Abstract

The performance of the OC2 Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) algorithm based on 490- and 555-nm water-leaving radiances at low chlorophyll contents is compared with those of semianalytical models and a Monte Carlo radiative transfer model. We introduce our model, which uses two particle phase functions and scattering coefficient parameterizations to achieve a backscattering ratio that varies with chlorophyll concentration. We discuss the various parameterizations and compare them with existent measurements. The SeaWiFS algorithm could be confirmed within an accuracy of 35% over a chlorophyll range from 0.1 to 1 mg m-3, whereas for lower chlorophyll concentrations we found a significant overestimation of the OC2 algorithm.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kharu, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,937–24,953 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, C. R. McClain, in “An overview of SeaWiFS and Ocean Color,” S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds., NASA Tech. Mem. 1045661, (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).
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  5. O. A. Bukin, A. N. Pavlov, M. S. Permyakov, A. Yu. Major, O. G. Konstantinov, A. V. Mallenok, S. A. Ogay, “Continuous measurements of chlorophyll-a concentration in the Pacific Ocean by shipborne laser fluorometer and radiometer: comparison with SeaWiFS data,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 22, 415–427 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Oschlies, V. Garcon, “An eddy-permitting coupled physical-biological model of the North Atlantic. I. Sensitivity to advection numerics and mixed layer physics,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 13, 135–160 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Macke, D. L. Mitchell, L. von Bremen, “Monte Carlo radiative transfer calculations for inhomogeneous mixed phase clouds,” Phys. Chem. Earth B 24, 237–241 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  17. L. Prieur, S. Sathyendranath, “An optical classification of coastal and oceanic waters based on specific absorption curves of phytoplankton pigments, dissolved organic matter, and other particulate materials,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 671–689 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  23. A. Bricaud, D. Stramski, “Spectral absorption coefficients of living phytoplankton and nonalgal biogenous matter: a comparison between the Peru upwelling area and the Sargasso Sea,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 35, 562–582 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  24. S. A. Garver, D. A. Siegel, B. G. Mitchell, “Variability in near-surface particulate absorption spectra: what can a satellite ocean color imager see?” Limnol. Oceanogr. 39, 1349–1367 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  25. F. E. Hoge, P. E. Lyon, “Satellite retrieval of inherent optical properties by linear matrix inversion of oceanic radiance models: an analysis of model and radiance measurement errors,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 16,631–16,648 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  26. A. H. Barnard, W. S. Pegau, J. R. V. Zanefeld, “Global relationships of the inherent optical properties of the oceans,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,955–24,968 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  29. D. Stramski, D. A. Kiefer, “Light scattering by microorganisms in the open ocean,” Prog. Oceanogr. 28, 343–383 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  30. V. I. Haltrin, G. Kattawar, “Light fields with Raman scattering and fluorescence in sea water,” Tech. Rep. (Texas AM University, College Station, Tex., 1991).
  31. C. D. Mobley, L. K. Sundman, E. Boss, “Phase function effects on oceanic light fields,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1035–1050 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  32. C. D. Mobley, B. Gentili, H. R. Gordon, Z. Jin, G. W. Kattawar, A. Morel, P. Reinersman, K. Stamnes, R. H. Stavn, “Comparison of numerical models for computing underwater light fields,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7484–7504 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. H. R. Gordon, “Bio-optical model describing the distribution of irradiance at the sea surface resulting from a point source embedded in the ocean,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4133–4148 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. A. Bricaud, C. Roesler, J. R. Zanefeld, “In situ methods for measuring the inherent optical properties of ocean waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 393–410 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  35. C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, K. L. Carder, “Modeling in situ phytoplankton absorption from total absorption-spectra in productive inland marine waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1510–1523 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  36. P. J. Werdell, S. W. Bailey, G. S. Fargion, “SeaBASS data protocols and policy,” in Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision 2, G. S. Fargion, J. L. Mueller, eds. NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-209966 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000), pp. 170–172.

2001

A. Morel, S. Maritorena, “Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: a reappraisal,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7163–7180 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Sathyendranath, G. Cota, V. Stuart, H. Maass, T. Platt, “Remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments: a comparison of empirical and theoretical approaches,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 22, 249–273 (2001).
[CrossRef]

O. A. Bukin, A. N. Pavlov, M. S. Permyakov, A. Yu. Major, O. G. Konstantinov, A. V. Mallenok, S. A. Ogay, “Continuous measurements of chlorophyll-a concentration in the Pacific Ocean by shipborne laser fluorometer and radiometer: comparison with SeaWiFS data,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 22, 415–427 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Loisel, D. Stramski, B. G. Mitchell, F. Fell, V. Fournier-Sicre, B. Lemasle, M. Babin, “Comparison of the ocean inherent optical properties obtained from measurements and inverse modeling,” Appl. Opt. 40, 2384–2397 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Mobley, L. K. Sundman, E. Boss, “Phase function effects on oceanic light fields,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1035–1050 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

A. Oschlies, W. Koeve, V. Garcon, “An eddy-permitting coupled physical-biological model of the North Atlantic. II. Ecosystem dynamics and comparison with satellite and JGOFS local studies data,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 14, 499–523 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

A. Macke, D. L. Mitchell, L. von Bremen, “Monte Carlo radiative transfer calculations for inhomogeneous mixed phase clouds,” Phys. Chem. Earth B 24, 237–241 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Oschlies, V. Garcon, “An eddy-permitting coupled physical-biological model of the North Atlantic. I. Sensitivity to advection numerics and mixed layer physics,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 13, 135–160 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Aas, N. K. Højerslev, “Analysis of underwater radiance observations: apparent optical properties and analytic functions describing the angular radiance distribution,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 8015–8024 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

A. H. Barnard, W. S. Pegau, J. R. V. Zanefeld, “Global relationships of the inherent optical properties of the oceans,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,955–24,968 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kharu, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,937–24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

1996

F. E. Hoge, P. E. Lyon, “Satellite retrieval of inherent optical properties by linear matrix inversion of oceanic radiance models: an analysis of model and radiance measurement errors,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 16,631–16,648 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

A. Bricaud, C. Roesler, J. R. Zanefeld, “In situ methods for measuring the inherent optical properties of ocean waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 393–410 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

S. A. Garver, D. A. Siegel, B. G. Mitchell, “Variability in near-surface particulate absorption spectra: what can a satellite ocean color imager see?” Limnol. Oceanogr. 39, 1349–1367 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

1991

D. Stramski, D. A. Kiefer, “Light scattering by microorganisms in the open ocean,” Prog. Oceanogr. 28, 343–383 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

A. Bricaud, D. Stramski, “Spectral absorption coefficients of living phytoplankton and nonalgal biogenous matter: a comparison between the Peru upwelling area and the Sargasso Sea,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 35, 562–582 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

R. Iturriga, D. Siegel, “Microphotometric characterization of phytoplankton and detrital absorption properties in the Sargasso Sea,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1706–1726 (1989).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, K. L. Carder, “Modeling in situ phytoplankton absorption from total absorption-spectra in productive inland marine waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1510–1523 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

A. Morel, “Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogeneous matter content (case I waters),” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,749–10,768 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987

1981

L. Prieur, S. Sathyendranath, “An optical classification of coastal and oceanic waters based on specific absorption curves of phytoplankton pigments, dissolved organic matter, and other particulate materials,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 671–689 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980

A. Morel, “In-water and remote measurements of ocean color,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 18, 177–201 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Aas, E.

E. Aas, N. K. Højerslev, “Analysis of underwater radiance observations: apparent optical properties and analytic functions describing the angular radiance distribution,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 8015–8024 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Alarcon, G.

G. Alarcon, O. Ulloa, G. Yuras, V. Montecino, G. Pizarro, “Phytoplankton pigment concentration off northern and central Chile: comparison between estimates from in situ remote sensing reflectance and SeaWiFS,” presented at the Ocean Optics XV meeting, Monaco, 16–20 October 2000.

Babin, M.

Bailey, S. W.

P. J. Werdell, S. W. Bailey, G. S. Fargion, “SeaBASS data protocols and policy,” in Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision 2, G. S. Fargion, J. L. Mueller, eds. NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-209966 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000), pp. 170–172.

Baker, K. S.

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “Optical properties of the clearest natural waters (200–800 nm),” Appl. Opt. 20, 177–184 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Barnard, A. H.

A. H. Barnard, W. S. Pegau, J. R. V. Zanefeld, “Global relationships of the inherent optical properties of the oceans,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,955–24,968 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Boss, E.

Bricaud, A.

A. Bricaud, C. Roesler, J. R. Zanefeld, “In situ methods for measuring the inherent optical properties of ocean waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 393–410 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, D. Stramski, “Spectral absorption coefficients of living phytoplankton and nonalgal biogenous matter: a comparison between the Peru upwelling area and the Sargasso Sea,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 35, 562–582 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Brown, J. W.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Brown, O. B.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Bukin, O. A.

O. A. Bukin, A. N. Pavlov, M. S. Permyakov, A. Yu. Major, O. G. Konstantinov, A. V. Mallenok, S. A. Ogay, “Continuous measurements of chlorophyll-a concentration in the Pacific Ocean by shipborne laser fluorometer and radiometer: comparison with SeaWiFS data,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 22, 415–427 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Carder, K. L.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kharu, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,937–24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, K. L. Carder, “Modeling in situ phytoplankton absorption from total absorption-spectra in productive inland marine waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1510–1523 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Clark, D. K.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Cota, G.

S. Sathyendranath, G. Cota, V. Stuart, H. Maass, T. Platt, “Remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments: a comparison of empirical and theoretical approaches,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 22, 249–273 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Darbinjan, R. A.

G. I. Marchuk, G. A. Mikhailov, R. D. Nazareliev, R. A. Darbinjan, B. A. Kargin, B. S. Elepov, The Monte Carlo Methods in Atmospheric Optics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1980).

Elepov, B. S.

G. I. Marchuk, G. A. Mikhailov, R. D. Nazareliev, R. A. Darbinjan, B. A. Kargin, B. S. Elepov, The Monte Carlo Methods in Atmospheric Optics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1980).

Esaias, W. E.

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, C. R. McClain, in “An overview of SeaWiFS and Ocean Color,” S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds., NASA Tech. Mem. 1045661, (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).

Evans, R. H.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Fargion, G. S.

P. J. Werdell, S. W. Bailey, G. S. Fargion, “SeaBASS data protocols and policy,” in Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision 2, G. S. Fargion, J. L. Mueller, eds. NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-209966 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000), pp. 170–172.

Feldman, G. C.

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, C. R. McClain, in “An overview of SeaWiFS and Ocean Color,” S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds., NASA Tech. Mem. 1045661, (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).

Fell, F.

Fournier-Sicre, V.

Fry, E. S.

Garcia, C. A. E.

C. Y. Omachi, C. A. E. Garcia, “Analysis of empirical algorithms of surface chlorophyll-a for SeaWiFS in the southwestern Atlantic ocean,” presented at the Ocean Optics XV meeting, Monaco, 16–20 October 2000.

Garcon, V.

A. Oschlies, W. Koeve, V. Garcon, “An eddy-permitting coupled physical-biological model of the North Atlantic. II. Ecosystem dynamics and comparison with satellite and JGOFS local studies data,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 14, 499–523 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Oschlies, V. Garcon, “An eddy-permitting coupled physical-biological model of the North Atlantic. I. Sensitivity to advection numerics and mixed layer physics,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 13, 135–160 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Garver, S. A.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kharu, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,937–24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Garver, D. A. Siegel, B. G. Mitchell, “Variability in near-surface particulate absorption spectra: what can a satellite ocean color imager see?” Limnol. Oceanogr. 39, 1349–1367 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gentili, B.

Gordon, H. R.

C. D. Mobley, B. Gentili, H. R. Gordon, Z. Jin, G. W. Kattawar, A. Morel, P. Reinersman, K. Stamnes, R. H. Stavn, “Comparison of numerical models for computing underwater light fields,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7484–7504 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, “Bio-optical model describing the distribution of irradiance at the sea surface resulting from a point source embedded in the ocean,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4133–4148 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, A. Morel, Remote Assessment of Ocean Color for Interpretation of Satellite Visible Imagery: A Review, Vol. 4 of Lecture Notes on Coastal and Estuarine Studies (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1983), p. 114.

Gregg, W. W.

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, C. R. McClain, in “An overview of SeaWiFS and Ocean Color,” S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds., NASA Tech. Mem. 1045661, (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).

Haltrin, V. I.

V. I. Haltrin, G. Kattawar, “Light fields with Raman scattering and fluorescence in sea water,” Tech. Rep. (Texas AM University, College Station, Tex., 1991).

Hoge, F. E.

F. E. Hoge, P. E. Lyon, “Satellite retrieval of inherent optical properties by linear matrix inversion of oceanic radiance models: an analysis of model and radiance measurement errors,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 16,631–16,648 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Højerslev, N. K.

E. Aas, N. K. Højerslev, “Analysis of underwater radiance observations: apparent optical properties and analytic functions describing the angular radiance distribution,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 8015–8024 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hooker, S. B.

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, C. R. McClain, in “An overview of SeaWiFS and Ocean Color,” S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds., NASA Tech. Mem. 1045661, (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).

Iturriga, R.

R. Iturriga, D. Siegel, “Microphotometric characterization of phytoplankton and detrital absorption properties in the Sargasso Sea,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1706–1726 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Jin, Z.

Kargin, B. A.

G. I. Marchuk, G. A. Mikhailov, R. D. Nazareliev, R. A. Darbinjan, B. A. Kargin, B. S. Elepov, The Monte Carlo Methods in Atmospheric Optics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1980).

Kattawar, G.

V. I. Haltrin, G. Kattawar, “Light fields with Raman scattering and fluorescence in sea water,” Tech. Rep. (Texas AM University, College Station, Tex., 1991).

Kattawar, G. W.

Kharu, M.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kharu, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,937–24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kiefer, D. A.

D. Stramski, D. A. Kiefer, “Light scattering by microorganisms in the open ocean,” Prog. Oceanogr. 28, 343–383 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Koeve, W.

A. Oschlies, W. Koeve, V. Garcon, “An eddy-permitting coupled physical-biological model of the North Atlantic. II. Ecosystem dynamics and comparison with satellite and JGOFS local studies data,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 14, 499–523 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Konstantinov, O. G.

O. A. Bukin, A. N. Pavlov, M. S. Permyakov, A. Yu. Major, O. G. Konstantinov, A. V. Mallenok, S. A. Ogay, “Continuous measurements of chlorophyll-a concentration in the Pacific Ocean by shipborne laser fluorometer and radiometer: comparison with SeaWiFS data,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 22, 415–427 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kopelevich, O. V.

O. V. Kopelevich, “Small-parameter model of optical properties of sea water,” in Physical Ocean Optics, A. S. Monin, ed., Vol. 1 of Ocean Optics (NaukaMoscow, 1983), Chap. 8.

Lemasle, B.

Loisel, H.

Lyon, P. E.

F. E. Hoge, P. E. Lyon, “Satellite retrieval of inherent optical properties by linear matrix inversion of oceanic radiance models: an analysis of model and radiance measurement errors,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 16,631–16,648 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Maass, H.

S. Sathyendranath, G. Cota, V. Stuart, H. Maass, T. Platt, “Remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments: a comparison of empirical and theoretical approaches,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 22, 249–273 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Macke, A.

A. Macke, D. L. Mitchell, L. von Bremen, “Monte Carlo radiative transfer calculations for inhomogeneous mixed phase clouds,” Phys. Chem. Earth B 24, 237–241 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Major, A. Yu.

O. A. Bukin, A. N. Pavlov, M. S. Permyakov, A. Yu. Major, O. G. Konstantinov, A. V. Mallenok, S. A. Ogay, “Continuous measurements of chlorophyll-a concentration in the Pacific Ocean by shipborne laser fluorometer and radiometer: comparison with SeaWiFS data,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 22, 415–427 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mallenok, A. V.

O. A. Bukin, A. N. Pavlov, M. S. Permyakov, A. Yu. Major, O. G. Konstantinov, A. V. Mallenok, S. A. Ogay, “Continuous measurements of chlorophyll-a concentration in the Pacific Ocean by shipborne laser fluorometer and radiometer: comparison with SeaWiFS data,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 22, 415–427 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Marchuk, G. I.

G. I. Marchuk, G. A. Mikhailov, R. D. Nazareliev, R. A. Darbinjan, B. A. Kargin, B. S. Elepov, The Monte Carlo Methods in Atmospheric Optics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1980).

Maritorena, S.

A. Morel, S. Maritorena, “Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: a reappraisal,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7163–7180 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kharu, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,937–24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McClain, C.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kharu, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,937–24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McClain, C. R.

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, C. R. McClain, in “An overview of SeaWiFS and Ocean Color,” S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds., NASA Tech. Mem. 1045661, (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).

Mikhailov, G. A.

G. I. Marchuk, G. A. Mikhailov, R. D. Nazareliev, R. A. Darbinjan, B. A. Kargin, B. S. Elepov, The Monte Carlo Methods in Atmospheric Optics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1980).

Mitchell, B. G.

H. Loisel, D. Stramski, B. G. Mitchell, F. Fell, V. Fournier-Sicre, B. Lemasle, M. Babin, “Comparison of the ocean inherent optical properties obtained from measurements and inverse modeling,” Appl. Opt. 40, 2384–2397 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kharu, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,937–24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Garver, D. A. Siegel, B. G. Mitchell, “Variability in near-surface particulate absorption spectra: what can a satellite ocean color imager see?” Limnol. Oceanogr. 39, 1349–1367 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, D. L.

A. Macke, D. L. Mitchell, L. von Bremen, “Monte Carlo radiative transfer calculations for inhomogeneous mixed phase clouds,” Phys. Chem. Earth B 24, 237–241 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mobley, C. D.

Montecino, V.

G. Alarcon, O. Ulloa, G. Yuras, V. Montecino, G. Pizarro, “Phytoplankton pigment concentration off northern and central Chile: comparison between estimates from in situ remote sensing reflectance and SeaWiFS,” presented at the Ocean Optics XV meeting, Monaco, 16–20 October 2000.

Morel, A.

A. Morel, S. Maritorena, “Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: a reappraisal,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7163–7180 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters. II. Bidirectional aspects,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6864–6879 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. D. Mobley, B. Gentili, H. R. Gordon, Z. Jin, G. W. Kattawar, A. Morel, P. Reinersman, K. Stamnes, R. H. Stavn, “Comparison of numerical models for computing underwater light fields,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7484–7504 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Morel, “Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogeneous matter content (case I waters),” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,749–10,768 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, “In-water and remote measurements of ocean color,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 18, 177–201 (1980).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, A. Morel, Remote Assessment of Ocean Color for Interpretation of Satellite Visible Imagery: A Review, Vol. 4 of Lecture Notes on Coastal and Estuarine Studies (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1983), p. 114.

Nazareliev, R. D.

G. I. Marchuk, G. A. Mikhailov, R. D. Nazareliev, R. A. Darbinjan, B. A. Kargin, B. S. Elepov, The Monte Carlo Methods in Atmospheric Optics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1980).

O’Reilly, J. E.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kharu, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,937–24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ogay, S. A.

O. A. Bukin, A. N. Pavlov, M. S. Permyakov, A. Yu. Major, O. G. Konstantinov, A. V. Mallenok, S. A. Ogay, “Continuous measurements of chlorophyll-a concentration in the Pacific Ocean by shipborne laser fluorometer and radiometer: comparison with SeaWiFS data,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 22, 415–427 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Omachi, C. Y.

C. Y. Omachi, C. A. E. Garcia, “Analysis of empirical algorithms of surface chlorophyll-a for SeaWiFS in the southwestern Atlantic ocean,” presented at the Ocean Optics XV meeting, Monaco, 16–20 October 2000.

Oschlies, A.

A. Oschlies, W. Koeve, V. Garcon, “An eddy-permitting coupled physical-biological model of the North Atlantic. II. Ecosystem dynamics and comparison with satellite and JGOFS local studies data,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 14, 499–523 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Oschlies, V. Garcon, “An eddy-permitting coupled physical-biological model of the North Atlantic. I. Sensitivity to advection numerics and mixed layer physics,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 13, 135–160 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pavlov, A. N.

O. A. Bukin, A. N. Pavlov, M. S. Permyakov, A. Yu. Major, O. G. Konstantinov, A. V. Mallenok, S. A. Ogay, “Continuous measurements of chlorophyll-a concentration in the Pacific Ocean by shipborne laser fluorometer and radiometer: comparison with SeaWiFS data,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 22, 415–427 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pegau, W. S.

A. H. Barnard, W. S. Pegau, J. R. V. Zanefeld, “Global relationships of the inherent optical properties of the oceans,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,955–24,968 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Permyakov, M. S.

O. A. Bukin, A. N. Pavlov, M. S. Permyakov, A. Yu. Major, O. G. Konstantinov, A. V. Mallenok, S. A. Ogay, “Continuous measurements of chlorophyll-a concentration in the Pacific Ocean by shipborne laser fluorometer and radiometer: comparison with SeaWiFS data,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 22, 415–427 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Perry, M. J.

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, K. L. Carder, “Modeling in situ phytoplankton absorption from total absorption-spectra in productive inland marine waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1510–1523 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Petzold, T.

T. Petzold, “Volume scattering functions for selected ocean waters,” SIO Ref 72-78 (Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, Calif., 1972).

Pizarro, G.

G. Alarcon, O. Ulloa, G. Yuras, V. Montecino, G. Pizarro, “Phytoplankton pigment concentration off northern and central Chile: comparison between estimates from in situ remote sensing reflectance and SeaWiFS,” presented at the Ocean Optics XV meeting, Monaco, 16–20 October 2000.

Platt, T.

S. Sathyendranath, G. Cota, V. Stuart, H. Maass, T. Platt, “Remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments: a comparison of empirical and theoretical approaches,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 22, 249–273 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pope, R. M.

Prieur, L.

L. Prieur, S. Sathyendranath, “An optical classification of coastal and oceanic waters based on specific absorption curves of phytoplankton pigments, dissolved organic matter, and other particulate materials,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 671–689 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Reinersman, P.

Roesler, C.

A. Bricaud, C. Roesler, J. R. Zanefeld, “In situ methods for measuring the inherent optical properties of ocean waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 393–410 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Roesler, C. S.

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, K. L. Carder, “Modeling in situ phytoplankton absorption from total absorption-spectra in productive inland marine waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1510–1523 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Sathyendranath, S.

S. Sathyendranath, G. Cota, V. Stuart, H. Maass, T. Platt, “Remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments: a comparison of empirical and theoretical approaches,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 22, 249–273 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Prieur, S. Sathyendranath, “An optical classification of coastal and oceanic waters based on specific absorption curves of phytoplankton pigments, dissolved organic matter, and other particulate materials,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 671–689 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Siegel, D.

R. Iturriga, D. Siegel, “Microphotometric characterization of phytoplankton and detrital absorption properties in the Sargasso Sea,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1706–1726 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Siegel, D. A.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kharu, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,937–24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Garver, D. A. Siegel, B. G. Mitchell, “Variability in near-surface particulate absorption spectra: what can a satellite ocean color imager see?” Limnol. Oceanogr. 39, 1349–1367 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. C.

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “Optical properties of the clearest natural waters (200–800 nm),” Appl. Opt. 20, 177–184 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Stamnes, K.

Stavn, R. H.

Stramski, D.

H. Loisel, D. Stramski, B. G. Mitchell, F. Fell, V. Fournier-Sicre, B. Lemasle, M. Babin, “Comparison of the ocean inherent optical properties obtained from measurements and inverse modeling,” Appl. Opt. 40, 2384–2397 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Stramski, D. A. Kiefer, “Light scattering by microorganisms in the open ocean,” Prog. Oceanogr. 28, 343–383 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, D. Stramski, “Spectral absorption coefficients of living phytoplankton and nonalgal biogenous matter: a comparison between the Peru upwelling area and the Sargasso Sea,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 35, 562–582 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Stuart, V.

S. Sathyendranath, G. Cota, V. Stuart, H. Maass, T. Platt, “Remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments: a comparison of empirical and theoretical approaches,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 22, 249–273 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sundman, L. K.

Ulloa, O.

G. Alarcon, O. Ulloa, G. Yuras, V. Montecino, G. Pizarro, “Phytoplankton pigment concentration off northern and central Chile: comparison between estimates from in situ remote sensing reflectance and SeaWiFS,” presented at the Ocean Optics XV meeting, Monaco, 16–20 October 2000.

von Bremen, L.

A. Macke, D. L. Mitchell, L. von Bremen, “Monte Carlo radiative transfer calculations for inhomogeneous mixed phase clouds,” Phys. Chem. Earth B 24, 237–241 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Werdell, P. J.

P. J. Werdell, S. W. Bailey, G. S. Fargion, “SeaBASS data protocols and policy,” in Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision 2, G. S. Fargion, J. L. Mueller, eds. NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-209966 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000), pp. 170–172.

Yuras, G.

G. Alarcon, O. Ulloa, G. Yuras, V. Montecino, G. Pizarro, “Phytoplankton pigment concentration off northern and central Chile: comparison between estimates from in situ remote sensing reflectance and SeaWiFS,” presented at the Ocean Optics XV meeting, Monaco, 16–20 October 2000.

Zanefeld, J. R.

A. Bricaud, C. Roesler, J. R. Zanefeld, “In situ methods for measuring the inherent optical properties of ocean waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 393–410 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zanefeld, J. R. V.

A. H. Barnard, W. S. Pegau, J. R. V. Zanefeld, “Global relationships of the inherent optical properties of the oceans,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,955–24,968 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Boundary-Layer Meteorol.

A. Morel, “In-water and remote measurements of ocean color,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 18, 177–201 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Global Biogeochem. Cycles

A. Oschlies, V. Garcon, “An eddy-permitting coupled physical-biological model of the North Atlantic. I. Sensitivity to advection numerics and mixed layer physics,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 13, 135–160 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Oschlies, W. Koeve, V. Garcon, “An eddy-permitting coupled physical-biological model of the North Atlantic. II. Ecosystem dynamics and comparison with satellite and JGOFS local studies data,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 14, 499–523 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Remote Sens.

O. A. Bukin, A. N. Pavlov, M. S. Permyakov, A. Yu. Major, O. G. Konstantinov, A. V. Mallenok, S. A. Ogay, “Continuous measurements of chlorophyll-a concentration in the Pacific Ocean by shipborne laser fluorometer and radiometer: comparison with SeaWiFS data,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 22, 415–427 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Sathyendranath, G. Cota, V. Stuart, H. Maass, T. Platt, “Remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments: a comparison of empirical and theoretical approaches,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 22, 249–273 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

F. E. Hoge, P. E. Lyon, “Satellite retrieval of inherent optical properties by linear matrix inversion of oceanic radiance models: an analysis of model and radiance measurement errors,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 16,631–16,648 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Barnard, W. S. Pegau, J. R. V. Zanefeld, “Global relationships of the inherent optical properties of the oceans,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,955–24,968 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, S. Maritorena, “Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: a reappraisal,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7163–7180 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, “Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogeneous matter content (case I waters),” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,749–10,768 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

E. Aas, N. K. Højerslev, “Analysis of underwater radiance observations: apparent optical properties and analytic functions describing the angular radiance distribution,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 8015–8024 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kharu, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,937–24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceanogr.

L. Prieur, S. Sathyendranath, “An optical classification of coastal and oceanic waters based on specific absorption curves of phytoplankton pigments, dissolved organic matter, and other particulate materials,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 671–689 (1981).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, C. Roesler, J. R. Zanefeld, “In situ methods for measuring the inherent optical properties of ocean waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 393–410 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, K. L. Carder, “Modeling in situ phytoplankton absorption from total absorption-spectra in productive inland marine waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1510–1523 (1989).
[CrossRef]

R. Iturriga, D. Siegel, “Microphotometric characterization of phytoplankton and detrital absorption properties in the Sargasso Sea,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1706–1726 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, D. Stramski, “Spectral absorption coefficients of living phytoplankton and nonalgal biogenous matter: a comparison between the Peru upwelling area and the Sargasso Sea,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 35, 562–582 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Garver, D. A. Siegel, B. G. Mitchell, “Variability in near-surface particulate absorption spectra: what can a satellite ocean color imager see?” Limnol. Oceanogr. 39, 1349–1367 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Chem. Earth B

A. Macke, D. L. Mitchell, L. von Bremen, “Monte Carlo radiative transfer calculations for inhomogeneous mixed phase clouds,” Phys. Chem. Earth B 24, 237–241 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Oceanogr.

D. Stramski, D. A. Kiefer, “Light scattering by microorganisms in the open ocean,” Prog. Oceanogr. 28, 343–383 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other

V. I. Haltrin, G. Kattawar, “Light fields with Raman scattering and fluorescence in sea water,” Tech. Rep. (Texas AM University, College Station, Tex., 1991).

T. Petzold, “Volume scattering functions for selected ocean waters,” SIO Ref 72-78 (Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, Calif., 1972).

O. V. Kopelevich, “Small-parameter model of optical properties of sea water,” in Physical Ocean Optics, A. S. Monin, ed., Vol. 1 of Ocean Optics (NaukaMoscow, 1983), Chap. 8.

P. J. Werdell, S. W. Bailey, G. S. Fargion, “SeaBASS data protocols and policy,” in Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision 2, G. S. Fargion, J. L. Mueller, eds. NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-209966 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000), pp. 170–172.

G. I. Marchuk, G. A. Mikhailov, R. D. Nazareliev, R. A. Darbinjan, B. A. Kargin, B. S. Elepov, The Monte Carlo Methods in Atmospheric Optics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1980).

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, C. R. McClain, in “An overview of SeaWiFS and Ocean Color,” S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds., NASA Tech. Mem. 1045661, (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).

C. Y. Omachi, C. A. E. Garcia, “Analysis of empirical algorithms of surface chlorophyll-a for SeaWiFS in the southwestern Atlantic ocean,” presented at the Ocean Optics XV meeting, Monaco, 16–20 October 2000.

G. Alarcon, O. Ulloa, G. Yuras, V. Montecino, G. Pizarro, “Phytoplankton pigment concentration off northern and central Chile: comparison between estimates from in situ remote sensing reflectance and SeaWiFS,” presented at the Ocean Optics XV meeting, Monaco, 16–20 October 2000.

H. R. Gordon, A. Morel, Remote Assessment of Ocean Color for Interpretation of Satellite Visible Imagery: A Review, Vol. 4 of Lecture Notes on Coastal and Estuarine Studies (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1983), p. 114.

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