Abstract

There is a wide choice of starting materials for the production of titanium dioxide films by reactive electron-beam evaporation. We have investigated the specific merits of these materials in terms of refractive index, stress, and abrasion resistance of the resultant titanium dioxide films. The suboxides TiO, Ti2O3, and Ti3O5 as well as titanium dioxide and titanium metal were reactively evaporated, and titanium dioxide films free of absorption were obtained on substrates at 25 and 250 °C. On unheated substrates the refractive index, which varies from 2.06 to 2.22, the stress, and the abrasion resistance all depend on the starting material used. On substrates heated to 250°C the refractive indices of all films lie closely about 2.4, and all films show high tensile stress and good abrasion resistance.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  35. A. Bendavid, P. J. Martin, H. Takikawa, “Deposition and modification of titanium dioxide films by filtered arc deposition,” Thin Solid Films 360, 241–249 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  37. X. Wang, H. Masumoto, Y. Someno, L. Chen, T. Hirai, “Design and preparation of a 33-layer optical reflection filter of TiO2-SiO2 system,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 933–937 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  38. R. Dannenberg, P. Green, “Reactive sputter deposition of titanium dioxide,” Thin Solid Films 360, 122–127 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  39. J.-Y. Kim, E. Barnat, E. J. Rymaszewski, T.-M. Lu, “Frequency-dependent pulsed direct current magnetron sputtering of titanium oxide films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 19, 429–434 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
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2001

J.-Y. Kim, E. Barnat, E. J. Rymaszewski, T.-M. Lu, “Frequency-dependent pulsed direct current magnetron sputtering of titanium oxide films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 19, 429–434 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

X. Wang, H. Masumoto, Y. Someno, L. Chen, T. Hirai, “Design and preparation of a 33-layer optical reflection filter of TiO2-SiO2 system,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 933–937 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Dannenberg, P. Green, “Reactive sputter deposition of titanium dioxide,” Thin Solid Films 360, 122–127 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Jang, S. W. Whangbo, H. B. Kim, K. Y. Im, Y. S. Lee, I. W. Lyo, C. N. Whang, G. Kim, H. S. Lee, J. M. Lee, “Titanium oxide films on Si(100) deposited by electron-beam evaporation at 250 °C,”J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 917–921 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Jang, S. W. Whangbo, H. B. Kim, K. Y. Im, Y. S. Lee, I. W. Lyo, C. N. Whang, G. Kim, H. S. Lee, J. M. Lee, “Titanium oxide films on Si(100) deposited by electron-beam evaporation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 2932–2936 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Bendavid, P. J. Martin, H. Takikawa, “Deposition and modification of titanium dioxide films by filtered arc deposition,” Thin Solid Films 360, 241–249 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Dakka, J. Lafait, C. Sella, S. Berthier, M. Abd-Lefdil, J. C. Martin, M. Maaza, “Optical properties of Ag–TiO2 nanocermet films prepared by cosputtering and multilayer deposition techniques,” Appl. Opt. 39, 2745–2753 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

Y. Yamada, H. Uyama, S. Watanabe, H. Nozoye, “Deposition at low substrate temperatures of high quality TiO2 films by radical beam-assisted evaporation,” Appl. Opt. 38, 6638–6641 (1999).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, H. Masumoto, Y. Someno, T. Hirai, “Design and experimental approach of optical reflection filters with graded refractive index profiles,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 17, 206–211 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Martin, A. Bendavid, H. Takikawa, “Ionized plasma vapor deposition and filtered arc deposition: processes, properties and applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 17, 2351–2359 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Alvarez-Herrero, A. J. Fort, H. Guerrero, E. Bernabeu, “Ellipsometric characterization and influence of relative humidity on TiO2 layers optical properties,” Thin Solid Films 349, 212–219 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Atanassov, J. Turlo, J. K. Fu, Y. S. Dai, “Mechanical, optical and structural properties of TiO2 and MgF2 thin films deposited by plasma ion assisted deposition,” Thin Solid Films 342, 83–92 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Selhofer, R. Müller, “Comparison of pure and mixed coating materials for AR coatings for use by reactive evaporation on glass and plastic lenses,” Thin Solid Films 351, 180–183 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Q. Tang, K. Kikuchi, S. Ogura, H. A. Macleod, “Mechanism of columnar microstructure growth in titanium oxide thin films deposited by ion-beam assisted deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 17, 3379–3384 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

S. Chiao, B. Bovard, H. A. Macleod, “Repeatability of the composition of titanium oxide films produced by evaporation of Ti2O3,” Appl. Opt. 37, 5284–5290 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. V. Grahn, M. Linder, E. Fredriksson, “In situ growth of evaporated TiO2 thin films using oxygen radicals: effect of substrate temperature,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16, 2495–2500 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

1995

M. G. Krishna, S. Kanakaraju, S. Mohan, “Structure and composition related properties of titania thin films,” Vacuum 46, 33–36 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

P. Löbel, M. Huppertz, D. Mergel, “Nucleation and growth in TiO2 films prepared by sputtering and evaporation,” Thin Solid Films 251, 72–79 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

G. Atanassov, R. Thielsch, D. Popov, “Optical properties of TiO2, Y2O3 and CeO2 thin films deposited by electron beam evaporation,” Thin Solid Films 223, 288–292 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. N. Rao, S. Mohan, “Chemical composition of electron-beam-evaporated TiO2 films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 11, 394–397 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

P. Vretenar, “Mechanical stress in oxide thin films,” Vacuum 43, 727–729 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Pongratz, A. Zöller, “Plasma ion-assisted deposition: a promising technique for optical coatings,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 10, 1897–1904 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990

K. N. Rao, S. Mohan, M. S. Hedge, T. V. Balasubramian, “Optical properties of electron-beam-evaporated TiO2 films deposited in an ionized oxygen medium,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 8, 3260–3264 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

K. N. Rao, M. A. Murphy, S. Mohan, “Optical properties of electron-beam-evaporated TiO2 films,” Thin Solid Films 176, 181–186 (1989).
[CrossRef]

H. Sankur, W. Gunning, “Sorbed water and intrinsic stress in composite TiO2–SiO2 films,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 807–812 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Bennett, E. Pelletier, G. Albrand, J. P. Borgogno, B. Lazarides, C. K. Carniglia, R. A. Schmell, T. H. Allen, T. Tuttle-Hart, K. H. Guenther, A. Saxer, “Comparison of the properties of titanium dioxide films prepared by various techniques,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3303–3317 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988

1976

1970

K. Kerner, G. Mutschler, “Oxydation von Aluminium bei reaktivem Aufdampfen in Sauerstoff,” Bosch Tech. Ber. 3, 3–9 (1970).

1969

B. Dudenhausen, G. Möllenstedt, “Untersuchungen an reaktiv aufgedampften TiO2–Schichten,” Z. Angew. Phys. 27, 191–197 (1969).

1968

V. N. Bogomolov, D. N. Mirlin, “Optical absorption by polarons in rutile M(TiO2) single crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi 27, 443–453 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1966

E. Ritter, “Deposition of oxide films by reactive evaporation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 3, 225–226 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1959

D. C. Cronemeyer, “Infrared absorption of reduced rutile TiO2 single crystals,” Phys. Rev. 113, 1222–1226 (1959).
[CrossRef]

1952

G. Hass, “Preparation, properties and optical applications of thin films of titanium dioxide,” Vacuum 11, 331–345 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Abd-Lefdil, M.

Albrand, G.

Allen, T. H.

Alvarez-Herrero, A.

A. Alvarez-Herrero, A. J. Fort, H. Guerrero, E. Bernabeu, “Ellipsometric characterization and influence of relative humidity on TiO2 layers optical properties,” Thin Solid Films 349, 212–219 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, O.

O. Anderson, K. Bange, C. Ottermann, “Properties and characterization of dielectric thin films,” in Thin Films on Glass, H. Bach, D. Krause, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1997), pp. 137–161.

Aoki, T.

T. Aoki, “Study of thin film starting material with ‘in situ’ stress and ‘in situ’ optical measurement,” Ph.D. dissertation (Kobe Design University, Kobe, Japan, 1999; in Japanese).

T. Aoki, S. Ogura, “In-situ stress and spectral characteristics of optical TiO2 thin films from various starting materials,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 9 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 207–209.

Atanassov, G.

G. Atanassov, J. Turlo, J. K. Fu, Y. S. Dai, “Mechanical, optical and structural properties of TiO2 and MgF2 thin films deposited by plasma ion assisted deposition,” Thin Solid Films 342, 83–92 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Atanassov, R. Thielsch, D. Popov, “Optical properties of TiO2, Y2O3 and CeO2 thin films deposited by electron beam evaporation,” Thin Solid Films 223, 288–292 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Balasubramian, T. V.

K. N. Rao, S. Mohan, M. S. Hedge, T. V. Balasubramian, “Optical properties of electron-beam-evaporated TiO2 films deposited in an ionized oxygen medium,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 8, 3260–3264 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bange, K.

O. Anderson, K. Bange, C. Ottermann, “Properties and characterization of dielectric thin films,” in Thin Films on Glass, H. Bach, D. Krause, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1997), pp. 137–161.

Barnat, E.

J.-Y. Kim, E. Barnat, E. J. Rymaszewski, T.-M. Lu, “Frequency-dependent pulsed direct current magnetron sputtering of titanium oxide films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 19, 429–434 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bendavid, A.

A. Bendavid, P. J. Martin, H. Takikawa, “Deposition and modification of titanium dioxide films by filtered arc deposition,” Thin Solid Films 360, 241–249 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Martin, A. Bendavid, H. Takikawa, “Ionized plasma vapor deposition and filtered arc deposition: processes, properties and applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 17, 2351–2359 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, J. M.

Bernabeu, E.

A. Alvarez-Herrero, A. J. Fort, H. Guerrero, E. Bernabeu, “Ellipsometric characterization and influence of relative humidity on TiO2 layers optical properties,” Thin Solid Films 349, 212–219 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Berthier, S.

Bogomolov, V. N.

V. N. Bogomolov, D. N. Mirlin, “Optical absorption by polarons in rutile M(TiO2) single crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi 27, 443–453 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Borgogno, J. P.

Bovard, B.

Carniglia, C. K.

Chen, L.

X. Wang, H. Masumoto, Y. Someno, L. Chen, T. Hirai, “Design and preparation of a 33-layer optical reflection filter of TiO2-SiO2 system,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 933–937 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chiao, S.

Cronemeyer, D. C.

D. C. Cronemeyer, “Infrared absorption of reduced rutile TiO2 single crystals,” Phys. Rev. 113, 1222–1226 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Dai, Y. S.

G. Atanassov, J. Turlo, J. K. Fu, Y. S. Dai, “Mechanical, optical and structural properties of TiO2 and MgF2 thin films deposited by plasma ion assisted deposition,” Thin Solid Films 342, 83–92 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dakka, A.

Dannenberg, R.

R. Dannenberg, P. Green, “Reactive sputter deposition of titanium dioxide,” Thin Solid Films 360, 122–127 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dudenhausen, B.

B. Dudenhausen, G. Möllenstedt, “Untersuchungen an reaktiv aufgedampften TiO2–Schichten,” Z. Angew. Phys. 27, 191–197 (1969).

Fort, A. J.

A. Alvarez-Herrero, A. J. Fort, H. Guerrero, E. Bernabeu, “Ellipsometric characterization and influence of relative humidity on TiO2 layers optical properties,” Thin Solid Films 349, 212–219 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fredriksson, E.

J. V. Grahn, M. Linder, E. Fredriksson, “In situ growth of evaporated TiO2 thin films using oxygen radicals: effect of substrate temperature,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16, 2495–2500 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Frick, K.

Fu, J. K.

G. Atanassov, J. Turlo, J. K. Fu, Y. S. Dai, “Mechanical, optical and structural properties of TiO2 and MgF2 thin films deposited by plasma ion assisted deposition,” Thin Solid Films 342, 83–92 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Grahn, J. V.

J. V. Grahn, M. Linder, E. Fredriksson, “In situ growth of evaporated TiO2 thin films using oxygen radicals: effect of substrate temperature,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16, 2495–2500 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Green, P.

R. Dannenberg, P. Green, “Reactive sputter deposition of titanium dioxide,” Thin Solid Films 360, 122–127 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Guenther, K. H.

Guerrero, H.

A. Alvarez-Herrero, A. J. Fort, H. Guerrero, E. Bernabeu, “Ellipsometric characterization and influence of relative humidity on TiO2 layers optical properties,” Thin Solid Films 349, 212–219 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gunning, W.

H. Sankur, W. Gunning, “Sorbed water and intrinsic stress in composite TiO2–SiO2 films,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 807–812 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hass, G.

G. Hass, “Preparation, properties and optical applications of thin films of titanium dioxide,” Vacuum 11, 331–345 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Hedge, M. S.

K. N. Rao, S. Mohan, M. S. Hedge, T. V. Balasubramian, “Optical properties of electron-beam-evaporated TiO2 films deposited in an ionized oxygen medium,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 8, 3260–3264 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hirai, T.

X. Wang, H. Masumoto, Y. Someno, L. Chen, T. Hirai, “Design and preparation of a 33-layer optical reflection filter of TiO2-SiO2 system,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 933–937 (2000).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, H. Masumoto, Y. Someno, T. Hirai, “Design and experimental approach of optical reflection filters with graded refractive index profiles,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 17, 206–211 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Huppertz, M.

P. Löbel, M. Huppertz, D. Mergel, “Nucleation and growth in TiO2 films prepared by sputtering and evaporation,” Thin Solid Films 251, 72–79 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Im, K. Y.

H. K. Jang, S. W. Whangbo, H. B. Kim, K. Y. Im, Y. S. Lee, I. W. Lyo, C. N. Whang, G. Kim, H. S. Lee, J. M. Lee, “Titanium oxide films on Si(100) deposited by electron-beam evaporation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 2932–2936 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Jang, S. W. Whangbo, H. B. Kim, K. Y. Im, Y. S. Lee, I. W. Lyo, C. N. Whang, G. Kim, H. S. Lee, J. M. Lee, “Titanium oxide films on Si(100) deposited by electron-beam evaporation at 250 °C,”J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 917–921 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jang, H. K.

H. K. Jang, S. W. Whangbo, H. B. Kim, K. Y. Im, Y. S. Lee, I. W. Lyo, C. N. Whang, G. Kim, H. S. Lee, J. M. Lee, “Titanium oxide films on Si(100) deposited by electron-beam evaporation at 250 °C,”J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 917–921 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Jang, S. W. Whangbo, H. B. Kim, K. Y. Im, Y. S. Lee, I. W. Lyo, C. N. Whang, G. Kim, H. S. Lee, J. M. Lee, “Titanium oxide films on Si(100) deposited by electron-beam evaporation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 2932–2936 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kanakaraju, S.

M. G. Krishna, S. Kanakaraju, S. Mohan, “Structure and composition related properties of titania thin films,” Vacuum 46, 33–36 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kerner, K.

K. Kerner, G. Mutschler, “Oxydation von Aluminium bei reaktivem Aufdampfen in Sauerstoff,” Bosch Tech. Ber. 3, 3–9 (1970).

Kikuchi, K.

Q. Tang, K. Kikuchi, S. Ogura, H. A. Macleod, “Mechanism of columnar microstructure growth in titanium oxide thin films deposited by ion-beam assisted deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 17, 3379–3384 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kim, G.

H. K. Jang, S. W. Whangbo, H. B. Kim, K. Y. Im, Y. S. Lee, I. W. Lyo, C. N. Whang, G. Kim, H. S. Lee, J. M. Lee, “Titanium oxide films on Si(100) deposited by electron-beam evaporation at 250 °C,”J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 917–921 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Jang, S. W. Whangbo, H. B. Kim, K. Y. Im, Y. S. Lee, I. W. Lyo, C. N. Whang, G. Kim, H. S. Lee, J. M. Lee, “Titanium oxide films on Si(100) deposited by electron-beam evaporation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 2932–2936 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. B.

H. K. Jang, S. W. Whangbo, H. B. Kim, K. Y. Im, Y. S. Lee, I. W. Lyo, C. N. Whang, G. Kim, H. S. Lee, J. M. Lee, “Titanium oxide films on Si(100) deposited by electron-beam evaporation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 2932–2936 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Jang, S. W. Whangbo, H. B. Kim, K. Y. Im, Y. S. Lee, I. W. Lyo, C. N. Whang, G. Kim, H. S. Lee, J. M. Lee, “Titanium oxide films on Si(100) deposited by electron-beam evaporation at 250 °C,”J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 917–921 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.-Y.

J.-Y. Kim, E. Barnat, E. J. Rymaszewski, T.-M. Lu, “Frequency-dependent pulsed direct current magnetron sputtering of titanium oxide films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 19, 429–434 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. Y.

Krishna, M. G.

M. G. Krishna, S. Kanakaraju, S. Mohan, “Structure and composition related properties of titania thin films,” Vacuum 46, 33–36 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lafait, J.

Lazarides, B.

Lee, H. S.

H. K. Jang, S. W. Whangbo, H. B. Kim, K. Y. Im, Y. S. Lee, I. W. Lyo, C. N. Whang, G. Kim, H. S. Lee, J. M. Lee, “Titanium oxide films on Si(100) deposited by electron-beam evaporation at 250 °C,”J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 917–921 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Jang, S. W. Whangbo, H. B. Kim, K. Y. Im, Y. S. Lee, I. W. Lyo, C. N. Whang, G. Kim, H. S. Lee, J. M. Lee, “Titanium oxide films on Si(100) deposited by electron-beam evaporation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 2932–2936 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. M.

H. K. Jang, S. W. Whangbo, H. B. Kim, K. Y. Im, Y. S. Lee, I. W. Lyo, C. N. Whang, G. Kim, H. S. Lee, J. M. Lee, “Titanium oxide films on Si(100) deposited by electron-beam evaporation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 2932–2936 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Jang, S. W. Whangbo, H. B. Kim, K. Y. Im, Y. S. Lee, I. W. Lyo, C. N. Whang, G. Kim, H. S. Lee, J. M. Lee, “Titanium oxide films on Si(100) deposited by electron-beam evaporation at 250 °C,”J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 917–921 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. S.

H. K. Jang, S. W. Whangbo, H. B. Kim, K. Y. Im, Y. S. Lee, I. W. Lyo, C. N. Whang, G. Kim, H. S. Lee, J. M. Lee, “Titanium oxide films on Si(100) deposited by electron-beam evaporation at 250 °C,”J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 917–921 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Jang, S. W. Whangbo, H. B. Kim, K. Y. Im, Y. S. Lee, I. W. Lyo, C. N. Whang, G. Kim, H. S. Lee, J. M. Lee, “Titanium oxide films on Si(100) deposited by electron-beam evaporation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 2932–2936 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lehmann, H. W.

Linder, M.

J. V. Grahn, M. Linder, E. Fredriksson, “In situ growth of evaporated TiO2 thin films using oxygen radicals: effect of substrate temperature,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16, 2495–2500 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Löbel, P.

P. Löbel, M. Huppertz, D. Mergel, “Nucleation and growth in TiO2 films prepared by sputtering and evaporation,” Thin Solid Films 251, 72–79 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lu, T.-M.

J.-Y. Kim, E. Barnat, E. J. Rymaszewski, T.-M. Lu, “Frequency-dependent pulsed direct current magnetron sputtering of titanium oxide films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 19, 429–434 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lyo, I. W.

H. K. Jang, S. W. Whangbo, H. B. Kim, K. Y. Im, Y. S. Lee, I. W. Lyo, C. N. Whang, G. Kim, H. S. Lee, J. M. Lee, “Titanium oxide films on Si(100) deposited by electron-beam evaporation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 2932–2936 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Jang, S. W. Whangbo, H. B. Kim, K. Y. Im, Y. S. Lee, I. W. Lyo, C. N. Whang, G. Kim, H. S. Lee, J. M. Lee, “Titanium oxide films on Si(100) deposited by electron-beam evaporation at 250 °C,”J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 917–921 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Maaza, M.

Macleod, H. A.

Q. Tang, K. Kikuchi, S. Ogura, H. A. Macleod, “Mechanism of columnar microstructure growth in titanium oxide thin films deposited by ion-beam assisted deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 17, 3379–3384 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Chiao, B. Bovard, H. A. Macleod, “Repeatability of the composition of titanium oxide films produced by evaporation of Ti2O3,” Appl. Opt. 37, 5284–5290 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Martin, J. C.

Martin, P. J.

A. Bendavid, P. J. Martin, H. Takikawa, “Deposition and modification of titanium dioxide films by filtered arc deposition,” Thin Solid Films 360, 241–249 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Martin, A. Bendavid, H. Takikawa, “Ionized plasma vapor deposition and filtered arc deposition: processes, properties and applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 17, 2351–2359 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Masumoto, H.

X. Wang, H. Masumoto, Y. Someno, L. Chen, T. Hirai, “Design and preparation of a 33-layer optical reflection filter of TiO2-SiO2 system,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 933–937 (2000).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, H. Masumoto, Y. Someno, T. Hirai, “Design and experimental approach of optical reflection filters with graded refractive index profiles,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 17, 206–211 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mergel, D.

P. Löbel, M. Huppertz, D. Mergel, “Nucleation and growth in TiO2 films prepared by sputtering and evaporation,” Thin Solid Films 251, 72–79 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mirlin, D. N.

V. N. Bogomolov, D. N. Mirlin, “Optical absorption by polarons in rutile M(TiO2) single crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi 27, 443–453 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Mohan, S.

M. G. Krishna, S. Kanakaraju, S. Mohan, “Structure and composition related properties of titania thin films,” Vacuum 46, 33–36 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. N. Rao, S. Mohan, “Chemical composition of electron-beam-evaporated TiO2 films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 11, 394–397 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. N. Rao, S. Mohan, M. S. Hedge, T. V. Balasubramian, “Optical properties of electron-beam-evaporated TiO2 films deposited in an ionized oxygen medium,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 8, 3260–3264 (1990).
[CrossRef]

K. N. Rao, M. A. Murphy, S. Mohan, “Optical properties of electron-beam-evaporated TiO2 films,” Thin Solid Films 176, 181–186 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Möllenstedt, G.

B. Dudenhausen, G. Möllenstedt, “Untersuchungen an reaktiv aufgedampften TiO2–Schichten,” Z. Angew. Phys. 27, 191–197 (1969).

Müller, R.

H. Selhofer, R. Müller, “Comparison of pure and mixed coating materials for AR coatings for use by reactive evaporation on glass and plastic lenses,” Thin Solid Films 351, 180–183 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, M. A.

K. N. Rao, M. A. Murphy, S. Mohan, “Optical properties of electron-beam-evaporated TiO2 films,” Thin Solid Films 176, 181–186 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Mutschler, G.

K. Kerner, G. Mutschler, “Oxydation von Aluminium bei reaktivem Aufdampfen in Sauerstoff,” Bosch Tech. Ber. 3, 3–9 (1970).

Nozoye, H.

Ogura, S.

Q. Tang, K. Kikuchi, S. Ogura, H. A. Macleod, “Mechanism of columnar microstructure growth in titanium oxide thin films deposited by ion-beam assisted deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 17, 3379–3384 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Aoki, S. Ogura, “In-situ stress and spectral characteristics of optical TiO2 thin films from various starting materials,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 9 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 207–209.

Ottermann, C.

O. Anderson, K. Bange, C. Ottermann, “Properties and characterization of dielectric thin films,” in Thin Films on Glass, H. Bach, D. Krause, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1997), pp. 137–161.

Paesold, G.

Pelletier, E.

Pongratz, S.

S. Pongratz, A. Zöller, “Plasma ion-assisted deposition: a promising technique for optical coatings,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 10, 1897–1904 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Popov, D.

G. Atanassov, R. Thielsch, D. Popov, “Optical properties of TiO2, Y2O3 and CeO2 thin films deposited by electron beam evaporation,” Thin Solid Films 223, 288–292 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Pulker, H. K.

Rao, K. N.

K. N. Rao, S. Mohan, “Chemical composition of electron-beam-evaporated TiO2 films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 11, 394–397 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. N. Rao, S. Mohan, M. S. Hedge, T. V. Balasubramian, “Optical properties of electron-beam-evaporated TiO2 films deposited in an ionized oxygen medium,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 8, 3260–3264 (1990).
[CrossRef]

K. N. Rao, M. A. Murphy, S. Mohan, “Optical properties of electron-beam-evaporated TiO2 films,” Thin Solid Films 176, 181–186 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ritter, E.

Rymaszewski, E. J.

J.-Y. Kim, E. Barnat, E. J. Rymaszewski, T.-M. Lu, “Frequency-dependent pulsed direct current magnetron sputtering of titanium oxide films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 19, 429–434 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sankur, H.

H. Sankur, W. Gunning, “Sorbed water and intrinsic stress in composite TiO2–SiO2 films,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 807–812 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Saxer, A.

Schmell, R. A.

Selhofer, H.

H. Selhofer, R. Müller, “Comparison of pure and mixed coating materials for AR coatings for use by reactive evaporation on glass and plastic lenses,” Thin Solid Films 351, 180–183 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Selhofer, “Titanium oxides for optical-interference coatings,” Vacuum Thin Films (August, 1999), pp. 20–24.

Sella, C.

Someno, Y.

X. Wang, H. Masumoto, Y. Someno, L. Chen, T. Hirai, “Design and preparation of a 33-layer optical reflection filter of TiO2-SiO2 system,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 933–937 (2000).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, H. Masumoto, Y. Someno, T. Hirai, “Design and experimental approach of optical reflection filters with graded refractive index profiles,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 17, 206–211 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Takikawa, H.

A. Bendavid, P. J. Martin, H. Takikawa, “Deposition and modification of titanium dioxide films by filtered arc deposition,” Thin Solid Films 360, 241–249 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Martin, A. Bendavid, H. Takikawa, “Ionized plasma vapor deposition and filtered arc deposition: processes, properties and applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 17, 2351–2359 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tang, Q.

Q. Tang, K. Kikuchi, S. Ogura, H. A. Macleod, “Mechanism of columnar microstructure growth in titanium oxide thin films deposited by ion-beam assisted deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 17, 3379–3384 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Q. Tang, “Study on the optical properties originated by the microstructures of thin oxide films,” Ph.D. dissertation (Kobe Design University, Kobe, Japan, 1997).

Thielsch, R.

G. Atanassov, R. Thielsch, D. Popov, “Optical properties of TiO2, Y2O3 and CeO2 thin films deposited by electron beam evaporation,” Thin Solid Films 223, 288–292 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Turlo, J.

G. Atanassov, J. Turlo, J. K. Fu, Y. S. Dai, “Mechanical, optical and structural properties of TiO2 and MgF2 thin films deposited by plasma ion assisted deposition,” Thin Solid Films 342, 83–92 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tuttle-Hart, T.

Uyama, H.

Vretenar, P.

P. Vretenar, “Mechanical stress in oxide thin films,” Vacuum 43, 727–729 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

X. Wang, H. Masumoto, Y. Someno, L. Chen, T. Hirai, “Design and preparation of a 33-layer optical reflection filter of TiO2-SiO2 system,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 933–937 (2000).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, H. Masumoto, Y. Someno, T. Hirai, “Design and experimental approach of optical reflection filters with graded refractive index profiles,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 17, 206–211 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, S.

Whang, C. N.

H. K. Jang, S. W. Whangbo, H. B. Kim, K. Y. Im, Y. S. Lee, I. W. Lyo, C. N. Whang, G. Kim, H. S. Lee, J. M. Lee, “Titanium oxide films on Si(100) deposited by electron-beam evaporation at 250 °C,”J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 917–921 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Jang, S. W. Whangbo, H. B. Kim, K. Y. Im, Y. S. Lee, I. W. Lyo, C. N. Whang, G. Kim, H. S. Lee, J. M. Lee, “Titanium oxide films on Si(100) deposited by electron-beam evaporation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 2932–2936 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Whangbo, S. W.

H. K. Jang, S. W. Whangbo, H. B. Kim, K. Y. Im, Y. S. Lee, I. W. Lyo, C. N. Whang, G. Kim, H. S. Lee, J. M. Lee, “Titanium oxide films on Si(100) deposited by electron-beam evaporation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 2932–2936 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Jang, S. W. Whangbo, H. B. Kim, K. Y. Im, Y. S. Lee, I. W. Lyo, C. N. Whang, G. Kim, H. S. Lee, J. M. Lee, “Titanium oxide films on Si(100) deposited by electron-beam evaporation at 250 °C,”J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 917–921 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, Y.

Zöller, A.

S. Pongratz, A. Zöller, “Plasma ion-assisted deposition: a promising technique for optical coatings,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 10, 1897–1904 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

H. K. Pulker, G. Paesold, E. Ritter, “Refractive indices of TiO2 films produced by reactive evaporation of various titanium–oxygen phases,” Appl. Opt. 15, 2986–2991 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. W. Lehmann, K. Frick, “Optimizing deposition parameters of electron beam evaporated TiO2 films,” Appl. Opt. 27, 4920–4924 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Bennett, E. Pelletier, G. Albrand, J. P. Borgogno, B. Lazarides, C. K. Carniglia, R. A. Schmell, T. H. Allen, T. Tuttle-Hart, K. H. Guenther, A. Saxer, “Comparison of the properties of titanium dioxide films prepared by various techniques,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3303–3317 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Kim, “Simultaneous determination of refractive index, extinction coefficient, and void distribution of titanium dioxide thin film by optical methods,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6703–6707 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yamada, H. Uyama, S. Watanabe, H. Nozoye, “Deposition at low substrate temperatures of high quality TiO2 films by radical beam-assisted evaporation,” Appl. Opt. 38, 6638–6641 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Dakka, J. Lafait, C. Sella, S. Berthier, M. Abd-Lefdil, J. C. Martin, M. Maaza, “Optical properties of Ag–TiO2 nanocermet films prepared by cosputtering and multilayer deposition techniques,” Appl. Opt. 39, 2745–2753 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Chiao, B. Bovard, H. A. Macleod, “Repeatability of the composition of titanium oxide films produced by evaporation of Ti2O3,” Appl. Opt. 37, 5284–5290 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bosch Tech. Ber.

K. Kerner, G. Mutschler, “Oxydation von Aluminium bei reaktivem Aufdampfen in Sauerstoff,” Bosch Tech. Ber. 3, 3–9 (1970).

J. Appl. Phys.

H. Sankur, W. Gunning, “Sorbed water and intrinsic stress in composite TiO2–SiO2 films,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 807–812 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol.

E. Ritter, “Deposition of oxide films by reactive evaporation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 3, 225–226 (1966).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A

K. N. Rao, S. Mohan, “Chemical composition of electron-beam-evaporated TiO2 films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 11, 394–397 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Q. Tang, K. Kikuchi, S. Ogura, H. A. Macleod, “Mechanism of columnar microstructure growth in titanium oxide thin films deposited by ion-beam assisted deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 17, 3379–3384 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. N. Rao, S. Mohan, M. S. Hedge, T. V. Balasubramian, “Optical properties of electron-beam-evaporated TiO2 films deposited in an ionized oxygen medium,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 8, 3260–3264 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. Pongratz, A. Zöller, “Plasma ion-assisted deposition: a promising technique for optical coatings,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 10, 1897–1904 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J.-Y. Kim, E. Barnat, E. J. Rymaszewski, T.-M. Lu, “Frequency-dependent pulsed direct current magnetron sputtering of titanium oxide films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 19, 429–434 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. V. Grahn, M. Linder, E. Fredriksson, “In situ growth of evaporated TiO2 thin films using oxygen radicals: effect of substrate temperature,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16, 2495–2500 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Jang, S. W. Whangbo, H. B. Kim, K. Y. Im, Y. S. Lee, I. W. Lyo, C. N. Whang, G. Kim, H. S. Lee, J. M. Lee, “Titanium oxide films on Si(100) deposited by electron-beam evaporation at 250 °C,”J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 917–921 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Jang, S. W. Whangbo, H. B. Kim, K. Y. Im, Y. S. Lee, I. W. Lyo, C. N. Whang, G. Kim, H. S. Lee, J. M. Lee, “Titanium oxide films on Si(100) deposited by electron-beam evaporation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 2932–2936 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Martin, A. Bendavid, H. Takikawa, “Ionized plasma vapor deposition and filtered arc deposition: processes, properties and applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 17, 2351–2359 (1999).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, H. Masumoto, Y. Someno, T. Hirai, “Design and experimental approach of optical reflection filters with graded refractive index profiles,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 17, 206–211 (1999).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, H. Masumoto, Y. Someno, L. Chen, T. Hirai, “Design and preparation of a 33-layer optical reflection filter of TiO2-SiO2 system,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 933–937 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev.

D. C. Cronemeyer, “Infrared absorption of reduced rutile TiO2 single crystals,” Phys. Rev. 113, 1222–1226 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi

V. N. Bogomolov, D. N. Mirlin, “Optical absorption by polarons in rutile M(TiO2) single crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi 27, 443–453 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films

R. Dannenberg, P. Green, “Reactive sputter deposition of titanium dioxide,” Thin Solid Films 360, 122–127 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Bendavid, P. J. Martin, H. Takikawa, “Deposition and modification of titanium dioxide films by filtered arc deposition,” Thin Solid Films 360, 241–249 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Atanassov, R. Thielsch, D. Popov, “Optical properties of TiO2, Y2O3 and CeO2 thin films deposited by electron beam evaporation,” Thin Solid Films 223, 288–292 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. Atanassov, J. Turlo, J. K. Fu, Y. S. Dai, “Mechanical, optical and structural properties of TiO2 and MgF2 thin films deposited by plasma ion assisted deposition,” Thin Solid Films 342, 83–92 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Selhofer, R. Müller, “Comparison of pure and mixed coating materials for AR coatings for use by reactive evaporation on glass and plastic lenses,” Thin Solid Films 351, 180–183 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. N. Rao, M. A. Murphy, S. Mohan, “Optical properties of electron-beam-evaporated TiO2 films,” Thin Solid Films 176, 181–186 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. Alvarez-Herrero, A. J. Fort, H. Guerrero, E. Bernabeu, “Ellipsometric characterization and influence of relative humidity on TiO2 layers optical properties,” Thin Solid Films 349, 212–219 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Löbel, M. Huppertz, D. Mergel, “Nucleation and growth in TiO2 films prepared by sputtering and evaporation,” Thin Solid Films 251, 72–79 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Vacuum

M. G. Krishna, S. Kanakaraju, S. Mohan, “Structure and composition related properties of titania thin films,” Vacuum 46, 33–36 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Vretenar, “Mechanical stress in oxide thin films,” Vacuum 43, 727–729 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G. Hass, “Preparation, properties and optical applications of thin films of titanium dioxide,” Vacuum 11, 331–345 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Z. Angew. Phys.

B. Dudenhausen, G. Möllenstedt, “Untersuchungen an reaktiv aufgedampften TiO2–Schichten,” Z. Angew. Phys. 27, 191–197 (1969).

Other

Q. Tang, “Study on the optical properties originated by the microstructures of thin oxide films,” Ph.D. dissertation (Kobe Design University, Kobe, Japan, 1997).

T. Aoki, S. Ogura, “In-situ stress and spectral characteristics of optical TiO2 thin films from various starting materials,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 9 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 207–209.

T. Aoki, “Study of thin film starting material with ‘in situ’ stress and ‘in situ’ optical measurement,” Ph.D. dissertation (Kobe Design University, Kobe, Japan, 1999; in Japanese).

H. Selhofer, “Titanium oxides for optical-interference coatings,” Vacuum Thin Films (August, 1999), pp. 20–24.

O. Anderson, K. Bange, C. Ottermann, “Properties and characterization of dielectric thin films,” in Thin Films on Glass, H. Bach, D. Krause, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1997), pp. 137–161.

“Grundlagen der Vakuumtechnik, Berechnungen und Tabellen,” catalog 19989, edition 01.86 (Leybold-Heraeus GmbH, Hanau, 1986), p. 77.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Dependence of dispersion curves on starting material and substrate temperature.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Refractive index at 550 nm of subsequent runs of several starting materials for substrate temperatures of 25 and 250 °C.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dependence of abrasion resistance on refractive index for all films listed in Table 1.

Tables (5)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Deposition Parameters

Tables Icon

Table 2 Range of Refractive Indices of Titanium Dioxide Films at 550 nma

Tables Icon

Table 3 Refractive Indices of Various Titanium Dioxide Films

Tables Icon

Table 4 Dependence of Film Stress of Titanium Dioxide Filmsa

Tables Icon

Table 5 Abrasion Resistance of Titanium Dioxide Filmsa

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