Abstract

The physical properties of stratospheric aerosols can be retrieved from optical measurements involving extinction, radiance, polarization, and counting. We present here the results of measurements from the balloonborne instruments AMON, SALOMON, and RADIBAL, and from the French Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique and the University of Wyoming balloonborne particle counters. A cross comparison of the measurements was made for observations of background aerosols conducted during the polar winters of February 1997 and January–February 2000 for various altitudes from 13 to 19 km. On the one hand, the effective radius and the total amount of background aerosols derived from the various sets of data are similar and are in agreement with pre-Pinatubo values. On the other hand, strong discrepancies occur in the shapes of the bimodal size distributions obtained from analysis of the raw measurements of the various instruments. It seems then that the log-normal assumption cannot fully reproduce the size distribution of background aerosols. The effect of the presence of particular aerosols on the measurements is discussed, and a new strategy for observations is proposed.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  5. D. R. Hanson, A. R. Ravishankara, E. R. Lovejoy, “Reactions of BrONO2 with H2O on submicron sulfuric acid aerosol and the implication for the lower stratosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9063–9069 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  6. F. Erle, A. Grendel, D. Perner, U. Platt, K. Pfeilsticker, “Evidence of heterogeneous bromine chemistry on cold stratospheric sulfate aerosols,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 4329–4332 (1998).
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  7. D. F. Blake, K. Kato, “Latitudinal distribution of black carbon soot in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 7195–7202 (1995).
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    [CrossRef]
  34. C. Labonnote, G. Brogniez, D. Doutriaux-Boucher, J.-C. Buriez, “Modeling of light scattering in cirrus clouds with inhomogeneous hexagonal monocrystals. Comparison with in-situ and ADEOS-POLDER measurements, Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 113–116 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  35. T. Deshler, B. Nardi, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Hansen, F. Fierli, A. Hauchecorne, L. Pulverenti, “Determining the index of refraction of Polar Stratospheric Clouds above Andoya by combining size resolved concentration and optical scattering measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 3943–3953 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  36. E. D. Rivière, N. Huret, F. Goffinont-Taupin, J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, S. Eckermann, N. Larsen, T. Deshler, F. Lefèvre, S. Payan, C. Camy-Peyret, “Role of lee wave in the formation of solid PSCs: case studies from February 1997,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 6845–6853 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  37. C. Voigt, J. Schreiner, A. Kohlmann, P. Zink, K. Mauersberger, N. Larsen, T. Deshler, C. Kröger, J. Rosen, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Di Donfrancesco, M. Vibertini, J. Ovarlez, H. Ovarlez, C. David, A. Dörnbrack, ” Nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) in polar stratospheric clouds,” Science 290, 1756–1758 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

2000 (7)

J.-B. Renard, M. Chartier, C. Robert, G. Chalumeau, G. Berthet, M. Pirre, J. P. Pommereau, F. Goutail, “SALOMON: a new, light balloonborne UV-visible spectrometer for nighttime observations of stratospheric trace-gas species,” Appl. Opt. 39, 386–392 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Labonnote, G. Brogniez, D. Doutriaux-Boucher, J.-C. Buriez, “Modeling of light scattering in cirrus clouds with inhomogeneous hexagonal monocrystals. Comparison with in-situ and ADEOS-POLDER measurements, Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 113–116 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Deshler, B. Nardi, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Hansen, F. Fierli, A. Hauchecorne, L. Pulverenti, “Determining the index of refraction of Polar Stratospheric Clouds above Andoya by combining size resolved concentration and optical scattering measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 3943–3953 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. D. Rivière, N. Huret, F. Goffinont-Taupin, J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, S. Eckermann, N. Larsen, T. Deshler, F. Lefèvre, S. Payan, C. Camy-Peyret, “Role of lee wave in the formation of solid PSCs: case studies from February 1997,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 6845–6853 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Voigt, J. Schreiner, A. Kohlmann, P. Zink, K. Mauersberger, N. Larsen, T. Deshler, C. Kröger, J. Rosen, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Di Donfrancesco, M. Vibertini, J. Ovarlez, H. Ovarlez, C. David, A. Dörnbrack, ” Nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) in polar stratospheric clouds,” Science 290, 1756–1758 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. E. Randall, R. M. Bevilacqua, J. D. Lumpe, K. W. Hoppel, D. W. Rusch, E. P. Shettle, “Comparison of Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurements (POAM) II and Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II aerosol measurements from 1994 to 1996,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 3929–3942 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Anderson, C. Brogniez, L. Cazier, V. Saxena, J. Lenoble, M. P. McCormick, “The characterization of aerosols from simulated SAGE III measurements applying two retrieval techniques,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 2013–2027 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

G. K. Yue, “A new approach to retrieval of aerosol size distributions and integral properties from SAGE II aerosol extinction spectra,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 27,491–27,506 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (4)

M. E. Hervig, T. Deshler, J. M. Russell, “Aerosol size distributions obtained from HALOE spectral extinction measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 1573–1583 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. Saxena, S. Yu, “Searching for a regional fingerprint of aerosol radiative forcing in the southeastern US,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 2833–2836 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Erle, A. Grendel, D. Perner, U. Platt, K. Pfeilsticker, “Evidence of heterogeneous bromine chemistry on cold stratospheric sulfate aerosols,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 4329–4332 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Deshler, S. Oltmans, “Vertical profiles of volcanic aerosol and polar stratospheric clouds above Kiruna, Sweden: winters 1993 and 1995,” J. Atmos. Chem. 30, 11–23 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, R. Ramananahérisoa, K. H. Fricke, E. P. Shettle, K. W. Hoppel, R. M. Bevilacqua, J. Hornstein, J. Lumpe, M. D. Fromm, S. S. Krigman, “Second European Stratospheric Arctic and Midlatitude Experiment campaign: correlative measurements of aerosol in the northern polar atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 1489–1494 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Steele, R. Turco, “Separation of aerosol and gas components in the Halogen Occultation Experiment and the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas experiment (SAGE) II extinction measurements: implication for SAGE II ozone concentration and trends,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 19,665–19,681 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18,745–18,763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, C. Robert, G. Moreau, D. Huguenin, J. M. Russell, “Nocturnal vertical distribution of stratospheric O3, NO2 and NO3 from balloon measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 28,793–28,804 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Hanson, A. R. Ravishankara, E. R. Lovejoy, “Reactions of BrONO2 with H2O on submicron sulfuric acid aerosol and the implication for the lower stratosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9063–9069 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

D. F. Blake, K. Kato, “Latitudinal distribution of black carbon soot in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 7195–7202 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

D. R. Hanson, A. R. Ravishankara, S. Solomon, “Heterogeneous reactions in sulfuric acid aerosols: a framework for model calculations,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 3615–3629 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (3)

T. Deshler, B. J. Johnson, W. R. Rozier, “Balloon-borne measurements of Pinatubo aerosol during 1991–1992 at 41 ° N: vertical profiles, size distribution and volatility,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1435–1438 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Lambert, R. G. Grainger, J. J. Remedios, C. D. Rogers, M. Corney, F. W. Taylor, “Measurements of the evolution of the Mt Pinatubo aerosol cloud by ISAMS,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1287–1290 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Hofmann, “Twenty years of balloon-borne tropospheric aerosol measurements at Laramie, Wyoming,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 12,753–12,766 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

C. Brogniez, R. Santer, B. S. Diallo, M. Herman, J. Lenoble, H. Jäger, “Comparative observations of stratospheric aerosols by ground-based lidar, balloonborne polarimeter and satellite solar occultation,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 20,805–20,823 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Lacis, J. Hansen, M. Sato, “Climate forcing by stratospheric aerosols,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 1607–1610 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

D. Bemer, J. F. Fabries, A. Renoux, “Calculation of the theoretical response of an optical particle counter and its practical usefulness,” J. Aerosol Sci. 21, 689–700 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

M. Ackerman, C. Brogniez, B. S. Diallo, G. Fiocco, P. Gobbi, M. Herman, H. Jäger, J. Lenoble, C. Lippens, G. Mégie, J. Pelon, R. Reiter, R. Santer, “European validation of SAGE II aerosol profiles,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 8399–8411 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

R. Santer, M. Herman, D. Tanre, J. Lenoble, “Characterization of stratospheric aerosol from polarization measurements.” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 14,209–14,221 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986 (2)

G. K. Yue, M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, “Retrieval of composition and size distribution of stratospheric aerosols with the SAGE II satellite experiment,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 3, 371–380 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. Herman, J.-Y. Balois, L. Gonzales, P. Lecomte, J. Lenoble, R. Santer, C. Verwaerde, “Stratospheric aerosol observations from balloonborne polarimetric experiment.” Appl. Opt. 25, 3573–3584 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

D. J. Hofmann, J. M. Rosen, “Sulfuric acid droplet formation and growth in the stratosphere after the eruption of El Chichon,” Science 222, 325–327 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

R. G. Pinnick, J. M. Rosen, D. J. Hofman, “Stratospheric aerosol measurements: optical model calculations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 304–414 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

J. M. Rosen, “The vertical distribution of dust to 30 km,” J. Geophys. Res. 69, 4673–4676 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Ackerman, M.

M. Ackerman, C. Brogniez, B. S. Diallo, G. Fiocco, P. Gobbi, M. Herman, H. Jäger, J. Lenoble, C. Lippens, G. Mégie, J. Pelon, R. Reiter, R. Santer, “European validation of SAGE II aerosol profiles,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 8399–8411 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Adriani, A.

T. Deshler, B. Nardi, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Hansen, F. Fierli, A. Hauchecorne, L. Pulverenti, “Determining the index of refraction of Polar Stratospheric Clouds above Andoya by combining size resolved concentration and optical scattering measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 3943–3953 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Voigt, J. Schreiner, A. Kohlmann, P. Zink, K. Mauersberger, N. Larsen, T. Deshler, C. Kröger, J. Rosen, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Di Donfrancesco, M. Vibertini, J. Ovarlez, H. Ovarlez, C. David, A. Dörnbrack, ” Nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) in polar stratospheric clouds,” Science 290, 1756–1758 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, J.

J. Anderson, C. Brogniez, L. Cazier, V. Saxena, J. Lenoble, M. P. McCormick, “The characterization of aerosols from simulated SAGE III measurements applying two retrieval techniques,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 2013–2027 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Balois, J.-Y.

Bauman, J. J.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18,745–18,763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bemer, D.

D. Bemer, J. F. Fabries, A. Renoux, “Calculation of the theoretical response of an optical particle counter and its practical usefulness,” J. Aerosol Sci. 21, 689–700 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bergstrom, R. W.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18,745–18,763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bermer, D.

D. Bermer, “Exploitation des propriétés physiques d’un aérosol pour la mesure de la taille des particules et de leur concentration,” Ph. D. dissertation (University of ParisParis, 1991).

Berthet, G.

Bevilacqua, R. M.

C. E. Randall, R. M. Bevilacqua, J. D. Lumpe, K. W. Hoppel, D. W. Rusch, E. P. Shettle, “Comparison of Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurements (POAM) II and Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II aerosol measurements from 1994 to 1996,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 3929–3942 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, R. Ramananahérisoa, K. H. Fricke, E. P. Shettle, K. W. Hoppel, R. M. Bevilacqua, J. Hornstein, J. Lumpe, M. D. Fromm, S. S. Krigman, “Second European Stratospheric Arctic and Midlatitude Experiment campaign: correlative measurements of aerosol in the northern polar atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 1489–1494 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Blake, D. F.

D. F. Blake, K. Kato, “Latitudinal distribution of black carbon soot in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 7195–7202 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Brogniez, C.

G. Berthet, J.-B. Renard, C. Brogniez, C. Robert, M. Chartier, M. Pirre, “Optical and physical properties of stratospheric aerosols from balloon measurements in the visible and near-infrared domains: I. Analysis of aerosol extinction spectra from the AMON and SALOMON instruments” Appl. Opt. 41, 7522–7539 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J.-B. Renard, E. Hadamcik, C. Brogniez, G. Berthet, J.-C. Worms, M. Chartier, M. Pirre, J. Ovarlez, H. Ovarlez, “UV–visible bulk optical properties of randomly distributed soot,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6575–6580 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Anderson, C. Brogniez, L. Cazier, V. Saxena, J. Lenoble, M. P. McCormick, “The characterization of aerosols from simulated SAGE III measurements applying two retrieval techniques,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 2013–2027 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, R. Ramananahérisoa, K. H. Fricke, E. P. Shettle, K. W. Hoppel, R. M. Bevilacqua, J. Hornstein, J. Lumpe, M. D. Fromm, S. S. Krigman, “Second European Stratospheric Arctic and Midlatitude Experiment campaign: correlative measurements of aerosol in the northern polar atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 1489–1494 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Brogniez, R. Santer, B. S. Diallo, M. Herman, J. Lenoble, H. Jäger, “Comparative observations of stratospheric aerosols by ground-based lidar, balloonborne polarimeter and satellite solar occultation,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 20,805–20,823 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Ackerman, C. Brogniez, B. S. Diallo, G. Fiocco, P. Gobbi, M. Herman, H. Jäger, J. Lenoble, C. Lippens, G. Mégie, J. Pelon, R. Reiter, R. Santer, “European validation of SAGE II aerosol profiles,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 8399–8411 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Brogniez, G.

C. Labonnote, G. Brogniez, D. Doutriaux-Boucher, J.-C. Buriez, “Modeling of light scattering in cirrus clouds with inhomogeneous hexagonal monocrystals. Comparison with in-situ and ADEOS-POLDER measurements, Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 113–116 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Brooks, S. L.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18,745–18,763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Buriez, J.-C.

C. Labonnote, G. Brogniez, D. Doutriaux-Boucher, J.-C. Buriez, “Modeling of light scattering in cirrus clouds with inhomogeneous hexagonal monocrystals. Comparison with in-situ and ADEOS-POLDER measurements, Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 113–116 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cairo, F.

T. Deshler, B. Nardi, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Hansen, F. Fierli, A. Hauchecorne, L. Pulverenti, “Determining the index of refraction of Polar Stratospheric Clouds above Andoya by combining size resolved concentration and optical scattering measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 3943–3953 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Voigt, J. Schreiner, A. Kohlmann, P. Zink, K. Mauersberger, N. Larsen, T. Deshler, C. Kröger, J. Rosen, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Di Donfrancesco, M. Vibertini, J. Ovarlez, H. Ovarlez, C. David, A. Dörnbrack, ” Nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) in polar stratospheric clouds,” Science 290, 1756–1758 (2000).
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C. Voigt, J. Schreiner, A. Kohlmann, P. Zink, K. Mauersberger, N. Larsen, T. Deshler, C. Kröger, J. Rosen, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Di Donfrancesco, M. Vibertini, J. Ovarlez, H. Ovarlez, C. David, A. Dörnbrack, ” Nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) in polar stratospheric clouds,” Science 290, 1756–1758 (2000).
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C. Voigt, J. Schreiner, A. Kohlmann, P. Zink, K. Mauersberger, N. Larsen, T. Deshler, C. Kröger, J. Rosen, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Di Donfrancesco, M. Vibertini, J. Ovarlez, H. Ovarlez, C. David, A. Dörnbrack, ” Nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) in polar stratospheric clouds,” Science 290, 1756–1758 (2000).
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C. Brogniez, R. Santer, B. S. Diallo, M. Herman, J. Lenoble, H. Jäger, “Comparative observations of stratospheric aerosols by ground-based lidar, balloonborne polarimeter and satellite solar occultation,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 20,805–20,823 (1992).
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C. Voigt, J. Schreiner, A. Kohlmann, P. Zink, K. Mauersberger, N. Larsen, T. Deshler, C. Kröger, J. Rosen, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Di Donfrancesco, M. Vibertini, J. Ovarlez, H. Ovarlez, C. David, A. Dörnbrack, ” Nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) in polar stratospheric clouds,” Science 290, 1756–1758 (2000).
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M. Ackerman, C. Brogniez, B. S. Diallo, G. Fiocco, P. Gobbi, M. Herman, H. Jäger, J. Lenoble, C. Lippens, G. Mégie, J. Pelon, R. Reiter, R. Santer, “European validation of SAGE II aerosol profiles,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 8399–8411 (1989).
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C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, R. Ramananahérisoa, K. H. Fricke, E. P. Shettle, K. W. Hoppel, R. M. Bevilacqua, J. Hornstein, J. Lumpe, M. D. Fromm, S. S. Krigman, “Second European Stratospheric Arctic and Midlatitude Experiment campaign: correlative measurements of aerosol in the northern polar atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 1489–1494 (1997).
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A. Lambert, R. G. Grainger, J. J. Remedios, C. D. Rogers, M. Corney, F. W. Taylor, “Measurements of the evolution of the Mt Pinatubo aerosol cloud by ISAMS,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1287–1290 (1993).
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F. Erle, A. Grendel, D. Perner, U. Platt, K. Pfeilsticker, “Evidence of heterogeneous bromine chemistry on cold stratospheric sulfate aerosols,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 4329–4332 (1998).
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P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18,745–18,763 (1996).
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C. Voigt, J. Schreiner, A. Kohlmann, P. Zink, K. Mauersberger, N. Larsen, T. Deshler, C. Kröger, J. Rosen, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Di Donfrancesco, M. Vibertini, J. Ovarlez, H. Ovarlez, C. David, A. Dörnbrack, ” Nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) in polar stratospheric clouds,” Science 290, 1756–1758 (2000).
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C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, R. Ramananahérisoa, K. H. Fricke, E. P. Shettle, K. W. Hoppel, R. M. Bevilacqua, J. Hornstein, J. Lumpe, M. D. Fromm, S. S. Krigman, “Second European Stratospheric Arctic and Midlatitude Experiment campaign: correlative measurements of aerosol in the northern polar atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 1489–1494 (1997).
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C. E. Randall, R. M. Bevilacqua, J. D. Lumpe, K. W. Hoppel, D. W. Rusch, E. P. Shettle, “Comparison of Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurements (POAM) II and Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II aerosol measurements from 1994 to 1996,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 3929–3942 (2000).
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J. Anderson, C. Brogniez, L. Cazier, V. Saxena, J. Lenoble, M. P. McCormick, “The characterization of aerosols from simulated SAGE III measurements applying two retrieval techniques,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 2013–2027 (2000).
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M. Ackerman, C. Brogniez, B. S. Diallo, G. Fiocco, P. Gobbi, M. Herman, H. Jäger, J. Lenoble, C. Lippens, G. Mégie, J. Pelon, R. Reiter, R. Santer, “European validation of SAGE II aerosol profiles,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 8399–8411 (1989).
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J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, C. Robert, G. Moreau, D. Huguenin, J. M. Russell, “Nocturnal vertical distribution of stratospheric O3, NO2 and NO3 from balloon measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 28,793–28,804 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nardi, B.

T. Deshler, B. Nardi, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Hansen, F. Fierli, A. Hauchecorne, L. Pulverenti, “Determining the index of refraction of Polar Stratospheric Clouds above Andoya by combining size resolved concentration and optical scattering measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 3943–3953 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Oltmans, S.

T. Deshler, S. Oltmans, “Vertical profiles of volcanic aerosol and polar stratospheric clouds above Kiruna, Sweden: winters 1993 and 1995,” J. Atmos. Chem. 30, 11–23 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ovarlez, H.

J.-B. Renard, E. Hadamcik, C. Brogniez, G. Berthet, J.-C. Worms, M. Chartier, M. Pirre, J. Ovarlez, H. Ovarlez, “UV–visible bulk optical properties of randomly distributed soot,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6575–6580 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Voigt, J. Schreiner, A. Kohlmann, P. Zink, K. Mauersberger, N. Larsen, T. Deshler, C. Kröger, J. Rosen, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Di Donfrancesco, M. Vibertini, J. Ovarlez, H. Ovarlez, C. David, A. Dörnbrack, ” Nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) in polar stratospheric clouds,” Science 290, 1756–1758 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ovarlez, H. Ovarlez, “Water vapour and aerosol measurements during SESAME, and the observation of low water vapour content layers,” in Polar Stratospheric Ozone, proceedings of the Third European Workshop, Air Pollution Rep. 56, J. A. Pyle, N. R. P. Harris, G. T. Amanatidis, eds. (European Commission, Luxembourg, 1995), pp. 205–208.

Ovarlez, J.

J.-B. Renard, E. Hadamcik, C. Brogniez, G. Berthet, J.-C. Worms, M. Chartier, M. Pirre, J. Ovarlez, H. Ovarlez, “UV–visible bulk optical properties of randomly distributed soot,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6575–6580 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Voigt, J. Schreiner, A. Kohlmann, P. Zink, K. Mauersberger, N. Larsen, T. Deshler, C. Kröger, J. Rosen, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Di Donfrancesco, M. Vibertini, J. Ovarlez, H. Ovarlez, C. David, A. Dörnbrack, ” Nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) in polar stratospheric clouds,” Science 290, 1756–1758 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ovarlez, H. Ovarlez, “Water vapour and aerosol measurements during SESAME, and the observation of low water vapour content layers,” in Polar Stratospheric Ozone, proceedings of the Third European Workshop, Air Pollution Rep. 56, J. A. Pyle, N. R. P. Harris, G. T. Amanatidis, eds. (European Commission, Luxembourg, 1995), pp. 205–208.

Payan, S.

E. D. Rivière, N. Huret, F. Goffinont-Taupin, J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, S. Eckermann, N. Larsen, T. Deshler, F. Lefèvre, S. Payan, C. Camy-Peyret, “Role of lee wave in the formation of solid PSCs: case studies from February 1997,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 6845–6853 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pelon, J.

M. Ackerman, C. Brogniez, B. S. Diallo, G. Fiocco, P. Gobbi, M. Herman, H. Jäger, J. Lenoble, C. Lippens, G. Mégie, J. Pelon, R. Reiter, R. Santer, “European validation of SAGE II aerosol profiles,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 8399–8411 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Perner, D.

F. Erle, A. Grendel, D. Perner, U. Platt, K. Pfeilsticker, “Evidence of heterogeneous bromine chemistry on cold stratospheric sulfate aerosols,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 4329–4332 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pfeilsticker, K.

F. Erle, A. Grendel, D. Perner, U. Platt, K. Pfeilsticker, “Evidence of heterogeneous bromine chemistry on cold stratospheric sulfate aerosols,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 4329–4332 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pinnick, R. G.

R. G. Pinnick, J. M. Rosen, D. J. Hofman, “Stratospheric aerosol measurements: optical model calculations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 304–414 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Pirre, M.

Platt, U.

F. Erle, A. Grendel, D. Perner, U. Platt, K. Pfeilsticker, “Evidence of heterogeneous bromine chemistry on cold stratospheric sulfate aerosols,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 4329–4332 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pollack, J. B.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18,745–18,763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pommereau, J. P.

Pueschel, R. F.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18,745–18,763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pulverenti, L.

T. Deshler, B. Nardi, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Hansen, F. Fierli, A. Hauchecorne, L. Pulverenti, “Determining the index of refraction of Polar Stratospheric Clouds above Andoya by combining size resolved concentration and optical scattering measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 3943–3953 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ramananahérisoa, R.

C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, R. Ramananahérisoa, K. H. Fricke, E. P. Shettle, K. W. Hoppel, R. M. Bevilacqua, J. Hornstein, J. Lumpe, M. D. Fromm, S. S. Krigman, “Second European Stratospheric Arctic and Midlatitude Experiment campaign: correlative measurements of aerosol in the northern polar atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 1489–1494 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Randall, C. E.

C. E. Randall, R. M. Bevilacqua, J. D. Lumpe, K. W. Hoppel, D. W. Rusch, E. P. Shettle, “Comparison of Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurements (POAM) II and Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II aerosol measurements from 1994 to 1996,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 3929–3942 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ravishankara, A. R.

D. R. Hanson, A. R. Ravishankara, E. R. Lovejoy, “Reactions of BrONO2 with H2O on submicron sulfuric acid aerosol and the implication for the lower stratosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9063–9069 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Hanson, A. R. Ravishankara, S. Solomon, “Heterogeneous reactions in sulfuric acid aerosols: a framework for model calculations,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 3615–3629 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Reiter, R.

M. Ackerman, C. Brogniez, B. S. Diallo, G. Fiocco, P. Gobbi, M. Herman, H. Jäger, J. Lenoble, C. Lippens, G. Mégie, J. Pelon, R. Reiter, R. Santer, “European validation of SAGE II aerosol profiles,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 8399–8411 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Remedios, J. J.

A. Lambert, R. G. Grainger, J. J. Remedios, C. D. Rogers, M. Corney, F. W. Taylor, “Measurements of the evolution of the Mt Pinatubo aerosol cloud by ISAMS,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1287–1290 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Renard, J.-B.

Renoux, A.

D. Bemer, J. F. Fabries, A. Renoux, “Calculation of the theoretical response of an optical particle counter and its practical usefulness,” J. Aerosol Sci. 21, 689–700 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Rivière, E. D.

E. D. Rivière, N. Huret, F. Goffinont-Taupin, J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, S. Eckermann, N. Larsen, T. Deshler, F. Lefèvre, S. Payan, C. Camy-Peyret, “Role of lee wave in the formation of solid PSCs: case studies from February 1997,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 6845–6853 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Robert, C.

Rogers, C. D.

A. Lambert, R. G. Grainger, J. J. Remedios, C. D. Rogers, M. Corney, F. W. Taylor, “Measurements of the evolution of the Mt Pinatubo aerosol cloud by ISAMS,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1287–1290 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rosen, J.

C. Voigt, J. Schreiner, A. Kohlmann, P. Zink, K. Mauersberger, N. Larsen, T. Deshler, C. Kröger, J. Rosen, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Di Donfrancesco, M. Vibertini, J. Ovarlez, H. Ovarlez, C. David, A. Dörnbrack, ” Nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) in polar stratospheric clouds,” Science 290, 1756–1758 (2000).
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Rosen, J. M.

D. J. Hofmann, J. M. Rosen, “Sulfuric acid droplet formation and growth in the stratosphere after the eruption of El Chichon,” Science 222, 325–327 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Pinnick, J. M. Rosen, D. J. Hofman, “Stratospheric aerosol measurements: optical model calculations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 304–414 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Rosen, “The vertical distribution of dust to 30 km,” J. Geophys. Res. 69, 4673–4676 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Rozier, W. R.

T. Deshler, B. J. Johnson, W. R. Rozier, “Balloon-borne measurements of Pinatubo aerosol during 1991–1992 at 41 ° N: vertical profiles, size distribution and volatility,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1435–1438 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rusch, D. W.

C. E. Randall, R. M. Bevilacqua, J. D. Lumpe, K. W. Hoppel, D. W. Rusch, E. P. Shettle, “Comparison of Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurements (POAM) II and Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II aerosol measurements from 1994 to 1996,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 3929–3942 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Russell, J. M.

M. E. Hervig, T. Deshler, J. M. Russell, “Aerosol size distributions obtained from HALOE spectral extinction measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 1573–1583 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, C. Robert, G. Moreau, D. Huguenin, J. M. Russell, “Nocturnal vertical distribution of stratospheric O3, NO2 and NO3 from balloon measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 28,793–28,804 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. B.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18,745–18,763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Santer, R.

C. Brogniez, R. Santer, B. S. Diallo, M. Herman, J. Lenoble, H. Jäger, “Comparative observations of stratospheric aerosols by ground-based lidar, balloonborne polarimeter and satellite solar occultation,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 20,805–20,823 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Ackerman, C. Brogniez, B. S. Diallo, G. Fiocco, P. Gobbi, M. Herman, H. Jäger, J. Lenoble, C. Lippens, G. Mégie, J. Pelon, R. Reiter, R. Santer, “European validation of SAGE II aerosol profiles,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 8399–8411 (1989).
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R. Santer, M. Herman, D. Tanre, J. Lenoble, “Characterization of stratospheric aerosol from polarization measurements.” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 14,209–14,221 (1988).
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M. Herman, J.-Y. Balois, L. Gonzales, P. Lecomte, J. Lenoble, R. Santer, C. Verwaerde, “Stratospheric aerosol observations from balloonborne polarimetric experiment.” Appl. Opt. 25, 3573–3584 (1986).
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Sato, M.

A. Lacis, J. Hansen, M. Sato, “Climate forcing by stratospheric aerosols,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 1607–1610 (1992).
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Saxena, V.

J. Anderson, C. Brogniez, L. Cazier, V. Saxena, J. Lenoble, M. P. McCormick, “The characterization of aerosols from simulated SAGE III measurements applying two retrieval techniques,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 2013–2027 (2000).
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V. Saxena, S. Yu, “Searching for a regional fingerprint of aerosol radiative forcing in the southeastern US,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 2833–2836 (1998).
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Schreiner, J.

C. Voigt, J. Schreiner, A. Kohlmann, P. Zink, K. Mauersberger, N. Larsen, T. Deshler, C. Kröger, J. Rosen, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Di Donfrancesco, M. Vibertini, J. Ovarlez, H. Ovarlez, C. David, A. Dörnbrack, ” Nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) in polar stratospheric clouds,” Science 290, 1756–1758 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shettle, E. P.

C. E. Randall, R. M. Bevilacqua, J. D. Lumpe, K. W. Hoppel, D. W. Rusch, E. P. Shettle, “Comparison of Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurements (POAM) II and Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II aerosol measurements from 1994 to 1996,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 3929–3942 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, R. Ramananahérisoa, K. H. Fricke, E. P. Shettle, K. W. Hoppel, R. M. Bevilacqua, J. Hornstein, J. Lumpe, M. D. Fromm, S. S. Krigman, “Second European Stratospheric Arctic and Midlatitude Experiment campaign: correlative measurements of aerosol in the northern polar atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 1489–1494 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Solomon, S.

D. R. Hanson, A. R. Ravishankara, S. Solomon, “Heterogeneous reactions in sulfuric acid aerosols: a framework for model calculations,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 3615–3629 (1994).
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Steele, H. M.

H. M. Steele, R. Turco, “Separation of aerosol and gas components in the Halogen Occultation Experiment and the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas experiment (SAGE) II extinction measurements: implication for SAGE II ozone concentration and trends,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 19,665–19,681 (1997).
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Stowe, L. L.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18,745–18,763 (1996).
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Tanre, D.

R. Santer, M. Herman, D. Tanre, J. Lenoble, “Characterization of stratospheric aerosol from polarization measurements.” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 14,209–14,221 (1988).
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Taylor, F. W.

A. Lambert, R. G. Grainger, J. J. Remedios, C. D. Rogers, M. Corney, F. W. Taylor, “Measurements of the evolution of the Mt Pinatubo aerosol cloud by ISAMS,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1287–1290 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Thomason, L. W.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18,745–18,763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Turco, R.

H. M. Steele, R. Turco, “Separation of aerosol and gas components in the Halogen Occultation Experiment and the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas experiment (SAGE) II extinction measurements: implication for SAGE II ozone concentration and trends,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 19,665–19,681 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Verwaerde, C.

Vibertini, M.

C. Voigt, J. Schreiner, A. Kohlmann, P. Zink, K. Mauersberger, N. Larsen, T. Deshler, C. Kröger, J. Rosen, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Di Donfrancesco, M. Vibertini, J. Ovarlez, H. Ovarlez, C. David, A. Dörnbrack, ” Nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) in polar stratospheric clouds,” Science 290, 1756–1758 (2000).
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Voigt, C.

C. Voigt, J. Schreiner, A. Kohlmann, P. Zink, K. Mauersberger, N. Larsen, T. Deshler, C. Kröger, J. Rosen, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Di Donfrancesco, M. Vibertini, J. Ovarlez, H. Ovarlez, C. David, A. Dörnbrack, ” Nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) in polar stratospheric clouds,” Science 290, 1756–1758 (2000).
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Willeke, K.

K. Willeke, B. Y. H. Liu, “Single particle optical counter: principle and application, in Fine Particles, Aerosol Generation, Measurement, Sampling and Analysis, B. Y. H. Liu, ed. (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1976), pp. 698–729.

Worms, J.-C.

Yu, S.

V. Saxena, S. Yu, “Searching for a regional fingerprint of aerosol radiative forcing in the southeastern US,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 2833–2836 (1998).
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Yue, G. K.

G. K. Yue, “A new approach to retrieval of aerosol size distributions and integral properties from SAGE II aerosol extinction spectra,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 27,491–27,506 (1999).
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G. K. Yue, M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, “Retrieval of composition and size distribution of stratospheric aerosols with the SAGE II satellite experiment,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 3, 371–380 (1986).
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C. Voigt, J. Schreiner, A. Kohlmann, P. Zink, K. Mauersberger, N. Larsen, T. Deshler, C. Kröger, J. Rosen, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Di Donfrancesco, M. Vibertini, J. Ovarlez, H. Ovarlez, C. David, A. Dörnbrack, ” Nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) in polar stratospheric clouds,” Science 290, 1756–1758 (2000).
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Appl. Opt. (4)

Geophys. Res. Lett. (6)

C. Labonnote, G. Brogniez, D. Doutriaux-Boucher, J.-C. Buriez, “Modeling of light scattering in cirrus clouds with inhomogeneous hexagonal monocrystals. Comparison with in-situ and ADEOS-POLDER measurements, Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 113–116 (2000).
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F. Erle, A. Grendel, D. Perner, U. Platt, K. Pfeilsticker, “Evidence of heterogeneous bromine chemistry on cold stratospheric sulfate aerosols,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 4329–4332 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Lacis, J. Hansen, M. Sato, “Climate forcing by stratospheric aerosols,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 1607–1610 (1992).
[CrossRef]

V. Saxena, S. Yu, “Searching for a regional fingerprint of aerosol radiative forcing in the southeastern US,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 2833–2836 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Deshler, B. J. Johnson, W. R. Rozier, “Balloon-borne measurements of Pinatubo aerosol during 1991–1992 at 41 ° N: vertical profiles, size distribution and volatility,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1435–1438 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Lambert, R. G. Grainger, J. J. Remedios, C. D. Rogers, M. Corney, F. W. Taylor, “Measurements of the evolution of the Mt Pinatubo aerosol cloud by ISAMS,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1287–1290 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Aerosol Sci. (1)

D. Bemer, J. F. Fabries, A. Renoux, “Calculation of the theoretical response of an optical particle counter and its practical usefulness,” J. Aerosol Sci. 21, 689–700 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Chem. (1)

T. Deshler, S. Oltmans, “Vertical profiles of volcanic aerosol and polar stratospheric clouds above Kiruna, Sweden: winters 1993 and 1995,” J. Atmos. Chem. 30, 11–23 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. (1)

G. K. Yue, M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, “Retrieval of composition and size distribution of stratospheric aerosols with the SAGE II satellite experiment,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 3, 371–380 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci. (1)

R. G. Pinnick, J. M. Rosen, D. J. Hofman, “Stratospheric aerosol measurements: optical model calculations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 304–414 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (18)

D. J. Hofmann, “Twenty years of balloon-borne tropospheric aerosol measurements at Laramie, Wyoming,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 12,753–12,766 (1993).
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D. F. Blake, K. Kato, “Latitudinal distribution of black carbon soot in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 7195–7202 (1995).
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T. Deshler, B. Nardi, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Hansen, F. Fierli, A. Hauchecorne, L. Pulverenti, “Determining the index of refraction of Polar Stratospheric Clouds above Andoya by combining size resolved concentration and optical scattering measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 3943–3953 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. D. Rivière, N. Huret, F. Goffinont-Taupin, J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, S. Eckermann, N. Larsen, T. Deshler, F. Lefèvre, S. Payan, C. Camy-Peyret, “Role of lee wave in the formation of solid PSCs: case studies from February 1997,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 6845–6853 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. K. Yue, “A new approach to retrieval of aerosol size distributions and integral properties from SAGE II aerosol extinction spectra,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 27,491–27,506 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Anderson, C. Brogniez, L. Cazier, V. Saxena, J. Lenoble, M. P. McCormick, “The characterization of aerosols from simulated SAGE III measurements applying two retrieval techniques,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 2013–2027 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18,745–18,763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, C. Robert, G. Moreau, D. Huguenin, J. M. Russell, “Nocturnal vertical distribution of stratospheric O3, NO2 and NO3 from balloon measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 28,793–28,804 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Santer, M. Herman, D. Tanre, J. Lenoble, “Characterization of stratospheric aerosol from polarization measurements.” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 14,209–14,221 (1988).
[CrossRef]

M. Ackerman, C. Brogniez, B. S. Diallo, G. Fiocco, P. Gobbi, M. Herman, H. Jäger, J. Lenoble, C. Lippens, G. Mégie, J. Pelon, R. Reiter, R. Santer, “European validation of SAGE II aerosol profiles,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 8399–8411 (1989).
[CrossRef]

C. Brogniez, R. Santer, B. S. Diallo, M. Herman, J. Lenoble, H. Jäger, “Comparative observations of stratospheric aerosols by ground-based lidar, balloonborne polarimeter and satellite solar occultation,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 20,805–20,823 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, R. Ramananahérisoa, K. H. Fricke, E. P. Shettle, K. W. Hoppel, R. M. Bevilacqua, J. Hornstein, J. Lumpe, M. D. Fromm, S. S. Krigman, “Second European Stratospheric Arctic and Midlatitude Experiment campaign: correlative measurements of aerosol in the northern polar atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 1489–1494 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Steele, R. Turco, “Separation of aerosol and gas components in the Halogen Occultation Experiment and the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas experiment (SAGE) II extinction measurements: implication for SAGE II ozone concentration and trends,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 19,665–19,681 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Randall, R. M. Bevilacqua, J. D. Lumpe, K. W. Hoppel, D. W. Rusch, E. P. Shettle, “Comparison of Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurements (POAM) II and Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II aerosol measurements from 1994 to 1996,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 3929–3942 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Hervig, T. Deshler, J. M. Russell, “Aerosol size distributions obtained from HALOE spectral extinction measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 1573–1583 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Hanson, A. R. Ravishankara, S. Solomon, “Heterogeneous reactions in sulfuric acid aerosols: a framework for model calculations,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 3615–3629 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Hanson, A. R. Ravishankara, E. R. Lovejoy, “Reactions of BrONO2 with H2O on submicron sulfuric acid aerosol and the implication for the lower stratosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9063–9069 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Rosen, “The vertical distribution of dust to 30 km,” J. Geophys. Res. 69, 4673–4676 (1964).
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Science (2)

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

UW and LMD particle-counter measurements on 11, 14, and 25 February 1997 from Kiruna, Sweden, for an altitude of 13–15 km (the data are vertically averaged). Globally, there is good agreement between the two sets of data, although the observations were obtained on different dates.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Log-normal distributions obtained from extinction measurements made by AMON, reflectance and polarization measurements by RADIBAL, and the concentration obtained by classification of radii by use of two particle-counting instruments UW and LMD, at an altitude of 13–15 km, for the February 1997 flights. The AMON bimodal distribution was obtained with r 01 = 0.30 µm, σ1 = 1.2, r 02 = 1.0 µm, and σ2 = 1.1. The RADIBAL bimodal distribution was obtained with r 01 = 0.05 µm, σ1 = 1.5, r 02 = 0.3 µm and σ2 = 1.3. Error bars for counter data are omitted for clarity.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Same as Fig. 3 but for an altitude of 15–16 km. The AMON bimodal distribution was obtained with r 01 = 0.05 µm, σ1 = 1.3, r 02 = 1.0 µm, and σ2 = 1.1. The RADIBAL bimodal distribution was obtained with r 01 = 0.125 µm, σ1 = 1.3, r 02 = 0.35 µm, and σ2 = 1.2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Log-normal distributions obtained from the SALOMON extinction measurements and from the two particle-counter instruments, UW and LMD, at an altitude of 17–19 km for the January–February 2000 flights. The SALOMON bimodal distribution was obtained with r 01 = 0.05 µm, σ1 = 1.3, r 02 = 1.0 µm, and σ2 = 1.1. Error bars for counter data are omitted for clarity.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Same as Fig. 4 but for an altitude of 19–21 km. The SALOMON bimodal distribution was obtained with r 01 = 0.06 µm, σ1 = 1.5, r 02 = 1.0 µm, and σ2 = 1.1.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison of the AMON measured extinction and UW counter and the RADIBAL computed spectral extinctions at an altitude of 13–15 km for the 1997 flights. The fit for retrieval of the AMON bimodal distribution is also presented.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Same as Fig. 6 but for an altitude of 15–16 km.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Comparison of SALOMON measured extinction and UW counter computed extinction at an altitude of 17–19 km for the 2000 flights. The fit for the retrieval of the SALOMON bimodal distribution is also presented.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Same as Fig. 8 but for an altitude of 19–21 km.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Observing Conditions for Various Instruments

Equations (1)

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dNdr=i=1pN0iri ln σi2πexp-12ln ri-ln r0iln σi2,

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