractive microlenses in semiconductors by mask shape transfer in reactive ion etching,” Microelectr. Eng. 35, 385–388 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Su, Y. K.

Y. Z. Juang, Y. K. Su, S. C. Shei, B. C. Fang, “Comparing reactive ion etching of III–V compounds in Cl2/BCl3/Ar and CCl2F2/BCl3/Ar discharges,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 12, 75–82 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sullivan, C. T.

C. Constantine, R. J. Shul, C. T. Sullivan, M. B. Snipes, G. B. McClellan, M. Hafich, C. T. Fuller, J. F. Mileham, S. J. Pearton, “Etching of GaAs/AlGaAs rib waveguide structures using BCl3/Cl2/N2/Ar electron cyclotron resonance,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2025–2030 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tennant, W.

H. Sankur, R. Hall, E. Motamedi, W. Gunning, W. Tennant, “Fabrication of microlens arrays by reactive ion milling,” in Miniaturized Systems with Micro-Optics and Micromechanics, M. Motamedi, ed., Proc. SPIE2687, 150–155 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tzu Chen, L.

Williams, R. C.

Wilson, D. W.

F. S. Pool, D. W. Wilson, P. D. Maker, R. E. Muller, J. J. Gill, D. K. Sengupta, J. K. Liu, S. V. Bandara, S. D. Gunapala, “Fabrication and performance of diffractive optics for quantum well infrared photodetectors,” in Infrared Detectors and Focal Plane Arrays V, E. L. Dereniak, R. E. Sampson, eds., Proc. SPIE3379, 402–409 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, R.

S. Agarwala, O. King, S. Horst, R. Wilson, D. Stone, M. Dagenais, Y. J. Chen, “Response surface study of inductively coupled plasma etching of GaAs/AlGaAs in BCl3/Cl2,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 17, 52–55 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

T. Maeda, J. W. Lee, R. J. Shul, J. Han, J. Hong, E. S. Lambers, S. J. Pearton, C. R. Abernathy, W. S. Hobson, “Inductively coupled plasma etching of III–V semiconductors in BCl3-based chemistries. I. GaAs, GaN, GaP, GaSb and AlGaAs,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 143, 174–182 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

H. Martinsson, J. Bengtsson, M. Ghisoni, A. Larsson, “Monolithic integration of vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser and diffractive optical element for advanced beam shaping,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 503–505 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (6)

I. V. Katardjiev, G. Carter, M. J. Nobes, S. Berg, H. O. Blom, “Three-dimensional simulation of surface evolution during growth and erosion,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 12, 61–68 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. Hedlund, L. B. Jonsson, I. V. Katardjiev, S. Berg, H. O. Blom, “Angular dependence of the polysilicon etch rate during dry etching in SF6 and Cl2,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15, 686–691 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Agarwala, O. King, S. Horst, R. Wilson, D. Stone, M. Dagenais, Y. J. Chen, “Response surface study of inductively coupled plasma etching of GaAs/AlGaAs in BCl3/Cl2,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 17, 52–55 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Z. Juang, Y. K. Su, S. C. Shei, B. C. Fang, “Comparing reactive ion etching of III–V compounds in Cl2/BCl3/Ar and CCl2F2/BCl3/Ar discharges,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 12, 75–82 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. Hedlund, H. O. Blom, S. Berg, “Microloading effect in reactive ion etching,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 12, 1962–1965 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Shul, G. B. McClellan, R. D. Briggs, D. J. Rieger, S. J. Pearton, C. R. Abernathy, J. W. Lee, C. Constantine, C. Barratt, “High-density plasma etching of compound semiconductors,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15, 633–637 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

C. Constantine, R. J. Shul, C. T. Sullivan, M. B. Snipes, G. B. McClellan, M. Hafich, C. T. Fuller, J. F. Mileham, S. J. Pearton, “Etching of GaAs/AlGaAs rib waveguide structures using BCl3/Cl2/N2/Ar electron cyclotron resonance,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2025–2030 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Microelectr. Eng. (1)

E. M. Strzelecka, G. D. Robinson, L. A. Coldren, E. L. Hu, “Fabrication of refractive microlenses in semiconductors by mask shape transfer in reactive ion etching,” Microelectr. Eng. 35, 385–388 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Plasma Chem. Plasma Process. (1)

J. W. Lee, J. Hong, E. S. Lambers, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, W. S. Hobson, F. Ren, “Plasma etching of III–V semiconductors in BCl3 chemistries. I. GaAs and related compounds,” Plasma Chem. Plasma Process. 17, 155–167 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

H. Sankur, R. Hall, E. Motamedi, W. Gunning, W. Tennant, “Fabrication of microlens arrays by reactive ion milling,” in Miniaturized Systems with Micro-Optics and Micromechanics, M. Motamedi, ed., Proc. SPIE2687, 150–155 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. S. Pool, D. W. Wilson, P. D. Maker, R. E. Muller, J. J. Gill, D. K. Sengupta, J. K. Liu, S. V. Bandara, S. D. Gunapala, “Fabrication and performance of diffractive optics for quantum well infrared photodetectors,” in Infrared Detectors and Focal Plane Arrays V, E. L. Dereniak, R. E. Sampson, eds., Proc. SPIE3379, 402–409 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Top, AFM scan of a blazed grating (10-µm period; depth, 1 µm) in an e-beam resist; bottom, AFM picture of the grating surface. (b) Top, AFM scan of the grating shown in (a) transferred into GaAs by ICP etching; bottom, AFM picture of the etched grating surface.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Selectivity between GaAs and e-beam resist versus amount of Cl2 (ICP power, 600 W; bias, -150 V; pressure, 2.5 mTorr; 8-sccm Ar; total flow, 15 sccm). The etch rates for GaAs, e-beam resist, and Shipley 1813 resist are shown (solid curves). Based on etching experiments of a 10-µm blazed grating.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

AFM scans of (a) a blazed grating (3-µm period; depth, 600 nm) in e-beam resist and (b) the grating shown in (a) transferred into GaAs by ICP etching.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

AFM scans of (a) a Fresnel lens in e-beam resist and (b) a Fresnel lens transferred into GaAs.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

AFM picture of a Fresnel lens in GaAs; (b) SEM picture of a Fresnel lens in GaAs (the faint lines are a result of Cartesian e-beam exposure).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Profile of a blazed grating before etch simulation in 2Dinise. (b) Etch profile, after simulation in 2Dinise, for the blazed grating transferred into GaAs by use of data from Fig. 7 (etch simulation time, 5.5 min; etch rate in GaAs and e-beam resist, 400 nm/s; total thickness of e-beam resist, 2 µm for the same angle dependencies for both GaAs and e-beam resist). Cf. Fig. 1(b). (c) Etch profile after simulation in 2Dinise for the blazed grating, with all parameters as for (b) except that the simulated etch time is 11 min. Cf. Fig. 6(d). (d) AFM scan over the same grating as in Fig. 1(b) but after further 5.5-min etching.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Best fitted etch rate versus angle of incidence for etching resist upon GaAs.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Measured intensity in some diffraction orders for a 10-µm GaAs blazed grating.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Calculated diffraction patterns (a) for a 10-µm blazed grating after e-beam exposure [with the AFM scan from Fig. 1(a) as input] and (b) for the blazed grating [as in (a)] transferred into GaAs [with the AFM scan from Fig. 1(b) as input].

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