Abstract

We have demonstrated a personal identification system that is based on near-infrared finger vein patterns. Finger vein patterns of 678 volunteers are acquired by transmitting near-infrared light through a finger and capturing the image with a CCD camera. These vein patterns are enhanced by a background-reduction filter. The similarity between two patterns is then quantified by use of the normalized maximum of the cross correlation of the two images after correction of the tilt angle. The enhanced finger vein pattern enabled 678 persons to be successfully identified.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. Trauring, “Automatic comparison of finger-ridge patterns,” Nature 197, 938–940 (1963).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. Jain, L. Hong, S. Pankanti, R. Bolle, “An identity authentication system using fingerprints,” Proc. IEEE 85, 1365–1388 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Tico, P. Kuosmanen, J. Saarinen, “Wavelet domain features for fingerprint recognition,” Electron. Lett. 37, 21–22 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Ultra-Scan Corporation, “Benchmark test comparing fingerprint imaging technology,” http://www.ultra-scan.com/new.htm .
  5. J. Ashbourn, Biometrics: Advanced Identity Verification (Springer, London, 2000).
  6. J. G. Daugman, “High confidence visual recognition of persons by a test of statistical independence,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 15, 1148–1161 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Zhu, T. Tan, Y. Wang, “Biometric personal identification based on iris patterns,” in Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Pattern Recognition, (Barcelona, Spain, 2000), pp. 805–808.
  8. T. Kohonen, Self-Organization and Associative Memory, (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988).
  9. M. A. Turk, A. P. Pentland, “Face recognition using eigenfaces,” Proc. IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, 586–591 (1991).
  10. A. Martin, M. Przybocki, “The NIST 1999 speaker recognition evaluation: an overview,” http://www.nist.gov/speech/publications/papersrc/spk99oview.pdf .
  11. M. Kawasaki, “The performance of retinal scan,” Electronics 550, 24–26 (2000), (in Japanese).
  12. S. Liu, M. Silverman, “A practical guide to biometric security technology,” IT Professional 3, 27–32 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Communications-Electronics Security Group, “Best practices in testing and reporting performance of biometric devices,” http://www.cesg.gov.uk/technology/biometrics/media/Best%20Practice.pdf .
  14. S. Pankanti, R. M. Bolle, A. Jain, “Biometrics: The future of identification,” Computer 33, 46–49 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Centre for Mathematics and Scientific Computing National Physical Laboratory, “Biometric product testing final report,” http://www.cesg.gov.uk/technology/biometrics/media/Biometric%20Test%20Report%20pt1.pdf .
  16. J. D. Hardy, H. T. Hammel, D. Murgatroyd, “Spectral transmittance and reflectance of excised human skin,” J. Appl. Phys. 9, 257–264 (1956).
  17. B. C. Wilson, M. S. Patterson, S. T. Flock, J. D. Moulton, “The optical absorption and scattering properties of tissues in the visible and near-infrared wavelength range,” in Light in Biology and Medicine; Vol. 1, R. H. Douglas, J. Moan, F. D. Acqua, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1988), pp. 45–52.
  18. H. Key, P. C. Jackson, P. N. T. Wells, “New approaches to transillumination imaging,” J. Biomed. Eng. 10, 113–118 (1998).
  19. K. Shimizu, “Optical trans-body imaging: feasibility of optical CT and functional imaging of living body,” Jpn. J. of Medicina Philosophica 11, 620–629 (1992), (in Japanese).
  20. M. Kono, H. Ueki, S. Umemura, “A new method for the identification of individuals by using of vein pattern matching of a finger,” in Proceedings of the Fifth Symposium on Pattern Measurement (Yamaguchi, Japan, 2000), pp. 9–12, (in Japanese).
  21. Y. Taki, “Non-parametric test,” in Stochastic and Statistical Phenomenon II (Iwanami, Tokyo, 1973), pp. 143–148, (in Japanese).
  22. R. D’Agostino, M. Stephens, “Tests based on EDF statistics,” in Goodness-of-Fit TechniquesD. B. Owen, ed. (Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, 1986), pp. 97–193.
  23. J. M. Jolion, “Table du test de Kolmogorov-Smirnov,” http://rfv.insa-lyon.fr/∼jolion/STAT/node158.html .

2001 (2)

M. Tico, P. Kuosmanen, J. Saarinen, “Wavelet domain features for fingerprint recognition,” Electron. Lett. 37, 21–22 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Liu, M. Silverman, “A practical guide to biometric security technology,” IT Professional 3, 27–32 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

S. Pankanti, R. M. Bolle, A. Jain, “Biometrics: The future of identification,” Computer 33, 46–49 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Kawasaki, “The performance of retinal scan,” Electronics 550, 24–26 (2000), (in Japanese).

1998 (1)

H. Key, P. C. Jackson, P. N. T. Wells, “New approaches to transillumination imaging,” J. Biomed. Eng. 10, 113–118 (1998).

1997 (1)

A. Jain, L. Hong, S. Pankanti, R. Bolle, “An identity authentication system using fingerprints,” Proc. IEEE 85, 1365–1388 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

J. G. Daugman, “High confidence visual recognition of persons by a test of statistical independence,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 15, 1148–1161 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

K. Shimizu, “Optical trans-body imaging: feasibility of optical CT and functional imaging of living body,” Jpn. J. of Medicina Philosophica 11, 620–629 (1992), (in Japanese).

1991 (1)

M. A. Turk, A. P. Pentland, “Face recognition using eigenfaces,” Proc. IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, 586–591 (1991).

1963 (1)

M. Trauring, “Automatic comparison of finger-ridge patterns,” Nature 197, 938–940 (1963).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1956 (1)

J. D. Hardy, H. T. Hammel, D. Murgatroyd, “Spectral transmittance and reflectance of excised human skin,” J. Appl. Phys. 9, 257–264 (1956).

Ashbourn, J.

J. Ashbourn, Biometrics: Advanced Identity Verification (Springer, London, 2000).

Bolle, R.

A. Jain, L. Hong, S. Pankanti, R. Bolle, “An identity authentication system using fingerprints,” Proc. IEEE 85, 1365–1388 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bolle, R. M.

S. Pankanti, R. M. Bolle, A. Jain, “Biometrics: The future of identification,” Computer 33, 46–49 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D’Agostino, R.

R. D’Agostino, M. Stephens, “Tests based on EDF statistics,” in Goodness-of-Fit TechniquesD. B. Owen, ed. (Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, 1986), pp. 97–193.

Daugman, J. G.

J. G. Daugman, “High confidence visual recognition of persons by a test of statistical independence,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 15, 1148–1161 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Flock, S. T.

B. C. Wilson, M. S. Patterson, S. T. Flock, J. D. Moulton, “The optical absorption and scattering properties of tissues in the visible and near-infrared wavelength range,” in Light in Biology and Medicine; Vol. 1, R. H. Douglas, J. Moan, F. D. Acqua, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1988), pp. 45–52.

Hammel, H. T.

J. D. Hardy, H. T. Hammel, D. Murgatroyd, “Spectral transmittance and reflectance of excised human skin,” J. Appl. Phys. 9, 257–264 (1956).

Hardy, J. D.

J. D. Hardy, H. T. Hammel, D. Murgatroyd, “Spectral transmittance and reflectance of excised human skin,” J. Appl. Phys. 9, 257–264 (1956).

Hong, L.

A. Jain, L. Hong, S. Pankanti, R. Bolle, “An identity authentication system using fingerprints,” Proc. IEEE 85, 1365–1388 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, P. C.

H. Key, P. C. Jackson, P. N. T. Wells, “New approaches to transillumination imaging,” J. Biomed. Eng. 10, 113–118 (1998).

Jain, A.

S. Pankanti, R. M. Bolle, A. Jain, “Biometrics: The future of identification,” Computer 33, 46–49 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Jain, L. Hong, S. Pankanti, R. Bolle, “An identity authentication system using fingerprints,” Proc. IEEE 85, 1365–1388 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kawasaki, M.

M. Kawasaki, “The performance of retinal scan,” Electronics 550, 24–26 (2000), (in Japanese).

Key, H.

H. Key, P. C. Jackson, P. N. T. Wells, “New approaches to transillumination imaging,” J. Biomed. Eng. 10, 113–118 (1998).

Kohonen, T.

T. Kohonen, Self-Organization and Associative Memory, (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988).

Kono, M.

M. Kono, H. Ueki, S. Umemura, “A new method for the identification of individuals by using of vein pattern matching of a finger,” in Proceedings of the Fifth Symposium on Pattern Measurement (Yamaguchi, Japan, 2000), pp. 9–12, (in Japanese).

Kuosmanen, P.

M. Tico, P. Kuosmanen, J. Saarinen, “Wavelet domain features for fingerprint recognition,” Electron. Lett. 37, 21–22 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S.

S. Liu, M. Silverman, “A practical guide to biometric security technology,” IT Professional 3, 27–32 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Moulton, J. D.

B. C. Wilson, M. S. Patterson, S. T. Flock, J. D. Moulton, “The optical absorption and scattering properties of tissues in the visible and near-infrared wavelength range,” in Light in Biology and Medicine; Vol. 1, R. H. Douglas, J. Moan, F. D. Acqua, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1988), pp. 45–52.

Murgatroyd, D.

J. D. Hardy, H. T. Hammel, D. Murgatroyd, “Spectral transmittance and reflectance of excised human skin,” J. Appl. Phys. 9, 257–264 (1956).

Pankanti, S.

S. Pankanti, R. M. Bolle, A. Jain, “Biometrics: The future of identification,” Computer 33, 46–49 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Jain, L. Hong, S. Pankanti, R. Bolle, “An identity authentication system using fingerprints,” Proc. IEEE 85, 1365–1388 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Patterson, M. S.

B. C. Wilson, M. S. Patterson, S. T. Flock, J. D. Moulton, “The optical absorption and scattering properties of tissues in the visible and near-infrared wavelength range,” in Light in Biology and Medicine; Vol. 1, R. H. Douglas, J. Moan, F. D. Acqua, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1988), pp. 45–52.

Pentland, A. P.

M. A. Turk, A. P. Pentland, “Face recognition using eigenfaces,” Proc. IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, 586–591 (1991).

Saarinen, J.

M. Tico, P. Kuosmanen, J. Saarinen, “Wavelet domain features for fingerprint recognition,” Electron. Lett. 37, 21–22 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shimizu, K.

K. Shimizu, “Optical trans-body imaging: feasibility of optical CT and functional imaging of living body,” Jpn. J. of Medicina Philosophica 11, 620–629 (1992), (in Japanese).

Silverman, M.

S. Liu, M. Silverman, “A practical guide to biometric security technology,” IT Professional 3, 27–32 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Stephens, M.

R. D’Agostino, M. Stephens, “Tests based on EDF statistics,” in Goodness-of-Fit TechniquesD. B. Owen, ed. (Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, 1986), pp. 97–193.

Taki, Y.

Y. Taki, “Non-parametric test,” in Stochastic and Statistical Phenomenon II (Iwanami, Tokyo, 1973), pp. 143–148, (in Japanese).

Tan, T.

Y. Zhu, T. Tan, Y. Wang, “Biometric personal identification based on iris patterns,” in Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Pattern Recognition, (Barcelona, Spain, 2000), pp. 805–808.

Tico, M.

M. Tico, P. Kuosmanen, J. Saarinen, “Wavelet domain features for fingerprint recognition,” Electron. Lett. 37, 21–22 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Trauring, M.

M. Trauring, “Automatic comparison of finger-ridge patterns,” Nature 197, 938–940 (1963).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Turk, M. A.

M. A. Turk, A. P. Pentland, “Face recognition using eigenfaces,” Proc. IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, 586–591 (1991).

Ueki, H.

M. Kono, H. Ueki, S. Umemura, “A new method for the identification of individuals by using of vein pattern matching of a finger,” in Proceedings of the Fifth Symposium on Pattern Measurement (Yamaguchi, Japan, 2000), pp. 9–12, (in Japanese).

Umemura, S.

M. Kono, H. Ueki, S. Umemura, “A new method for the identification of individuals by using of vein pattern matching of a finger,” in Proceedings of the Fifth Symposium on Pattern Measurement (Yamaguchi, Japan, 2000), pp. 9–12, (in Japanese).

Wang, Y.

Y. Zhu, T. Tan, Y. Wang, “Biometric personal identification based on iris patterns,” in Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Pattern Recognition, (Barcelona, Spain, 2000), pp. 805–808.

Wells, P. N. T.

H. Key, P. C. Jackson, P. N. T. Wells, “New approaches to transillumination imaging,” J. Biomed. Eng. 10, 113–118 (1998).

Wilson, B. C.

B. C. Wilson, M. S. Patterson, S. T. Flock, J. D. Moulton, “The optical absorption and scattering properties of tissues in the visible and near-infrared wavelength range,” in Light in Biology and Medicine; Vol. 1, R. H. Douglas, J. Moan, F. D. Acqua, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1988), pp. 45–52.

Zhu, Y.

Y. Zhu, T. Tan, Y. Wang, “Biometric personal identification based on iris patterns,” in Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Pattern Recognition, (Barcelona, Spain, 2000), pp. 805–808.

Computer (1)

S. Pankanti, R. M. Bolle, A. Jain, “Biometrics: The future of identification,” Computer 33, 46–49 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

M. Tico, P. Kuosmanen, J. Saarinen, “Wavelet domain features for fingerprint recognition,” Electron. Lett. 37, 21–22 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Electronics (1)

M. Kawasaki, “The performance of retinal scan,” Electronics 550, 24–26 (2000), (in Japanese).

IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. (1)

J. G. Daugman, “High confidence visual recognition of persons by a test of statistical independence,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 15, 1148–1161 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IT Professional (1)

S. Liu, M. Silverman, “A practical guide to biometric security technology,” IT Professional 3, 27–32 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. D. Hardy, H. T. Hammel, D. Murgatroyd, “Spectral transmittance and reflectance of excised human skin,” J. Appl. Phys. 9, 257–264 (1956).

J. Biomed. Eng. (1)

H. Key, P. C. Jackson, P. N. T. Wells, “New approaches to transillumination imaging,” J. Biomed. Eng. 10, 113–118 (1998).

Jpn. J. of Medicina Philosophica (1)

K. Shimizu, “Optical trans-body imaging: feasibility of optical CT and functional imaging of living body,” Jpn. J. of Medicina Philosophica 11, 620–629 (1992), (in Japanese).

Nature (1)

M. Trauring, “Automatic comparison of finger-ridge patterns,” Nature 197, 938–940 (1963).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. IEEE (1)

A. Jain, L. Hong, S. Pankanti, R. Bolle, “An identity authentication system using fingerprints,” Proc. IEEE 85, 1365–1388 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (1)

M. A. Turk, A. P. Pentland, “Face recognition using eigenfaces,” Proc. IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, 586–591 (1991).

Other (12)

A. Martin, M. Przybocki, “The NIST 1999 speaker recognition evaluation: an overview,” http://www.nist.gov/speech/publications/papersrc/spk99oview.pdf .

Y. Zhu, T. Tan, Y. Wang, “Biometric personal identification based on iris patterns,” in Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Pattern Recognition, (Barcelona, Spain, 2000), pp. 805–808.

T. Kohonen, Self-Organization and Associative Memory, (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988).

Ultra-Scan Corporation, “Benchmark test comparing fingerprint imaging technology,” http://www.ultra-scan.com/new.htm .

J. Ashbourn, Biometrics: Advanced Identity Verification (Springer, London, 2000).

M. Kono, H. Ueki, S. Umemura, “A new method for the identification of individuals by using of vein pattern matching of a finger,” in Proceedings of the Fifth Symposium on Pattern Measurement (Yamaguchi, Japan, 2000), pp. 9–12, (in Japanese).

Y. Taki, “Non-parametric test,” in Stochastic and Statistical Phenomenon II (Iwanami, Tokyo, 1973), pp. 143–148, (in Japanese).

R. D’Agostino, M. Stephens, “Tests based on EDF statistics,” in Goodness-of-Fit TechniquesD. B. Owen, ed. (Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, 1986), pp. 97–193.

J. M. Jolion, “Table du test de Kolmogorov-Smirnov,” http://rfv.insa-lyon.fr/∼jolion/STAT/node158.html .

Communications-Electronics Security Group, “Best practices in testing and reporting performance of biometric devices,” http://www.cesg.gov.uk/technology/biometrics/media/Best%20Practice.pdf .

Centre for Mathematics and Scientific Computing National Physical Laboratory, “Biometric product testing final report,” http://www.cesg.gov.uk/technology/biometrics/media/Biometric%20Test%20Report%20pt1.pdf .

B. C. Wilson, M. S. Patterson, S. T. Flock, J. D. Moulton, “The optical absorption and scattering properties of tissues in the visible and near-infrared wavelength range,” in Light in Biology and Medicine; Vol. 1, R. H. Douglas, J. Moan, F. D. Acqua, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1988), pp. 45–52.

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Block diagram of the prototype for the experiment.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical configuration.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Examples of an image of a finger vein pattern: (a) captured image by CCD camera, (b) enhanced vein-pattern image.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Steps in image processing.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Histograms of the normalized correlation coefficient between two images of the 678 individuals. White bars denote the results from the two images of each individual, black bars denote the results from two different individuals.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Effect of the matrix size for low-pass filtering, M. Black curves denote FRRs, gray curves denote FARs.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

FAR vs. FRR.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

FAR vs. FRR around the origin.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Change of TER according to the change of M.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

FAR vs. FRR with various image sizes.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

TER plots of an image with aspect ratio of 1:1 and 1:4.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Curve fitting of FAR and FRR.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Predictive FAR values with larger groups when the permitted FRR is 0.1 percent.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Change of TER according to the change of aspect ratio of an image

Tables Icon

Table 2 Change of TER according to the change of aspect ratio of an image

Tables Icon

Table 3 Kolmogorov-Smirnov test on goodness-of-fita

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

yi,j=IFFT2*FFT2pFFT2q, i, j=1, 2, N,
Yi,j=yi,jk=1Nl=1N Pk,lu2·k=1Nl=1N Qk,lu21/2, i, j, k, l=1, 2,, N,
C=maxYi,j1/2.
FART=Nrd>T/N2.
FRRT=NrsT/N1,
TER=01FART×FRRTdT1/2.
G=max|FT-ST|-Dα,n,

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