Abstract

Version 3 of the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment data set for some 30 trace and minor gas profiles is available. From the IR solar-absorption spectra measured during four Space Shuttle missions (in 1985, 1992, 1993, and 1994), profiles from more than 350 occultations were retrieved from the upper troposphere to the lower mesosphere. Previous results were unreliable for tropospheric retrievals, but with a new global-fitting algorithm profiles are reliably returned down to altitudes as low as 6.5 km (clouds permitting) and include notably improved retrievals of H2O, CO, and other species. Results for stratospheric water are more consistent across the ATMOS spectral filters and do not indicate a net consumption of H2 in the upper stratosphere. A new sulfuric-acid aerosol product is described. An overview of ATMOS Version 3 processing is presented with a discussion of estimated uncertainties. Differences between these Version 3 and previously reported Version 2 ATMOS results are discussed. Retrievals are available at http://atmos.jpl.nasa.gov/atmos.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2002 (1)

H. A. Michelsen, G. L. Manney, F. W. Irion, G. C. Toon, M. R. Gunson, C. P. Rinsland, R. Zander, E. Mahieu, M. J. Newchurch, P. N. Purcell, E. E. Remsberg, J. M. Russell, H. C. Pumphrey, J. W. Waters, R. M. Bevilacqua, K. K. Kelly, E. J. Hinsta, E. M. Weinstock, E.-W. Chiou, W. P. Chu, M. P. McCormick, C. R. Webster, “ATMOS Version 3 water vapor measurements: comparisons with ATMOS Version 2 retrievals and observations from two ER-2 Lyman-α hygrometers, MkIV, HALOE, SAGE II, MAS, and MLS,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 10.1029/2001JD000587 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

K. H. Rosenlof, S. J. Oltmans, D. Kley, J. M. Russell, E.-W. Chiou, W. P. Chu, D. G. Johnson, K. K. Kelly, H. A. Michelsen, G. E. Nedoluha, E. E. Remsberg, G. C. Toon, M. P. McCormick, “Stratospheric water vapor increases over the past half-century,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 1195–1198 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, R. M. Bevilacqua, M. R. Gunson, F. W. Irion, N. J. Livesey, J. Oberheide, M. Riese, J. M. Russell, G. C. Toon, J. M. Zawodny, “Comparison of ozone observations in early November 1994 in the context of meterological variability,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 9923–9943 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Eldering, F. W. Irion, A. Y. Chang, M. R. Gunson, F. P. Mills, H. M. Steele, “Vertical profiles of aerosol volume from high-spectral-resolution infrared transmission measurements. I. Methodology,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3082–3091 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (5)

C. R. Webster, H. A. Michelsen, M. R. Gunson, J. J. Margitan, J. M. Russell, G. C. Toon, W. A. Traub, “Response of lower stratospheric HCl/Cly to volcanic aerosol: observations from aircraft balloon, Space Shuttle, and satellite instruments,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 11,711–11,719 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. B. Osterman, F. W. Irion, B. Sen, R. Zander, E. Mahieu, M. R. Gunson, “Stratospheric CO at tropical and mid-latitudes: ATMOS measurements and photochemical steady-state model calculations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 1395–1398 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, F. W. Irion, G. C. Toon, M. R. Gunson, A. E. Roche, “Lamination and polar vortex development in fall from ATMOS long-lived trace gases observed during November 1994,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 29,023–29,038 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Michelsen, F. W. Irion, G. L. Manney, G. C. Toon, M. R. Gunson, “Features and trends in Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) Version 3 stratospheric water vapor and methane measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 22,713–22,724 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Nikitin, J. P. Champion, V. G. Tyuterev, L. R. Brown, G. Mellau, M. Lock, “The infrared spectrum of CH3D between 900 and 3200 cm-1: extended assignment and modeling,” J. Mol. Struct. 517, 1–24 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (4)

A. Goldman, C. Paton-Walsh, W. Bell, G. C. Toon, J.-F. Blavier, B. Sen, M. T. Coffey, J. W. Hannigan, W. G. Mankin, “Network for the detection of stratospheric change Fourier-transform infrared intercomparison at Table Mountain Facility, November 1996,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 30481–30503 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Michelsen, C. R. Webster, G. L. Manney, D. C. Scott, J. J. Margitan, R. D. May, F. W. Irion, M. R. Gunson, J. M. Russell, C. M. Spivakovsky, “Maintenance of high HCl/Cly and NOx/NOy in the Antarctic vortex: a chemical signature of confinement during spring,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 26,419–26,436 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Toon, J.-F. Blavier, B. Sen, J. J. Margitan, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, D. Fahey, R. Gao, L. Del Negro, M. Proffitt, J. Elkins, P. A. Romashkin, D. F. Hurst, S. Oltmans, E. Atlas, S. Schauffler, F. Flocke, T. P. Bui, R. M. Stimpfle, G. P. Bonne, P. B. Voss, R. C. Cohen, “Comparison of MkIV balloon and ER-2 aircraft measurements of atmospheric trace gases,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 26,779–26,790 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. L. Santee, M. R. Gunson, F. W. Irion, A. E. Roche, N. J. Livesey, “Polar vortex dynamics during spring and fall diagnosed using trace gas observations from the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 18,841–18,866 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (4)

A. Goldman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Perrin, J. M. Flaud, “HNO3 line parameters: 1996 HITRAN update and new results,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 851–861 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Sen, G. C. Toon, G. B. Osterman, J.-F. Blavier, J. J. Margitan, R. J. Salawitch, “Measurements of reactive nitrogen in the stratosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 3571–3585 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Michelsen, G. L. Manney, M. R. Gunson, R. Zander, “Correlations of stratospheric abundances of NOy, O3, N2O and CH4 derived from ATMOS measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 28,347–28,359 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

L. W. Thomason, L. R. Poole, T. Deshler, “A global climatology of stratospheric aerosol surface area density deduced from Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II measurements: 1984–1994,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 8967–8976 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Lambert, R. G. Grainger, C. D. Rodgers, F. W. Taylor, J. L. Mergenthaler, J. B. Kumer, S. T. Massie, “Global evolution of the Mt Pinatubo volcanic aerosols observed by the infrared limb-sounding instruments CLAES and ISAMS on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 1495–1512 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Yung, A. Y. T. Lee, F. W. Irion, W. B. DeMore, J. Wen, “Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere: isotope exchange with ozone and its use as a tracer in the middle atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 10,857–10,866 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (11)

S. T. Massie, T. Deshler, G. E. Thomas, J. L. Mergenthaler, J. M. Russell, “Evolution of the infrared properties of the Mount Pinatubo aerosol cloud over Laramie, Wyoming,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 23,007–23,019 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18,745–18,763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Zander, E. Mahieu, M. R. Gunson, M. C. Abrams, A. Y. Chang, M. Abbas, C. Aellig, A. Engel, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, N. Kampfer, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, “The 1994 northern mid-latitude budget of stratospheric chlorine derived from ATMOS/ATLAS-3 observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2357–2360 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Y. Chang, R. J. Salawitch, H. A. Michelsen, M. R. Gunson, M. C. Abrams, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, J. W. Elkins, G. S. Dutton, C. M. Volk, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, D. W. Fahey, R. S. Gao, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, R. M. Stimpfle, D. W. Kohn, M. H. Proffitt, J. J. Margitan, K. R. Chan, M. M. Abbas, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, G. L. Manney, M. J. Newchurch, G. P. Stiller, “A comparison of measurements from ATMOS and instruments aboard the ER-2 aircraft: halogenated gases,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2393–2396 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Elkins, D. W. Fahey, J. M. Gilligan, G. S. Dutton, T. J. Baring, C. M. Volk, R. E. Dunn, R. C. Myers, S. A. Montzka, P. R. Wamsley, A. H. Hayden, J. H. Butler, T. M. Thompson, T. H. Swanson, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. C. Novelli, D. F. Hurst, J. M. Lobert, S. J. Ciciora, R. J. McLaughlin, T. L. Thompson, R. H. Winkler, P. J. Fraser, L. P. Steele, M. P. Lucarelli, “Airborne gas chromatograph for in situ measurements of long-lived species in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 347–350 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Abrams, A. Y. Chang, M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, G. P. Stiller, R. Zander, “On the assessment and uncertainty of atmospheric trace gas burden measurements with high resolution infrared solar occultation spectra from space by the ATMOS experiment,” Geophys., Res. Lett. 23, 2337–2340 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Abbas, M. R. Gunson, M. J. Newchurch, H. A. Michelsen, R. J. Salawitch, M. Allen, M. C. Abrams, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, E. J. Moyer, R. Nagaraju, C. P. Rinsland, G. P. Stiller, R. Zander, “The hydrogen budget of the stratosphere inferred from ATMOS measurements of H2O and CH4,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2405–2408 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Newchurch, M. Allen, M. R. Gunson, R. J. Salawitch, G. B. Collins, K. H. Huston, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, A. Y. Chang, D. W. Fahey, R. S. Gao, F. W. Irion, M. Lowenstein, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, J. R. Podolske, C. P. Rinsland, R. Zander, “Stratospheric NO and NO2 abundances from ATMOS solar-occultation measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2373–2376 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Abrams, M. R. Gunson, A. Y. Chang, C. P. Rinsland, R. Zander, “Remote sensing of the Earth’s atmosphere from space with high-resolution Fourier-transform spectroscopy: development and methodology of data processing for the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy experiment,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2774–2786 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. R. Brown, M. R. Gunson, R. A. Toth, F. W. Irion, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, “The 1995 Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) linelist,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2828–2848 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

G. P. Stiller, M. R. Gunson, L. L. Lowes, M. C. Abrams, O. F. Raper, C. B. Farmer, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, “Stratospheric and mesospheric pressure-temperature profiles from rotational analysis of CO2 lines in atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy/ATLAS 1 infrared solar occultation spectra,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 3107–3117 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

M. C. Abrams, G. C. Toon, R. A. Schindler, “Practical example for the correction of Fourier-transform spectra for detector nonlinearity,” Appl. Opt. 33, 6307–6314 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Gunson, M. C. Abrams, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, M. K. W. Ko, N. D. Sze, D. K. Weisenstein, “Increase in levels of stratospheric chlorine and fluorine loading between 1985 and 1992,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 2223–2226 (1994).

1992 (2)

R. Zander, M. R. Gunson, C. B. Farmer, C. P. Rinsland, F. W. Irion, E. Mahieu, “The 1985 chlorine and fluorine inventories in the stratosphere based on ATMOS observations at 30° north latitude,” J. Atmos. Chem. 15, 171–186 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. López-Puertas, M. A. López-Valverde, C. P. Rinsland, M. R. Gunson, “Analysis of the upper atmospheric CO2(ν2) vibrational temperatures retrieved from ATMOS/Spacelab 3 observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 20469–20478 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

1990 (1)

M. R. Gunson, C. B. Farmer, R. H. Norton, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, J. H. Shaw, B.-C. Gao, “Measurements of CH4, N2O, CO, H2O, and O3 in the middle atmosphere by the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy experiment on Spacelab 3,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 13867–13882 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Abbas, M.

R. Zander, E. Mahieu, M. R. Gunson, M. C. Abrams, A. Y. Chang, M. Abbas, C. Aellig, A. Engel, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, N. Kampfer, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, “The 1994 northern mid-latitude budget of stratospheric chlorine derived from ATMOS/ATLAS-3 observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2357–2360 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Abbas, M. M.

M. J. Newchurch, M. Allen, M. R. Gunson, R. J. Salawitch, G. B. Collins, K. H. Huston, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, A. Y. Chang, D. W. Fahey, R. S. Gao, F. W. Irion, M. Lowenstein, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, J. R. Podolske, C. P. Rinsland, R. Zander, “Stratospheric NO and NO2 abundances from ATMOS solar-occultation measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2373–2376 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Abrams, A. Y. Chang, M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, G. P. Stiller, R. Zander, “On the assessment and uncertainty of atmospheric trace gas burden measurements with high resolution infrared solar occultation spectra from space by the ATMOS experiment,” Geophys., Res. Lett. 23, 2337–2340 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Y. Chang, R. J. Salawitch, H. A. Michelsen, M. R. Gunson, M. C. Abrams, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, J. W. Elkins, G. S. Dutton, C. M. Volk, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, D. W. Fahey, R. S. Gao, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, R. M. Stimpfle, D. W. Kohn, M. H. Proffitt, J. J. Margitan, K. R. Chan, M. M. Abbas, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, G. L. Manney, M. J. Newchurch, G. P. Stiller, “A comparison of measurements from ATMOS and instruments aboard the ER-2 aircraft: halogenated gases,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2393–2396 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Abbas, M. R. Gunson, M. J. Newchurch, H. A. Michelsen, R. J. Salawitch, M. Allen, M. C. Abrams, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, E. J. Moyer, R. Nagaraju, C. P. Rinsland, G. P. Stiller, R. Zander, “The hydrogen budget of the stratosphere inferred from ATMOS measurements of H2O and CH4,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2405–2408 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Abrams, M. C.

M. M. Abbas, M. R. Gunson, M. J. Newchurch, H. A. Michelsen, R. J. Salawitch, M. Allen, M. C. Abrams, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, E. J. Moyer, R. Nagaraju, C. P. Rinsland, G. P. Stiller, R. Zander, “The hydrogen budget of the stratosphere inferred from ATMOS measurements of H2O and CH4,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2405–2408 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Abrams, M. R. Gunson, A. Y. Chang, C. P. Rinsland, R. Zander, “Remote sensing of the Earth’s atmosphere from space with high-resolution Fourier-transform spectroscopy: development and methodology of data processing for the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy experiment,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2774–2786 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Y. Chang, R. J. Salawitch, H. A. Michelsen, M. R. Gunson, M. C. Abrams, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, J. W. Elkins, G. S. Dutton, C. M. Volk, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, D. W. Fahey, R. S. Gao, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, R. M. Stimpfle, D. W. Kohn, M. H. Proffitt, J. J. Margitan, K. R. Chan, M. M. Abbas, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, G. L. Manney, M. J. Newchurch, G. P. Stiller, “A comparison of measurements from ATMOS and instruments aboard the ER-2 aircraft: halogenated gases,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2393–2396 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Abrams, A. Y. Chang, M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, G. P. Stiller, R. Zander, “On the assessment and uncertainty of atmospheric trace gas burden measurements with high resolution infrared solar occultation spectra from space by the ATMOS experiment,” Geophys., Res. Lett. 23, 2337–2340 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Newchurch, M. Allen, M. R. Gunson, R. J. Salawitch, G. B. Collins, K. H. Huston, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, A. Y. Chang, D. W. Fahey, R. S. Gao, F. W. Irion, M. Lowenstein, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, J. R. Podolske, C. P. Rinsland, R. Zander, “Stratospheric NO and NO2 abundances from ATMOS solar-occultation measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2373–2376 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Zander, E. Mahieu, M. R. Gunson, M. C. Abrams, A. Y. Chang, M. Abbas, C. Aellig, A. Engel, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, N. Kampfer, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, “The 1994 northern mid-latitude budget of stratospheric chlorine derived from ATMOS/ATLAS-3 observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2357–2360 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Stiller, M. R. Gunson, L. L. Lowes, M. C. Abrams, O. F. Raper, C. B. Farmer, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, “Stratospheric and mesospheric pressure-temperature profiles from rotational analysis of CO2 lines in atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy/ATLAS 1 infrared solar occultation spectra,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 3107–3117 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Abrams, G. C. Toon, R. A. Schindler, “Practical example for the correction of Fourier-transform spectra for detector nonlinearity,” Appl. Opt. 33, 6307–6314 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Gunson, M. C. Abrams, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, M. K. W. Ko, N. D. Sze, D. K. Weisenstein, “Increase in levels of stratospheric chlorine and fluorine loading between 1985 and 1992,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 2223–2226 (1994).

Adrian, G. P.

R. Zander, Ph. Demoulin, E. Mahieu, G. P. Adrian, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, “ESMOSII/NDSC IR spectral fitting algorithms intercomparison exercise,” in Proceedings of the Atmospheric Spectroscopy Applications Workshop, A. Barbe, L. Rothman, eds. (University of Reims Champaigne, Ardenne, 1993).

Aellig, C.

R. Zander, E. Mahieu, M. R. Gunson, M. C. Abrams, A. Y. Chang, M. Abbas, C. Aellig, A. Engel, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, N. Kampfer, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, “The 1994 northern mid-latitude budget of stratospheric chlorine derived from ATMOS/ATLAS-3 observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2357–2360 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Allen, M.

M. J. Newchurch, M. Allen, M. R. Gunson, R. J. Salawitch, G. B. Collins, K. H. Huston, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, A. Y. Chang, D. W. Fahey, R. S. Gao, F. W. Irion, M. Lowenstein, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, J. R. Podolske, C. P. Rinsland, R. Zander, “Stratospheric NO and NO2 abundances from ATMOS solar-occultation measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2373–2376 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Abbas, M. R. Gunson, M. J. Newchurch, H. A. Michelsen, R. J. Salawitch, M. Allen, M. C. Abrams, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, E. J. Moyer, R. Nagaraju, C. P. Rinsland, G. P. Stiller, R. Zander, “The hydrogen budget of the stratosphere inferred from ATMOS measurements of H2O and CH4,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2405–2408 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Atlas, E.

G. C. Toon, J.-F. Blavier, B. Sen, J. J. Margitan, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, D. Fahey, R. Gao, L. Del Negro, M. Proffitt, J. Elkins, P. A. Romashkin, D. F. Hurst, S. Oltmans, E. Atlas, S. Schauffler, F. Flocke, T. P. Bui, R. M. Stimpfle, G. P. Bonne, P. B. Voss, R. C. Cohen, “Comparison of MkIV balloon and ER-2 aircraft measurements of atmospheric trace gases,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 26,779–26,790 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Baring, T. J.

J. W. Elkins, D. W. Fahey, J. M. Gilligan, G. S. Dutton, T. J. Baring, C. M. Volk, R. E. Dunn, R. C. Myers, S. A. Montzka, P. R. Wamsley, A. H. Hayden, J. H. Butler, T. M. Thompson, T. H. Swanson, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. C. Novelli, D. F. Hurst, J. M. Lobert, S. J. Ciciora, R. J. McLaughlin, T. L. Thompson, R. H. Winkler, P. J. Fraser, L. P. Steele, M. P. Lucarelli, “Airborne gas chromatograph for in situ measurements of long-lived species in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 347–350 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bauman, J. J.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18,745–18,763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bell, W.

A. Goldman, C. Paton-Walsh, W. Bell, G. C. Toon, J.-F. Blavier, B. Sen, M. T. Coffey, J. W. Hannigan, W. G. Mankin, “Network for the detection of stratospheric change Fourier-transform infrared intercomparison at Table Mountain Facility, November 1996,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 30481–30503 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bergstrom, R. W.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18,745–18,763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bevilacqua, R. M.

H. A. Michelsen, G. L. Manney, F. W. Irion, G. C. Toon, M. R. Gunson, C. P. Rinsland, R. Zander, E. Mahieu, M. J. Newchurch, P. N. Purcell, E. E. Remsberg, J. M. Russell, H. C. Pumphrey, J. W. Waters, R. M. Bevilacqua, K. K. Kelly, E. J. Hinsta, E. M. Weinstock, E.-W. Chiou, W. P. Chu, M. P. McCormick, C. R. Webster, “ATMOS Version 3 water vapor measurements: comparisons with ATMOS Version 2 retrievals and observations from two ER-2 Lyman-α hygrometers, MkIV, HALOE, SAGE II, MAS, and MLS,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 10.1029/2001JD000587 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, R. M. Bevilacqua, M. R. Gunson, F. W. Irion, N. J. Livesey, J. Oberheide, M. Riese, J. M. Russell, G. C. Toon, J. M. Zawodny, “Comparison of ozone observations in early November 1994 in the context of meterological variability,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 9923–9943 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Blavier, J.-F.

A. Goldman, C. Paton-Walsh, W. Bell, G. C. Toon, J.-F. Blavier, B. Sen, M. T. Coffey, J. W. Hannigan, W. G. Mankin, “Network for the detection of stratospheric change Fourier-transform infrared intercomparison at Table Mountain Facility, November 1996,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 30481–30503 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Toon, J.-F. Blavier, B. Sen, J. J. Margitan, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, D. Fahey, R. Gao, L. Del Negro, M. Proffitt, J. Elkins, P. A. Romashkin, D. F. Hurst, S. Oltmans, E. Atlas, S. Schauffler, F. Flocke, T. P. Bui, R. M. Stimpfle, G. P. Bonne, P. B. Voss, R. C. Cohen, “Comparison of MkIV balloon and ER-2 aircraft measurements of atmospheric trace gases,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 26,779–26,790 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Sen, G. C. Toon, G. B. Osterman, J.-F. Blavier, J. J. Margitan, R. J. Salawitch, “Measurements of reactive nitrogen in the stratosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 3571–3585 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Toon, J.-F. Blavier, B. Sen are preparing a manuscript titled, “Balloon-borne FTIR solar absorption spectrometry for measurements of atmospheric composition.”

Bonne, G. P.

G. C. Toon, J.-F. Blavier, B. Sen, J. J. Margitan, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, D. Fahey, R. Gao, L. Del Negro, M. Proffitt, J. Elkins, P. A. Romashkin, D. F. Hurst, S. Oltmans, E. Atlas, S. Schauffler, F. Flocke, T. P. Bui, R. M. Stimpfle, G. P. Bonne, P. B. Voss, R. C. Cohen, “Comparison of MkIV balloon and ER-2 aircraft measurements of atmospheric trace gases,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 26,779–26,790 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brooks, S. L.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18,745–18,763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Brown, L. R.

A. Nikitin, J. P. Champion, V. G. Tyuterev, L. R. Brown, G. Mellau, M. Lock, “The infrared spectrum of CH3D between 900 and 3200 cm-1: extended assignment and modeling,” J. Mol. Struct. 517, 1–24 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Brown, M. R. Gunson, R. A. Toth, F. W. Irion, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, “The 1995 Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) linelist,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2828–2848 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, T. L.

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bui, T. P.

G. C. Toon, J.-F. Blavier, B. Sen, J. J. Margitan, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, D. Fahey, R. Gao, L. Del Negro, M. Proffitt, J. Elkins, P. A. Romashkin, D. F. Hurst, S. Oltmans, E. Atlas, S. Schauffler, F. Flocke, T. P. Bui, R. M. Stimpfle, G. P. Bonne, P. B. Voss, R. C. Cohen, “Comparison of MkIV balloon and ER-2 aircraft measurements of atmospheric trace gases,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 26,779–26,790 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Butler, J. H.

J. W. Elkins, D. W. Fahey, J. M. Gilligan, G. S. Dutton, T. J. Baring, C. M. Volk, R. E. Dunn, R. C. Myers, S. A. Montzka, P. R. Wamsley, A. H. Hayden, J. H. Butler, T. M. Thompson, T. H. Swanson, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. C. Novelli, D. F. Hurst, J. M. Lobert, S. J. Ciciora, R. J. McLaughlin, T. L. Thompson, R. H. Winkler, P. J. Fraser, L. P. Steele, M. P. Lucarelli, “Airborne gas chromatograph for in situ measurements of long-lived species in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 347–350 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Camy-Peyret, C.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Champion, J. P.

A. Nikitin, J. P. Champion, V. G. Tyuterev, L. R. Brown, G. Mellau, M. Lock, “The infrared spectrum of CH3D between 900 and 3200 cm-1: extended assignment and modeling,” J. Mol. Struct. 517, 1–24 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chan, K. R.

A. Y. Chang, R. J. Salawitch, H. A. Michelsen, M. R. Gunson, M. C. Abrams, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, J. W. Elkins, G. S. Dutton, C. M. Volk, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, D. W. Fahey, R. S. Gao, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, R. M. Stimpfle, D. W. Kohn, M. H. Proffitt, J. J. Margitan, K. R. Chan, M. M. Abbas, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, G. L. Manney, M. J. Newchurch, G. P. Stiller, “A comparison of measurements from ATMOS and instruments aboard the ER-2 aircraft: halogenated gases,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2393–2396 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chance, K. V.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chang, A. Y.

A. Eldering, F. W. Irion, A. Y. Chang, M. R. Gunson, F. P. Mills, H. M. Steele, “Vertical profiles of aerosol volume from high-spectral-resolution infrared transmission measurements. I. Methodology,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3082–3091 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Y. Chang, R. J. Salawitch, H. A. Michelsen, M. R. Gunson, M. C. Abrams, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, J. W. Elkins, G. S. Dutton, C. M. Volk, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, D. W. Fahey, R. S. Gao, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, R. M. Stimpfle, D. W. Kohn, M. H. Proffitt, J. J. Margitan, K. R. Chan, M. M. Abbas, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, G. L. Manney, M. J. Newchurch, G. P. Stiller, “A comparison of measurements from ATMOS and instruments aboard the ER-2 aircraft: halogenated gases,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2393–2396 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Abrams, M. R. Gunson, A. Y. Chang, C. P. Rinsland, R. Zander, “Remote sensing of the Earth’s atmosphere from space with high-resolution Fourier-transform spectroscopy: development and methodology of data processing for the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy experiment,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2774–2786 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. M. Abbas, M. R. Gunson, M. J. Newchurch, H. A. Michelsen, R. J. Salawitch, M. Allen, M. C. Abrams, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, E. J. Moyer, R. Nagaraju, C. P. Rinsland, G. P. Stiller, R. Zander, “The hydrogen budget of the stratosphere inferred from ATMOS measurements of H2O and CH4,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2405–2408 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Zander, E. Mahieu, M. R. Gunson, M. C. Abrams, A. Y. Chang, M. Abbas, C. Aellig, A. Engel, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, N. Kampfer, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, “The 1994 northern mid-latitude budget of stratospheric chlorine derived from ATMOS/ATLAS-3 observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2357–2360 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Newchurch, M. Allen, M. R. Gunson, R. J. Salawitch, G. B. Collins, K. H. Huston, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, A. Y. Chang, D. W. Fahey, R. S. Gao, F. W. Irion, M. Lowenstein, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, J. R. Podolske, C. P. Rinsland, R. Zander, “Stratospheric NO and NO2 abundances from ATMOS solar-occultation measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2373–2376 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Abrams, A. Y. Chang, M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, G. P. Stiller, R. Zander, “On the assessment and uncertainty of atmospheric trace gas burden measurements with high resolution infrared solar occultation spectra from space by the ATMOS experiment,” Geophys., Res. Lett. 23, 2337–2340 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chiou, E.-W.

H. A. Michelsen, G. L. Manney, F. W. Irion, G. C. Toon, M. R. Gunson, C. P. Rinsland, R. Zander, E. Mahieu, M. J. Newchurch, P. N. Purcell, E. E. Remsberg, J. M. Russell, H. C. Pumphrey, J. W. Waters, R. M. Bevilacqua, K. K. Kelly, E. J. Hinsta, E. M. Weinstock, E.-W. Chiou, W. P. Chu, M. P. McCormick, C. R. Webster, “ATMOS Version 3 water vapor measurements: comparisons with ATMOS Version 2 retrievals and observations from two ER-2 Lyman-α hygrometers, MkIV, HALOE, SAGE II, MAS, and MLS,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 10.1029/2001JD000587 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Rosenlof, S. J. Oltmans, D. Kley, J. M. Russell, E.-W. Chiou, W. P. Chu, D. G. Johnson, K. K. Kelly, H. A. Michelsen, G. E. Nedoluha, E. E. Remsberg, G. C. Toon, M. P. McCormick, “Stratospheric water vapor increases over the past half-century,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 1195–1198 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chu, W. P.

H. A. Michelsen, G. L. Manney, F. W. Irion, G. C. Toon, M. R. Gunson, C. P. Rinsland, R. Zander, E. Mahieu, M. J. Newchurch, P. N. Purcell, E. E. Remsberg, J. M. Russell, H. C. Pumphrey, J. W. Waters, R. M. Bevilacqua, K. K. Kelly, E. J. Hinsta, E. M. Weinstock, E.-W. Chiou, W. P. Chu, M. P. McCormick, C. R. Webster, “ATMOS Version 3 water vapor measurements: comparisons with ATMOS Version 2 retrievals and observations from two ER-2 Lyman-α hygrometers, MkIV, HALOE, SAGE II, MAS, and MLS,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 10.1029/2001JD000587 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Rosenlof, S. J. Oltmans, D. Kley, J. M. Russell, E.-W. Chiou, W. P. Chu, D. G. Johnson, K. K. Kelly, H. A. Michelsen, G. E. Nedoluha, E. E. Remsberg, G. C. Toon, M. P. McCormick, “Stratospheric water vapor increases over the past half-century,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 1195–1198 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ciciora, S. J.

J. W. Elkins, D. W. Fahey, J. M. Gilligan, G. S. Dutton, T. J. Baring, C. M. Volk, R. E. Dunn, R. C. Myers, S. A. Montzka, P. R. Wamsley, A. H. Hayden, J. H. Butler, T. M. Thompson, T. H. Swanson, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. C. Novelli, D. F. Hurst, J. M. Lobert, S. J. Ciciora, R. J. McLaughlin, T. L. Thompson, R. H. Winkler, P. J. Fraser, L. P. Steele, M. P. Lucarelli, “Airborne gas chromatograph for in situ measurements of long-lived species in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 347–350 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Coffey, M. T.

A. Goldman, C. Paton-Walsh, W. Bell, G. C. Toon, J.-F. Blavier, B. Sen, M. T. Coffey, J. W. Hannigan, W. G. Mankin, “Network for the detection of stratospheric change Fourier-transform infrared intercomparison at Table Mountain Facility, November 1996,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 30481–30503 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, R. C.

G. C. Toon, J.-F. Blavier, B. Sen, J. J. Margitan, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, D. Fahey, R. Gao, L. Del Negro, M. Proffitt, J. Elkins, P. A. Romashkin, D. F. Hurst, S. Oltmans, E. Atlas, S. Schauffler, F. Flocke, T. P. Bui, R. M. Stimpfle, G. P. Bonne, P. B. Voss, R. C. Cohen, “Comparison of MkIV balloon and ER-2 aircraft measurements of atmospheric trace gases,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 26,779–26,790 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Collins, G. B.

M. J. Newchurch, M. Allen, M. R. Gunson, R. J. Salawitch, G. B. Collins, K. H. Huston, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, A. Y. Chang, D. W. Fahey, R. S. Gao, F. W. Irion, M. Lowenstein, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, J. R. Podolske, C. P. Rinsland, R. Zander, “Stratospheric NO and NO2 abundances from ATMOS solar-occultation measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2373–2376 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dana, V.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Del Negro, L.

G. C. Toon, J.-F. Blavier, B. Sen, J. J. Margitan, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, D. Fahey, R. Gao, L. Del Negro, M. Proffitt, J. Elkins, P. A. Romashkin, D. F. Hurst, S. Oltmans, E. Atlas, S. Schauffler, F. Flocke, T. P. Bui, R. M. Stimpfle, G. P. Bonne, P. B. Voss, R. C. Cohen, “Comparison of MkIV balloon and ER-2 aircraft measurements of atmospheric trace gases,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 26,779–26,790 (1999).
[CrossRef]

DeMore, W. B.

Y. L. Yung, A. Y. T. Lee, F. W. Irion, W. B. DeMore, J. Wen, “Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere: isotope exchange with ozone and its use as a tracer in the middle atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 10,857–10,866 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Demoulin, Ph.

R. Zander, Ph. Demoulin, E. Mahieu, G. P. Adrian, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, “ESMOSII/NDSC IR spectral fitting algorithms intercomparison exercise,” in Proceedings of the Atmospheric Spectroscopy Applications Workshop, A. Barbe, L. Rothman, eds. (University of Reims Champaigne, Ardenne, 1993).

Deshler, T.

L. W. Thomason, L. R. Poole, T. Deshler, “A global climatology of stratospheric aerosol surface area density deduced from Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II measurements: 1984–1994,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 8967–8976 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18,745–18,763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Massie, T. Deshler, G. E. Thomas, J. L. Mergenthaler, J. M. Russell, “Evolution of the infrared properties of the Mount Pinatubo aerosol cloud over Laramie, Wyoming,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 23,007–23,019 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dlugokencky, E. J.

J. W. Elkins, D. W. Fahey, J. M. Gilligan, G. S. Dutton, T. J. Baring, C. M. Volk, R. E. Dunn, R. C. Myers, S. A. Montzka, P. R. Wamsley, A. H. Hayden, J. H. Butler, T. M. Thompson, T. H. Swanson, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. C. Novelli, D. F. Hurst, J. M. Lobert, S. J. Ciciora, R. J. McLaughlin, T. L. Thompson, R. H. Winkler, P. J. Fraser, L. P. Steele, M. P. Lucarelli, “Airborne gas chromatograph for in situ measurements of long-lived species in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 347–350 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dunn, R. E.

J. W. Elkins, D. W. Fahey, J. M. Gilligan, G. S. Dutton, T. J. Baring, C. M. Volk, R. E. Dunn, R. C. Myers, S. A. Montzka, P. R. Wamsley, A. H. Hayden, J. H. Butler, T. M. Thompson, T. H. Swanson, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. C. Novelli, D. F. Hurst, J. M. Lobert, S. J. Ciciora, R. J. McLaughlin, T. L. Thompson, R. H. Winkler, P. J. Fraser, L. P. Steele, M. P. Lucarelli, “Airborne gas chromatograph for in situ measurements of long-lived species in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 347–350 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dutton, E. G.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18,745–18,763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dutton, G. S.

J. W. Elkins, D. W. Fahey, J. M. Gilligan, G. S. Dutton, T. J. Baring, C. M. Volk, R. E. Dunn, R. C. Myers, S. A. Montzka, P. R. Wamsley, A. H. Hayden, J. H. Butler, T. M. Thompson, T. H. Swanson, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. C. Novelli, D. F. Hurst, J. M. Lobert, S. J. Ciciora, R. J. McLaughlin, T. L. Thompson, R. H. Winkler, P. J. Fraser, L. P. Steele, M. P. Lucarelli, “Airborne gas chromatograph for in situ measurements of long-lived species in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 347–350 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Y. Chang, R. J. Salawitch, H. A. Michelsen, M. R. Gunson, M. C. Abrams, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, J. W. Elkins, G. S. Dutton, C. M. Volk, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, D. W. Fahey, R. S. Gao, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, R. M. Stimpfle, D. W. Kohn, M. H. Proffitt, J. J. Margitan, K. R. Chan, M. M. Abbas, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, G. L. Manney, M. J. Newchurch, G. P. Stiller, “A comparison of measurements from ATMOS and instruments aboard the ER-2 aircraft: halogenated gases,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2393–2396 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Edwards, D. P.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Eldering, A.

Elkins, J.

G. C. Toon, J.-F. Blavier, B. Sen, J. J. Margitan, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, D. Fahey, R. Gao, L. Del Negro, M. Proffitt, J. Elkins, P. A. Romashkin, D. F. Hurst, S. Oltmans, E. Atlas, S. Schauffler, F. Flocke, T. P. Bui, R. M. Stimpfle, G. P. Bonne, P. B. Voss, R. C. Cohen, “Comparison of MkIV balloon and ER-2 aircraft measurements of atmospheric trace gases,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 26,779–26,790 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Elkins, J. W.

J. W. Elkins, D. W. Fahey, J. M. Gilligan, G. S. Dutton, T. J. Baring, C. M. Volk, R. E. Dunn, R. C. Myers, S. A. Montzka, P. R. Wamsley, A. H. Hayden, J. H. Butler, T. M. Thompson, T. H. Swanson, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. C. Novelli, D. F. Hurst, J. M. Lobert, S. J. Ciciora, R. J. McLaughlin, T. L. Thompson, R. H. Winkler, P. J. Fraser, L. P. Steele, M. P. Lucarelli, “Airborne gas chromatograph for in situ measurements of long-lived species in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 347–350 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Y. Chang, R. J. Salawitch, H. A. Michelsen, M. R. Gunson, M. C. Abrams, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, J. W. Elkins, G. S. Dutton, C. M. Volk, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, D. W. Fahey, R. S. Gao, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, R. M. Stimpfle, D. W. Kohn, M. H. Proffitt, J. J. Margitan, K. R. Chan, M. M. Abbas, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, G. L. Manney, M. J. Newchurch, G. P. Stiller, “A comparison of measurements from ATMOS and instruments aboard the ER-2 aircraft: halogenated gases,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2393–2396 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Engel, A.

R. Zander, E. Mahieu, M. R. Gunson, M. C. Abrams, A. Y. Chang, M. Abbas, C. Aellig, A. Engel, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, N. Kampfer, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, “The 1994 northern mid-latitude budget of stratospheric chlorine derived from ATMOS/ATLAS-3 observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2357–2360 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fahey, D.

G. C. Toon, J.-F. Blavier, B. Sen, J. J. Margitan, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, D. Fahey, R. Gao, L. Del Negro, M. Proffitt, J. Elkins, P. A. Romashkin, D. F. Hurst, S. Oltmans, E. Atlas, S. Schauffler, F. Flocke, T. P. Bui, R. M. Stimpfle, G. P. Bonne, P. B. Voss, R. C. Cohen, “Comparison of MkIV balloon and ER-2 aircraft measurements of atmospheric trace gases,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 26,779–26,790 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fahey, D. W.

J. W. Elkins, D. W. Fahey, J. M. Gilligan, G. S. Dutton, T. J. Baring, C. M. Volk, R. E. Dunn, R. C. Myers, S. A. Montzka, P. R. Wamsley, A. H. Hayden, J. H. Butler, T. M. Thompson, T. H. Swanson, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. C. Novelli, D. F. Hurst, J. M. Lobert, S. J. Ciciora, R. J. McLaughlin, T. L. Thompson, R. H. Winkler, P. J. Fraser, L. P. Steele, M. P. Lucarelli, “Airborne gas chromatograph for in situ measurements of long-lived species in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 347–350 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Y. Chang, R. J. Salawitch, H. A. Michelsen, M. R. Gunson, M. C. Abrams, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, J. W. Elkins, G. S. Dutton, C. M. Volk, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, D. W. Fahey, R. S. Gao, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, R. M. Stimpfle, D. W. Kohn, M. H. Proffitt, J. J. Margitan, K. R. Chan, M. M. Abbas, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, G. L. Manney, M. J. Newchurch, G. P. Stiller, “A comparison of measurements from ATMOS and instruments aboard the ER-2 aircraft: halogenated gases,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2393–2396 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Newchurch, M. Allen, M. R. Gunson, R. J. Salawitch, G. B. Collins, K. H. Huston, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, A. Y. Chang, D. W. Fahey, R. S. Gao, F. W. Irion, M. Lowenstein, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, J. R. Podolske, C. P. Rinsland, R. Zander, “Stratospheric NO and NO2 abundances from ATMOS solar-occultation measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2373–2376 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Farmer, C. B.

G. P. Stiller, M. R. Gunson, L. L. Lowes, M. C. Abrams, O. F. Raper, C. B. Farmer, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, “Stratospheric and mesospheric pressure-temperature profiles from rotational analysis of CO2 lines in atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy/ATLAS 1 infrared solar occultation spectra,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 3107–3117 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Zander, M. R. Gunson, C. B. Farmer, C. P. Rinsland, F. W. Irion, E. Mahieu, “The 1985 chlorine and fluorine inventories in the stratosphere based on ATMOS observations at 30° north latitude,” J. Atmos. Chem. 15, 171–186 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Gunson, C. B. Farmer, R. H. Norton, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, J. H. Shaw, B.-C. Gao, “Measurements of CH4, N2O, CO, H2O, and O3 in the middle atmosphere by the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy experiment on Spacelab 3,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 13867–13882 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Farmer, O. F. Raper, F. G. O’Callaghan, “Final report on the first flight of the ATMOS instrument during the Spacelab 3 mission, April 29 through May 6, 1985,” JPL publication 87–32 (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., 1987).

Flaud, J. M.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Goldman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Perrin, J. M. Flaud, “HNO3 line parameters: 1996 HITRAN update and new results,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 851–861 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Flocke, F.

G. C. Toon, J.-F. Blavier, B. Sen, J. J. Margitan, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, D. Fahey, R. Gao, L. Del Negro, M. Proffitt, J. Elkins, P. A. Romashkin, D. F. Hurst, S. Oltmans, E. Atlas, S. Schauffler, F. Flocke, T. P. Bui, R. M. Stimpfle, G. P. Bonne, P. B. Voss, R. C. Cohen, “Comparison of MkIV balloon and ER-2 aircraft measurements of atmospheric trace gases,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 26,779–26,790 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fraser, P. J.

J. W. Elkins, D. W. Fahey, J. M. Gilligan, G. S. Dutton, T. J. Baring, C. M. Volk, R. E. Dunn, R. C. Myers, S. A. Montzka, P. R. Wamsley, A. H. Hayden, J. H. Butler, T. M. Thompson, T. H. Swanson, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. C. Novelli, D. F. Hurst, J. M. Lobert, S. J. Ciciora, R. J. McLaughlin, T. L. Thompson, R. H. Winkler, P. J. Fraser, L. P. Steele, M. P. Lucarelli, “Airborne gas chromatograph for in situ measurements of long-lived species in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 347–350 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gao, B.-C.

M. R. Gunson, C. B. Farmer, R. H. Norton, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, J. H. Shaw, B.-C. Gao, “Measurements of CH4, N2O, CO, H2O, and O3 in the middle atmosphere by the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy experiment on Spacelab 3,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 13867–13882 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Gao, R.

G. C. Toon, J.-F. Blavier, B. Sen, J. J. Margitan, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, D. Fahey, R. Gao, L. Del Negro, M. Proffitt, J. Elkins, P. A. Romashkin, D. F. Hurst, S. Oltmans, E. Atlas, S. Schauffler, F. Flocke, T. P. Bui, R. M. Stimpfle, G. P. Bonne, P. B. Voss, R. C. Cohen, “Comparison of MkIV balloon and ER-2 aircraft measurements of atmospheric trace gases,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 26,779–26,790 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gao, R. S.

A. Y. Chang, R. J. Salawitch, H. A. Michelsen, M. R. Gunson, M. C. Abrams, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, J. W. Elkins, G. S. Dutton, C. M. Volk, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, D. W. Fahey, R. S. Gao, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, R. M. Stimpfle, D. W. Kohn, M. H. Proffitt, J. J. Margitan, K. R. Chan, M. M. Abbas, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, G. L. Manney, M. J. Newchurch, G. P. Stiller, “A comparison of measurements from ATMOS and instruments aboard the ER-2 aircraft: halogenated gases,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2393–2396 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Newchurch, M. Allen, M. R. Gunson, R. J. Salawitch, G. B. Collins, K. H. Huston, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, A. Y. Chang, D. W. Fahey, R. S. Gao, F. W. Irion, M. Lowenstein, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, J. R. Podolske, C. P. Rinsland, R. Zander, “Stratospheric NO and NO2 abundances from ATMOS solar-occultation measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2373–2376 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gilligan, J. M.

J. W. Elkins, D. W. Fahey, J. M. Gilligan, G. S. Dutton, T. J. Baring, C. M. Volk, R. E. Dunn, R. C. Myers, S. A. Montzka, P. R. Wamsley, A. H. Hayden, J. H. Butler, T. M. Thompson, T. H. Swanson, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. C. Novelli, D. F. Hurst, J. M. Lobert, S. J. Ciciora, R. J. McLaughlin, T. L. Thompson, R. H. Winkler, P. J. Fraser, L. P. Steele, M. P. Lucarelli, “Airborne gas chromatograph for in situ measurements of long-lived species in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 347–350 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Goldman, A.

A. Goldman, C. Paton-Walsh, W. Bell, G. C. Toon, J.-F. Blavier, B. Sen, M. T. Coffey, J. W. Hannigan, W. G. Mankin, “Network for the detection of stratospheric change Fourier-transform infrared intercomparison at Table Mountain Facility, November 1996,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 30481–30503 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Goldman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Perrin, J. M. Flaud, “HNO3 line parameters: 1996 HITRAN update and new results,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 851–861 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Y. Chang, R. J. Salawitch, H. A. Michelsen, M. R. Gunson, M. C. Abrams, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, J. W. Elkins, G. S. Dutton, C. M. Volk, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, D. W. Fahey, R. S. Gao, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, R. M. Stimpfle, D. W. Kohn, M. H. Proffitt, J. J. Margitan, K. R. Chan, M. M. Abbas, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, G. L. Manney, M. J. Newchurch, G. P. Stiller, “A comparison of measurements from ATMOS and instruments aboard the ER-2 aircraft: halogenated gases,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2393–2396 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Abbas, M. R. Gunson, M. J. Newchurch, H. A. Michelsen, R. J. Salawitch, M. Allen, M. C. Abrams, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, E. J. Moyer, R. Nagaraju, C. P. Rinsland, G. P. Stiller, R. Zander, “The hydrogen budget of the stratosphere inferred from ATMOS measurements of H2O and CH4,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2405–2408 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Abrams, A. Y. Chang, M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, G. P. Stiller, R. Zander, “On the assessment and uncertainty of atmospheric trace gas burden measurements with high resolution infrared solar occultation spectra from space by the ATMOS experiment,” Geophys., Res. Lett. 23, 2337–2340 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Zander, E. Mahieu, M. R. Gunson, M. C. Abrams, A. Y. Chang, M. Abbas, C. Aellig, A. Engel, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, N. Kampfer, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, “The 1994 northern mid-latitude budget of stratospheric chlorine derived from ATMOS/ATLAS-3 observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2357–2360 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Brown, M. R. Gunson, R. A. Toth, F. W. Irion, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, “The 1995 Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) linelist,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2828–2848 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Goldman, “Intercomparison of analysis of ground-based IR synthetic spectra,” presented at NDSC Infrared Working Group Meeting, Network for Detection of Stratospheric Change, Garmisch, Germany, 23–25 April (1996).

R. Zander, Ph. Demoulin, E. Mahieu, G. P. Adrian, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, “ESMOSII/NDSC IR spectral fitting algorithms intercomparison exercise,” in Proceedings of the Atmospheric Spectroscopy Applications Workshop, A. Barbe, L. Rothman, eds. (University of Reims Champaigne, Ardenne, 1993).

Grainger, R. G.

A. Lambert, R. G. Grainger, C. D. Rodgers, F. W. Taylor, J. L. Mergenthaler, J. B. Kumer, S. T. Massie, “Global evolution of the Mt Pinatubo volcanic aerosols observed by the infrared limb-sounding instruments CLAES and ISAMS on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 1495–1512 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gunson, M. R.

H. A. Michelsen, G. L. Manney, F. W. Irion, G. C. Toon, M. R. Gunson, C. P. Rinsland, R. Zander, E. Mahieu, M. J. Newchurch, P. N. Purcell, E. E. Remsberg, J. M. Russell, H. C. Pumphrey, J. W. Waters, R. M. Bevilacqua, K. K. Kelly, E. J. Hinsta, E. M. Weinstock, E.-W. Chiou, W. P. Chu, M. P. McCormick, C. R. Webster, “ATMOS Version 3 water vapor measurements: comparisons with ATMOS Version 2 retrievals and observations from two ER-2 Lyman-α hygrometers, MkIV, HALOE, SAGE II, MAS, and MLS,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 10.1029/2001JD000587 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, R. M. Bevilacqua, M. R. Gunson, F. W. Irion, N. J. Livesey, J. Oberheide, M. Riese, J. M. Russell, G. C. Toon, J. M. Zawodny, “Comparison of ozone observations in early November 1994 in the context of meterological variability,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 9923–9943 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Eldering, F. W. Irion, A. Y. Chang, M. R. Gunson, F. P. Mills, H. M. Steele, “Vertical profiles of aerosol volume from high-spectral-resolution infrared transmission measurements. I. Methodology,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3082–3091 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, F. W. Irion, G. C. Toon, M. R. Gunson, A. E. Roche, “Lamination and polar vortex development in fall from ATMOS long-lived trace gases observed during November 1994,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 29,023–29,038 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Michelsen, F. W. Irion, G. L. Manney, G. C. Toon, M. R. Gunson, “Features and trends in Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) Version 3 stratospheric water vapor and methane measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 22,713–22,724 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Webster, H. A. Michelsen, M. R. Gunson, J. J. Margitan, J. M. Russell, G. C. Toon, W. A. Traub, “Response of lower stratospheric HCl/Cly to volcanic aerosol: observations from aircraft balloon, Space Shuttle, and satellite instruments,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 11,711–11,719 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. B. Osterman, F. W. Irion, B. Sen, R. Zander, E. Mahieu, M. R. Gunson, “Stratospheric CO at tropical and mid-latitudes: ATMOS measurements and photochemical steady-state model calculations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 1395–1398 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. L. Santee, M. R. Gunson, F. W. Irion, A. E. Roche, N. J. Livesey, “Polar vortex dynamics during spring and fall diagnosed using trace gas observations from the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 18,841–18,866 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Michelsen, C. R. Webster, G. L. Manney, D. C. Scott, J. J. Margitan, R. D. May, F. W. Irion, M. R. Gunson, J. M. Russell, C. M. Spivakovsky, “Maintenance of high HCl/Cly and NOx/NOy in the Antarctic vortex: a chemical signature of confinement during spring,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 26,419–26,436 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Michelsen, G. L. Manney, M. R. Gunson, R. Zander, “Correlations of stratospheric abundances of NOy, O3, N2O and CH4 derived from ATMOS measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 28,347–28,359 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Abrams, A. Y. Chang, M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, G. P. Stiller, R. Zander, “On the assessment and uncertainty of atmospheric trace gas burden measurements with high resolution infrared solar occultation spectra from space by the ATMOS experiment,” Geophys., Res. Lett. 23, 2337–2340 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Newchurch, M. Allen, M. R. Gunson, R. J. Salawitch, G. B. Collins, K. H. Huston, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, A. Y. Chang, D. W. Fahey, R. S. Gao, F. W. Irion, M. Lowenstein, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, J. R. Podolske, C. P. Rinsland, R. Zander, “Stratospheric NO and NO2 abundances from ATMOS solar-occultation measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2373–2376 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Brown, M. R. Gunson, R. A. Toth, F. W. Irion, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, “The 1995 Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) linelist,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2828–2848 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Zander, E. Mahieu, M. R. Gunson, M. C. Abrams, A. Y. Chang, M. Abbas, C. Aellig, A. Engel, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, N. Kampfer, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, “The 1994 northern mid-latitude budget of stratospheric chlorine derived from ATMOS/ATLAS-3 observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2357–2360 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Abbas, M. R. Gunson, M. J. Newchurch, H. A. Michelsen, R. J. Salawitch, M. Allen, M. C. Abrams, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, E. J. Moyer, R. Nagaraju, C. P. Rinsland, G. P. Stiller, R. Zander, “The hydrogen budget of the stratosphere inferred from ATMOS measurements of H2O and CH4,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2405–2408 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Abrams, M. R. Gunson, A. Y. Chang, C. P. Rinsland, R. Zander, “Remote sensing of the Earth’s atmosphere from space with high-resolution Fourier-transform spectroscopy: development and methodology of data processing for the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy experiment,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2774–2786 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Y. Chang, R. J. Salawitch, H. A. Michelsen, M. R. Gunson, M. C. Abrams, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, J. W. Elkins, G. S. Dutton, C. M. Volk, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, D. W. Fahey, R. S. Gao, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, R. M. Stimpfle, D. W. Kohn, M. H. Proffitt, J. J. Margitan, K. R. Chan, M. M. Abbas, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, G. L. Manney, M. J. Newchurch, G. P. Stiller, “A comparison of measurements from ATMOS and instruments aboard the ER-2 aircraft: halogenated gases,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2393–2396 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Stiller, M. R. Gunson, L. L. Lowes, M. C. Abrams, O. F. Raper, C. B. Farmer, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, “Stratospheric and mesospheric pressure-temperature profiles from rotational analysis of CO2 lines in atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy/ATLAS 1 infrared solar occultation spectra,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 3107–3117 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Gunson, M. C. Abrams, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, M. K. W. Ko, N. D. Sze, D. K. Weisenstein, “Increase in levels of stratospheric chlorine and fluorine loading between 1985 and 1992,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 2223–2226 (1994).

M. López-Puertas, M. A. López-Valverde, C. P. Rinsland, M. R. Gunson, “Analysis of the upper atmospheric CO2(ν2) vibrational temperatures retrieved from ATMOS/Spacelab 3 observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 20469–20478 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. Zander, M. R. Gunson, C. B. Farmer, C. P. Rinsland, F. W. Irion, E. Mahieu, “The 1985 chlorine and fluorine inventories in the stratosphere based on ATMOS observations at 30° north latitude,” J. Atmos. Chem. 15, 171–186 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Gunson, C. B. Farmer, R. H. Norton, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, J. H. Shaw, B.-C. Gao, “Measurements of CH4, N2O, CO, H2O, and O3 in the middle atmosphere by the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy experiment on Spacelab 3,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 13867–13882 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hamill, P.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18,745–18,763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hannigan, J. W.

A. Goldman, C. Paton-Walsh, W. Bell, G. C. Toon, J.-F. Blavier, B. Sen, M. T. Coffey, J. W. Hannigan, W. G. Mankin, “Network for the detection of stratospheric change Fourier-transform infrared intercomparison at Table Mountain Facility, November 1996,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 30481–30503 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hayden, A. H.

J. W. Elkins, D. W. Fahey, J. M. Gilligan, G. S. Dutton, T. J. Baring, C. M. Volk, R. E. Dunn, R. C. Myers, S. A. Montzka, P. R. Wamsley, A. H. Hayden, J. H. Butler, T. M. Thompson, T. H. Swanson, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. C. Novelli, D. F. Hurst, J. M. Lobert, S. J. Ciciora, R. J. McLaughlin, T. L. Thompson, R. H. Winkler, P. J. Fraser, L. P. Steele, M. P. Lucarelli, “Airborne gas chromatograph for in situ measurements of long-lived species in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 347–350 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hinsta, E. J.

H. A. Michelsen, G. L. Manney, F. W. Irion, G. C. Toon, M. R. Gunson, C. P. Rinsland, R. Zander, E. Mahieu, M. J. Newchurch, P. N. Purcell, E. E. Remsberg, J. M. Russell, H. C. Pumphrey, J. W. Waters, R. M. Bevilacqua, K. K. Kelly, E. J. Hinsta, E. M. Weinstock, E.-W. Chiou, W. P. Chu, M. P. McCormick, C. R. Webster, “ATMOS Version 3 water vapor measurements: comparisons with ATMOS Version 2 retrievals and observations from two ER-2 Lyman-α hygrometers, MkIV, HALOE, SAGE II, MAS, and MLS,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 10.1029/2001JD000587 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hurst, D. F.

G. C. Toon, J.-F. Blavier, B. Sen, J. J. Margitan, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, D. Fahey, R. Gao, L. Del Negro, M. Proffitt, J. Elkins, P. A. Romashkin, D. F. Hurst, S. Oltmans, E. Atlas, S. Schauffler, F. Flocke, T. P. Bui, R. M. Stimpfle, G. P. Bonne, P. B. Voss, R. C. Cohen, “Comparison of MkIV balloon and ER-2 aircraft measurements of atmospheric trace gases,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 26,779–26,790 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Elkins, D. W. Fahey, J. M. Gilligan, G. S. Dutton, T. J. Baring, C. M. Volk, R. E. Dunn, R. C. Myers, S. A. Montzka, P. R. Wamsley, A. H. Hayden, J. H. Butler, T. M. Thompson, T. H. Swanson, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. C. Novelli, D. F. Hurst, J. M. Lobert, S. J. Ciciora, R. J. McLaughlin, T. L. Thompson, R. H. Winkler, P. J. Fraser, L. P. Steele, M. P. Lucarelli, “Airborne gas chromatograph for in situ measurements of long-lived species in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 347–350 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Huston, K. H.

M. J. Newchurch, M. Allen, M. R. Gunson, R. J. Salawitch, G. B. Collins, K. H. Huston, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, A. Y. Chang, D. W. Fahey, R. S. Gao, F. W. Irion, M. Lowenstein, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, J. R. Podolske, C. P. Rinsland, R. Zander, “Stratospheric NO and NO2 abundances from ATMOS solar-occultation measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2373–2376 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Irion, F. W.

H. A. Michelsen, G. L. Manney, F. W. Irion, G. C. Toon, M. R. Gunson, C. P. Rinsland, R. Zander, E. Mahieu, M. J. Newchurch, P. N. Purcell, E. E. Remsberg, J. M. Russell, H. C. Pumphrey, J. W. Waters, R. M. Bevilacqua, K. K. Kelly, E. J. Hinsta, E. M. Weinstock, E.-W. Chiou, W. P. Chu, M. P. McCormick, C. R. Webster, “ATMOS Version 3 water vapor measurements: comparisons with ATMOS Version 2 retrievals and observations from two ER-2 Lyman-α hygrometers, MkIV, HALOE, SAGE II, MAS, and MLS,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 10.1029/2001JD000587 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Eldering, F. W. Irion, A. Y. Chang, M. R. Gunson, F. P. Mills, H. M. Steele, “Vertical profiles of aerosol volume from high-spectral-resolution infrared transmission measurements. I. Methodology,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3082–3091 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, R. M. Bevilacqua, M. R. Gunson, F. W. Irion, N. J. Livesey, J. Oberheide, M. Riese, J. M. Russell, G. C. Toon, J. M. Zawodny, “Comparison of ozone observations in early November 1994 in the context of meterological variability,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 9923–9943 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, F. W. Irion, G. C. Toon, M. R. Gunson, A. E. Roche, “Lamination and polar vortex development in fall from ATMOS long-lived trace gases observed during November 1994,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 29,023–29,038 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Michelsen, F. W. Irion, G. L. Manney, G. C. Toon, M. R. Gunson, “Features and trends in Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) Version 3 stratospheric water vapor and methane measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 22,713–22,724 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. B. Osterman, F. W. Irion, B. Sen, R. Zander, E. Mahieu, M. R. Gunson, “Stratospheric CO at tropical and mid-latitudes: ATMOS measurements and photochemical steady-state model calculations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 1395–1398 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. L. Santee, M. R. Gunson, F. W. Irion, A. E. Roche, N. J. Livesey, “Polar vortex dynamics during spring and fall diagnosed using trace gas observations from the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 18,841–18,866 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Michelsen, C. R. Webster, G. L. Manney, D. C. Scott, J. J. Margitan, R. D. May, F. W. Irion, M. R. Gunson, J. M. Russell, C. M. Spivakovsky, “Maintenance of high HCl/Cly and NOx/NOy in the Antarctic vortex: a chemical signature of confinement during spring,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 26,419–26,436 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Yung, A. Y. T. Lee, F. W. Irion, W. B. DeMore, J. Wen, “Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere: isotope exchange with ozone and its use as a tracer in the middle atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 10,857–10,866 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Abrams, A. Y. Chang, M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, G. P. Stiller, R. Zander, “On the assessment and uncertainty of atmospheric trace gas burden measurements with high resolution infrared solar occultation spectra from space by the ATMOS experiment,” Geophys., Res. Lett. 23, 2337–2340 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Newchurch, M. Allen, M. R. Gunson, R. J. Salawitch, G. B. Collins, K. H. Huston, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, A. Y. Chang, D. W. Fahey, R. S. Gao, F. W. Irion, M. Lowenstein, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, J. R. Podolske, C. P. Rinsland, R. Zander, “Stratospheric NO and NO2 abundances from ATMOS solar-occultation measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2373–2376 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Brown, M. R. Gunson, R. A. Toth, F. W. Irion, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, “The 1995 Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) linelist,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2828–2848 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Zander, E. Mahieu, M. R. Gunson, M. C. Abrams, A. Y. Chang, M. Abbas, C. Aellig, A. Engel, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, N. Kampfer, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, “The 1994 northern mid-latitude budget of stratospheric chlorine derived from ATMOS/ATLAS-3 observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2357–2360 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Abbas, M. R. Gunson, M. J. Newchurch, H. A. Michelsen, R. J. Salawitch, M. Allen, M. C. Abrams, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, E. J. Moyer, R. Nagaraju, C. P. Rinsland, G. P. Stiller, R. Zander, “The hydrogen budget of the stratosphere inferred from ATMOS measurements of H2O and CH4,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2405–2408 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Y. Chang, R. J. Salawitch, H. A. Michelsen, M. R. Gunson, M. C. Abrams, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, J. W. Elkins, G. S. Dutton, C. M. Volk, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, D. W. Fahey, R. S. Gao, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, R. M. Stimpfle, D. W. Kohn, M. H. Proffitt, J. J. Margitan, K. R. Chan, M. M. Abbas, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, G. L. Manney, M. J. Newchurch, G. P. Stiller, “A comparison of measurements from ATMOS and instruments aboard the ER-2 aircraft: halogenated gases,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2393–2396 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Zander, M. R. Gunson, C. B. Farmer, C. P. Rinsland, F. W. Irion, E. Mahieu, “The 1985 chlorine and fluorine inventories in the stratosphere based on ATMOS observations at 30° north latitude,” J. Atmos. Chem. 15, 171–186 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, D. G.

K. H. Rosenlof, S. J. Oltmans, D. Kley, J. M. Russell, E.-W. Chiou, W. P. Chu, D. G. Johnson, K. K. Kelly, H. A. Michelsen, G. E. Nedoluha, E. E. Remsberg, G. C. Toon, M. P. McCormick, “Stratospheric water vapor increases over the past half-century,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 1195–1198 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jucks, K. W.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kampfer, N.

R. Zander, E. Mahieu, M. R. Gunson, M. C. Abrams, A. Y. Chang, M. Abbas, C. Aellig, A. Engel, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, N. Kampfer, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, “The 1994 northern mid-latitude budget of stratospheric chlorine derived from ATMOS/ATLAS-3 observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2357–2360 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, K. K.

H. A. Michelsen, G. L. Manney, F. W. Irion, G. C. Toon, M. R. Gunson, C. P. Rinsland, R. Zander, E. Mahieu, M. J. Newchurch, P. N. Purcell, E. E. Remsberg, J. M. Russell, H. C. Pumphrey, J. W. Waters, R. M. Bevilacqua, K. K. Kelly, E. J. Hinsta, E. M. Weinstock, E.-W. Chiou, W. P. Chu, M. P. McCormick, C. R. Webster, “ATMOS Version 3 water vapor measurements: comparisons with ATMOS Version 2 retrievals and observations from two ER-2 Lyman-α hygrometers, MkIV, HALOE, SAGE II, MAS, and MLS,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 10.1029/2001JD000587 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Rosenlof, S. J. Oltmans, D. Kley, J. M. Russell, E.-W. Chiou, W. P. Chu, D. G. Johnson, K. K. Kelly, H. A. Michelsen, G. E. Nedoluha, E. E. Remsberg, G. C. Toon, M. P. McCormick, “Stratospheric water vapor increases over the past half-century,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 1195–1198 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kley, D.

K. H. Rosenlof, S. J. Oltmans, D. Kley, J. M. Russell, E.-W. Chiou, W. P. Chu, D. G. Johnson, K. K. Kelly, H. A. Michelsen, G. E. Nedoluha, E. E. Remsberg, G. C. Toon, M. P. McCormick, “Stratospheric water vapor increases over the past half-century,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 1195–1198 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ko, M. K. W.

M. R. Gunson, M. C. Abrams, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, M. K. W. Ko, N. D. Sze, D. K. Weisenstein, “Increase in levels of stratospheric chlorine and fluorine loading between 1985 and 1992,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 2223–2226 (1994).

Kohn, D. W.

A. Y. Chang, R. J. Salawitch, H. A. Michelsen, M. R. Gunson, M. C. Abrams, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, J. W. Elkins, G. S. Dutton, C. M. Volk, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, D. W. Fahey, R. S. Gao, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, R. M. Stimpfle, D. W. Kohn, M. H. Proffitt, J. J. Margitan, K. R. Chan, M. M. Abbas, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, G. L. Manney, M. J. Newchurch, G. P. Stiller, “A comparison of measurements from ATMOS and instruments aboard the ER-2 aircraft: halogenated gases,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2393–2396 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kumer, J. B.

A. Lambert, R. G. Grainger, C. D. Rodgers, F. W. Taylor, J. L. Mergenthaler, J. B. Kumer, S. T. Massie, “Global evolution of the Mt Pinatubo volcanic aerosols observed by the infrared limb-sounding instruments CLAES and ISAMS on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 1495–1512 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lambert, A.

A. Lambert, R. G. Grainger, C. D. Rodgers, F. W. Taylor, J. L. Mergenthaler, J. B. Kumer, S. T. Massie, “Global evolution of the Mt Pinatubo volcanic aerosols observed by the infrared limb-sounding instruments CLAES and ISAMS on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 1495–1512 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lee, A. Y. T.

Y. L. Yung, A. Y. T. Lee, F. W. Irion, W. B. DeMore, J. Wen, “Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere: isotope exchange with ozone and its use as a tracer in the middle atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 10,857–10,866 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Livesey, N. J.

G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, R. M. Bevilacqua, M. R. Gunson, F. W. Irion, N. J. Livesey, J. Oberheide, M. Riese, J. M. Russell, G. C. Toon, J. M. Zawodny, “Comparison of ozone observations in early November 1994 in the context of meterological variability,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 9923–9943 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. L. Santee, M. R. Gunson, F. W. Irion, A. E. Roche, N. J. Livesey, “Polar vortex dynamics during spring and fall diagnosed using trace gas observations from the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 18,841–18,866 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Livingston, J. M.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18,745–18,763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lobert, J. M.

J. W. Elkins, D. W. Fahey, J. M. Gilligan, G. S. Dutton, T. J. Baring, C. M. Volk, R. E. Dunn, R. C. Myers, S. A. Montzka, P. R. Wamsley, A. H. Hayden, J. H. Butler, T. M. Thompson, T. H. Swanson, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. C. Novelli, D. F. Hurst, J. M. Lobert, S. J. Ciciora, R. J. McLaughlin, T. L. Thompson, R. H. Winkler, P. J. Fraser, L. P. Steele, M. P. Lucarelli, “Airborne gas chromatograph for in situ measurements of long-lived species in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 347–350 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lock, M.

A. Nikitin, J. P. Champion, V. G. Tyuterev, L. R. Brown, G. Mellau, M. Lock, “The infrared spectrum of CH3D between 900 and 3200 cm-1: extended assignment and modeling,” J. Mol. Struct. 517, 1–24 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Loewenstein, M.

A. Y. Chang, R. J. Salawitch, H. A. Michelsen, M. R. Gunson, M. C. Abrams, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, J. W. Elkins, G. S. Dutton, C. M. Volk, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, D. W. Fahey, R. S. Gao, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, R. M. Stimpfle, D. W. Kohn, M. H. Proffitt, J. J. Margitan, K. R. Chan, M. M. Abbas, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, G. L. Manney, M. J. Newchurch, G. P. Stiller, “A comparison of measurements from ATMOS and instruments aboard the ER-2 aircraft: halogenated gases,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2393–2396 (1996).
[CrossRef]

López-Puertas, M.

M. López-Puertas, M. A. López-Valverde, C. P. Rinsland, M. R. Gunson, “Analysis of the upper atmospheric CO2(ν2) vibrational temperatures retrieved from ATMOS/Spacelab 3 observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 20469–20478 (1992).
[CrossRef]

López-Valverde, M. A.

M. López-Puertas, M. A. López-Valverde, C. P. Rinsland, M. R. Gunson, “Analysis of the upper atmospheric CO2(ν2) vibrational temperatures retrieved from ATMOS/Spacelab 3 observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 20469–20478 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lowenstein, M.

M. J. Newchurch, M. Allen, M. R. Gunson, R. J. Salawitch, G. B. Collins, K. H. Huston, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, A. Y. Chang, D. W. Fahey, R. S. Gao, F. W. Irion, M. Lowenstein, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, J. R. Podolske, C. P. Rinsland, R. Zander, “Stratospheric NO and NO2 abundances from ATMOS solar-occultation measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2373–2376 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lowes, L. L.

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Stiller, M. R. Gunson, L. L. Lowes, M. C. Abrams, O. F. Raper, C. B. Farmer, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, “Stratospheric and mesospheric pressure-temperature profiles from rotational analysis of CO2 lines in atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy/ATLAS 1 infrared solar occultation spectra,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 3107–3117 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Gunson, M. C. Abrams, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, M. K. W. Ko, N. D. Sze, D. K. Weisenstein, “Increase in levels of stratospheric chlorine and fluorine loading between 1985 and 1992,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 2223–2226 (1994).

Lucarelli, M. P.

J. W. Elkins, D. W. Fahey, J. M. Gilligan, G. S. Dutton, T. J. Baring, C. M. Volk, R. E. Dunn, R. C. Myers, S. A. Montzka, P. R. Wamsley, A. H. Hayden, J. H. Butler, T. M. Thompson, T. H. Swanson, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. C. Novelli, D. F. Hurst, J. M. Lobert, S. J. Ciciora, R. J. McLaughlin, T. L. Thompson, R. H. Winkler, P. J. Fraser, L. P. Steele, M. P. Lucarelli, “Airborne gas chromatograph for in situ measurements of long-lived species in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 347–350 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mahieu, E.

H. A. Michelsen, G. L. Manney, F. W. Irion, G. C. Toon, M. R. Gunson, C. P. Rinsland, R. Zander, E. Mahieu, M. J. Newchurch, P. N. Purcell, E. E. Remsberg, J. M. Russell, H. C. Pumphrey, J. W. Waters, R. M. Bevilacqua, K. K. Kelly, E. J. Hinsta, E. M. Weinstock, E.-W. Chiou, W. P. Chu, M. P. McCormick, C. R. Webster, “ATMOS Version 3 water vapor measurements: comparisons with ATMOS Version 2 retrievals and observations from two ER-2 Lyman-α hygrometers, MkIV, HALOE, SAGE II, MAS, and MLS,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 10.1029/2001JD000587 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. B. Osterman, F. W. Irion, B. Sen, R. Zander, E. Mahieu, M. R. Gunson, “Stratospheric CO at tropical and mid-latitudes: ATMOS measurements and photochemical steady-state model calculations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 1395–1398 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Zander, E. Mahieu, M. R. Gunson, M. C. Abrams, A. Y. Chang, M. Abbas, C. Aellig, A. Engel, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, N. Kampfer, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, “The 1994 northern mid-latitude budget of stratospheric chlorine derived from ATMOS/ATLAS-3 observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2357–2360 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Gunson, M. C. Abrams, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, M. K. W. Ko, N. D. Sze, D. K. Weisenstein, “Increase in levels of stratospheric chlorine and fluorine loading between 1985 and 1992,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 2223–2226 (1994).

R. Zander, M. R. Gunson, C. B. Farmer, C. P. Rinsland, F. W. Irion, E. Mahieu, “The 1985 chlorine and fluorine inventories in the stratosphere based on ATMOS observations at 30° north latitude,” J. Atmos. Chem. 15, 171–186 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. Zander, Ph. Demoulin, E. Mahieu, G. P. Adrian, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, “ESMOSII/NDSC IR spectral fitting algorithms intercomparison exercise,” in Proceedings of the Atmospheric Spectroscopy Applications Workshop, A. Barbe, L. Rothman, eds. (University of Reims Champaigne, Ardenne, 1993).

Mandin, J. Y.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mankin, W. G.

A. Goldman, C. Paton-Walsh, W. Bell, G. C. Toon, J.-F. Blavier, B. Sen, M. T. Coffey, J. W. Hannigan, W. G. Mankin, “Network for the detection of stratospheric change Fourier-transform infrared intercomparison at Table Mountain Facility, November 1996,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 30481–30503 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Manney, G. L.

H. A. Michelsen, G. L. Manney, F. W. Irion, G. C. Toon, M. R. Gunson, C. P. Rinsland, R. Zander, E. Mahieu, M. J. Newchurch, P. N. Purcell, E. E. Remsberg, J. M. Russell, H. C. Pumphrey, J. W. Waters, R. M. Bevilacqua, K. K. Kelly, E. J. Hinsta, E. M. Weinstock, E.-W. Chiou, W. P. Chu, M. P. McCormick, C. R. Webster, “ATMOS Version 3 water vapor measurements: comparisons with ATMOS Version 2 retrievals and observations from two ER-2 Lyman-α hygrometers, MkIV, HALOE, SAGE II, MAS, and MLS,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 10.1029/2001JD000587 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, R. M. Bevilacqua, M. R. Gunson, F. W. Irion, N. J. Livesey, J. Oberheide, M. Riese, J. M. Russell, G. C. Toon, J. M. Zawodny, “Comparison of ozone observations in early November 1994 in the context of meterological variability,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 9923–9943 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, F. W. Irion, G. C. Toon, M. R. Gunson, A. E. Roche, “Lamination and polar vortex development in fall from ATMOS long-lived trace gases observed during November 1994,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 29,023–29,038 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Michelsen, F. W. Irion, G. L. Manney, G. C. Toon, M. R. Gunson, “Features and trends in Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) Version 3 stratospheric water vapor and methane measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 22,713–22,724 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. L. Santee, M. R. Gunson, F. W. Irion, A. E. Roche, N. J. Livesey, “Polar vortex dynamics during spring and fall diagnosed using trace gas observations from the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 18,841–18,866 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Michelsen, C. R. Webster, G. L. Manney, D. C. Scott, J. J. Margitan, R. D. May, F. W. Irion, M. R. Gunson, J. M. Russell, C. M. Spivakovsky, “Maintenance of high HCl/Cly and NOx/NOy in the Antarctic vortex: a chemical signature of confinement during spring,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 26,419–26,436 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Michelsen, G. L. Manney, M. R. Gunson, R. Zander, “Correlations of stratospheric abundances of NOy, O3, N2O and CH4 derived from ATMOS measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 28,347–28,359 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Newchurch, M. Allen, M. R. Gunson, R. J. Salawitch, G. B. Collins, K. H. Huston, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, A. Y. Chang, D. W. Fahey, R. S. Gao, F. W. Irion, M. Lowenstein, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, J. R. Podolske, C. P. Rinsland, R. Zander, “Stratospheric NO and NO2 abundances from ATMOS solar-occultation measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2373–2376 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Y. Chang, R. J. Salawitch, H. A. Michelsen, M. R. Gunson, M. C. Abrams, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, J. W. Elkins, G. S. Dutton, C. M. Volk, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, D. W. Fahey, R. S. Gao, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, R. M. Stimpfle, D. W. Kohn, M. H. Proffitt, J. J. Margitan, K. R. Chan, M. M. Abbas, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, G. L. Manney, M. J. Newchurch, G. P. Stiller, “A comparison of measurements from ATMOS and instruments aboard the ER-2 aircraft: halogenated gases,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2393–2396 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Margitan, J. J.

C. R. Webster, H. A. Michelsen, M. R. Gunson, J. J. Margitan, J. M. Russell, G. C. Toon, W. A. Traub, “Response of lower stratospheric HCl/Cly to volcanic aerosol: observations from aircraft balloon, Space Shuttle, and satellite instruments,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 11,711–11,719 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Michelsen, C. R. Webster, G. L. Manney, D. C. Scott, J. J. Margitan, R. D. May, F. W. Irion, M. R. Gunson, J. M. Russell, C. M. Spivakovsky, “Maintenance of high HCl/Cly and NOx/NOy in the Antarctic vortex: a chemical signature of confinement during spring,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 26,419–26,436 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Toon, J.-F. Blavier, B. Sen, J. J. Margitan, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, D. Fahey, R. Gao, L. Del Negro, M. Proffitt, J. Elkins, P. A. Romashkin, D. F. Hurst, S. Oltmans, E. Atlas, S. Schauffler, F. Flocke, T. P. Bui, R. M. Stimpfle, G. P. Bonne, P. B. Voss, R. C. Cohen, “Comparison of MkIV balloon and ER-2 aircraft measurements of atmospheric trace gases,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 26,779–26,790 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Sen, G. C. Toon, G. B. Osterman, J.-F. Blavier, J. J. Margitan, R. J. Salawitch, “Measurements of reactive nitrogen in the stratosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 3571–3585 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Y. Chang, R. J. Salawitch, H. A. Michelsen, M. R. Gunson, M. C. Abrams, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, J. W. Elkins, G. S. Dutton, C. M. Volk, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, D. W. Fahey, R. S. Gao, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, R. M. Stimpfle, D. W. Kohn, M. H. Proffitt, J. J. Margitan, K. R. Chan, M. M. Abbas, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, G. L. Manney, M. J. Newchurch, G. P. Stiller, “A comparison of measurements from ATMOS and instruments aboard the ER-2 aircraft: halogenated gases,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2393–2396 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Lambert, R. G. Grainger, C. D. Rodgers, F. W. Taylor, J. L. Mergenthaler, J. B. Kumer, S. T. Massie, “Global evolution of the Mt Pinatubo volcanic aerosols observed by the infrared limb-sounding instruments CLAES and ISAMS on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 1495–1512 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Massie, T. Deshler, G. E. Thomas, J. L. Mergenthaler, J. M. Russell, “Evolution of the infrared properties of the Mount Pinatubo aerosol cloud over Laramie, Wyoming,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 23,007–23,019 (1996).
[CrossRef]

May, R. D.

G. C. Toon, J.-F. Blavier, B. Sen, J. J. Margitan, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, D. Fahey, R. Gao, L. Del Negro, M. Proffitt, J. Elkins, P. A. Romashkin, D. F. Hurst, S. Oltmans, E. Atlas, S. Schauffler, F. Flocke, T. P. Bui, R. M. Stimpfle, G. P. Bonne, P. B. Voss, R. C. Cohen, “Comparison of MkIV balloon and ER-2 aircraft measurements of atmospheric trace gases,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 26,779–26,790 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Michelsen, C. R. Webster, G. L. Manney, D. C. Scott, J. J. Margitan, R. D. May, F. W. Irion, M. R. Gunson, J. M. Russell, C. M. Spivakovsky, “Maintenance of high HCl/Cly and NOx/NOy in the Antarctic vortex: a chemical signature of confinement during spring,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 26,419–26,436 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Y. Chang, R. J. Salawitch, H. A. Michelsen, M. R. Gunson, M. C. Abrams, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, J. W. Elkins, G. S. Dutton, C. M. Volk, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, D. W. Fahey, R. S. Gao, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, R. M. Stimpfle, D. W. Kohn, M. H. Proffitt, J. J. Margitan, K. R. Chan, M. M. Abbas, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, G. L. Manney, M. J. Newchurch, G. P. Stiller, “A comparison of measurements from ATMOS and instruments aboard the ER-2 aircraft: halogenated gases,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2393–2396 (1996).
[CrossRef]

McCann, A.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McCormick, M. P.

H. A. Michelsen, G. L. Manney, F. W. Irion, G. C. Toon, M. R. Gunson, C. P. Rinsland, R. Zander, E. Mahieu, M. J. Newchurch, P. N. Purcell, E. E. Remsberg, J. M. Russell, H. C. Pumphrey, J. W. Waters, R. M. Bevilacqua, K. K. Kelly, E. J. Hinsta, E. M. Weinstock, E.-W. Chiou, W. P. Chu, M. P. McCormick, C. R. Webster, “ATMOS Version 3 water vapor measurements: comparisons with ATMOS Version 2 retrievals and observations from two ER-2 Lyman-α hygrometers, MkIV, HALOE, SAGE II, MAS, and MLS,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 10.1029/2001JD000587 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Rosenlof, S. J. Oltmans, D. Kley, J. M. Russell, E.-W. Chiou, W. P. Chu, D. G. Johnson, K. K. Kelly, H. A. Michelsen, G. E. Nedoluha, E. E. Remsberg, G. C. Toon, M. P. McCormick, “Stratospheric water vapor increases over the past half-century,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 1195–1198 (2001).
[CrossRef]

McLaughlin, R. J.

J. W. Elkins, D. W. Fahey, J. M. Gilligan, G. S. Dutton, T. J. Baring, C. M. Volk, R. E. Dunn, R. C. Myers, S. A. Montzka, P. R. Wamsley, A. H. Hayden, J. H. Butler, T. M. Thompson, T. H. Swanson, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. C. Novelli, D. F. Hurst, J. M. Lobert, S. J. Ciciora, R. J. McLaughlin, T. L. Thompson, R. H. Winkler, P. J. Fraser, L. P. Steele, M. P. Lucarelli, “Airborne gas chromatograph for in situ measurements of long-lived species in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 347–350 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mellau, G.

A. Nikitin, J. P. Champion, V. G. Tyuterev, L. R. Brown, G. Mellau, M. Lock, “The infrared spectrum of CH3D between 900 and 3200 cm-1: extended assignment and modeling,” J. Mol. Struct. 517, 1–24 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mergenthaler, J. L.

A. Lambert, R. G. Grainger, C. D. Rodgers, F. W. Taylor, J. L. Mergenthaler, J. B. Kumer, S. T. Massie, “Global evolution of the Mt Pinatubo volcanic aerosols observed by the infrared limb-sounding instruments CLAES and ISAMS on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 1495–1512 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Massie, T. Deshler, G. E. Thomas, J. L. Mergenthaler, J. M. Russell, “Evolution of the infrared properties of the Mount Pinatubo aerosol cloud over Laramie, Wyoming,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 23,007–23,019 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Michelsen, H. A.

H. A. Michelsen, G. L. Manney, F. W. Irion, G. C. Toon, M. R. Gunson, C. P. Rinsland, R. Zander, E. Mahieu, M. J. Newchurch, P. N. Purcell, E. E. Remsberg, J. M. Russell, H. C. Pumphrey, J. W. Waters, R. M. Bevilacqua, K. K. Kelly, E. J. Hinsta, E. M. Weinstock, E.-W. Chiou, W. P. Chu, M. P. McCormick, C. R. Webster, “ATMOS Version 3 water vapor measurements: comparisons with ATMOS Version 2 retrievals and observations from two ER-2 Lyman-α hygrometers, MkIV, HALOE, SAGE II, MAS, and MLS,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 10.1029/2001JD000587 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, R. M. Bevilacqua, M. R. Gunson, F. W. Irion, N. J. Livesey, J. Oberheide, M. Riese, J. M. Russell, G. C. Toon, J. M. Zawodny, “Comparison of ozone observations in early November 1994 in the context of meterological variability,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 9923–9943 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Rosenlof, S. J. Oltmans, D. Kley, J. M. Russell, E.-W. Chiou, W. P. Chu, D. G. Johnson, K. K. Kelly, H. A. Michelsen, G. E. Nedoluha, E. E. Remsberg, G. C. Toon, M. P. McCormick, “Stratospheric water vapor increases over the past half-century,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 1195–1198 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Webster, H. A. Michelsen, M. R. Gunson, J. J. Margitan, J. M. Russell, G. C. Toon, W. A. Traub, “Response of lower stratospheric HCl/Cly to volcanic aerosol: observations from aircraft balloon, Space Shuttle, and satellite instruments,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 11,711–11,719 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, F. W. Irion, G. C. Toon, M. R. Gunson, A. E. Roche, “Lamination and polar vortex development in fall from ATMOS long-lived trace gases observed during November 1994,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 29,023–29,038 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Michelsen, F. W. Irion, G. L. Manney, G. C. Toon, M. R. Gunson, “Features and trends in Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) Version 3 stratospheric water vapor and methane measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 22,713–22,724 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. L. Santee, M. R. Gunson, F. W. Irion, A. E. Roche, N. J. Livesey, “Polar vortex dynamics during spring and fall diagnosed using trace gas observations from the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 18,841–18,866 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Michelsen, C. R. Webster, G. L. Manney, D. C. Scott, J. J. Margitan, R. D. May, F. W. Irion, M. R. Gunson, J. M. Russell, C. M. Spivakovsky, “Maintenance of high HCl/Cly and NOx/NOy in the Antarctic vortex: a chemical signature of confinement during spring,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 26,419–26,436 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Michelsen, G. L. Manney, M. R. Gunson, R. Zander, “Correlations of stratospheric abundances of NOy, O3, N2O and CH4 derived from ATMOS measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 28,347–28,359 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Abrams, A. Y. Chang, M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, G. P. Stiller, R. Zander, “On the assessment and uncertainty of atmospheric trace gas burden measurements with high resolution infrared solar occultation spectra from space by the ATMOS experiment,” Geophys., Res. Lett. 23, 2337–2340 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Newchurch, M. Allen, M. R. Gunson, R. J. Salawitch, G. B. Collins, K. H. Huston, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, A. Y. Chang, D. W. Fahey, R. S. Gao, F. W. Irion, M. Lowenstein, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, J. R. Podolske, C. P. Rinsland, R. Zander, “Stratospheric NO and NO2 abundances from ATMOS solar-occultation measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2373–2376 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Zander, E. Mahieu, M. R. Gunson, M. C. Abrams, A. Y. Chang, M. Abbas, C. Aellig, A. Engel, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, N. Kampfer, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, “The 1994 northern mid-latitude budget of stratospheric chlorine derived from ATMOS/ATLAS-3 observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2357–2360 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Abbas, M. R. Gunson, M. J. Newchurch, H. A. Michelsen, R. J. Salawitch, M. Allen, M. C. Abrams, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, E. J. Moyer, R. Nagaraju, C. P. Rinsland, G. P. Stiller, R. Zander, “The hydrogen budget of the stratosphere inferred from ATMOS measurements of H2O and CH4,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2405–2408 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Y. Chang, R. J. Salawitch, H. A. Michelsen, M. R. Gunson, M. C. Abrams, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, J. W. Elkins, G. S. Dutton, C. M. Volk, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, D. W. Fahey, R. S. Gao, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, R. M. Stimpfle, D. W. Kohn, M. H. Proffitt, J. J. Margitan, K. R. Chan, M. M. Abbas, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, G. L. Manney, M. J. Newchurch, G. P. Stiller, “A comparison of measurements from ATMOS and instruments aboard the ER-2 aircraft: halogenated gases,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2393–2396 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mills, F. P.

Montzka, S. A.

J. W. Elkins, D. W. Fahey, J. M. Gilligan, G. S. Dutton, T. J. Baring, C. M. Volk, R. E. Dunn, R. C. Myers, S. A. Montzka, P. R. Wamsley, A. H. Hayden, J. H. Butler, T. M. Thompson, T. H. Swanson, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. C. Novelli, D. F. Hurst, J. M. Lobert, S. J. Ciciora, R. J. McLaughlin, T. L. Thompson, R. H. Winkler, P. J. Fraser, L. P. Steele, M. P. Lucarelli, “Airborne gas chromatograph for in situ measurements of long-lived species in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 347–350 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Moyer, E. J.

M. M. Abbas, M. R. Gunson, M. J. Newchurch, H. A. Michelsen, R. J. Salawitch, M. Allen, M. C. Abrams, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, E. J. Moyer, R. Nagaraju, C. P. Rinsland, G. P. Stiller, R. Zander, “The hydrogen budget of the stratosphere inferred from ATMOS measurements of H2O and CH4,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2405–2408 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Myers, R. C.

J. W. Elkins, D. W. Fahey, J. M. Gilligan, G. S. Dutton, T. J. Baring, C. M. Volk, R. E. Dunn, R. C. Myers, S. A. Montzka, P. R. Wamsley, A. H. Hayden, J. H. Butler, T. M. Thompson, T. H. Swanson, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. C. Novelli, D. F. Hurst, J. M. Lobert, S. J. Ciciora, R. J. McLaughlin, T. L. Thompson, R. H. Winkler, P. J. Fraser, L. P. Steele, M. P. Lucarelli, “Airborne gas chromatograph for in situ measurements of long-lived species in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 347–350 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nagaraju, R.

M. M. Abbas, M. R. Gunson, M. J. Newchurch, H. A. Michelsen, R. J. Salawitch, M. Allen, M. C. Abrams, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, E. J. Moyer, R. Nagaraju, C. P. Rinsland, G. P. Stiller, R. Zander, “The hydrogen budget of the stratosphere inferred from ATMOS measurements of H2O and CH4,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2405–2408 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nedoluha, G. E.

K. H. Rosenlof, S. J. Oltmans, D. Kley, J. M. Russell, E.-W. Chiou, W. P. Chu, D. G. Johnson, K. K. Kelly, H. A. Michelsen, G. E. Nedoluha, E. E. Remsberg, G. C. Toon, M. P. McCormick, “Stratospheric water vapor increases over the past half-century,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 1195–1198 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nemtchinov, V.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Newchurch, M. J.

H. A. Michelsen, G. L. Manney, F. W. Irion, G. C. Toon, M. R. Gunson, C. P. Rinsland, R. Zander, E. Mahieu, M. J. Newchurch, P. N. Purcell, E. E. Remsberg, J. M. Russell, H. C. Pumphrey, J. W. Waters, R. M. Bevilacqua, K. K. Kelly, E. J. Hinsta, E. M. Weinstock, E.-W. Chiou, W. P. Chu, M. P. McCormick, C. R. Webster, “ATMOS Version 3 water vapor measurements: comparisons with ATMOS Version 2 retrievals and observations from two ER-2 Lyman-α hygrometers, MkIV, HALOE, SAGE II, MAS, and MLS,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 10.1029/2001JD000587 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Y. Chang, R. J. Salawitch, H. A. Michelsen, M. R. Gunson, M. C. Abrams, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, J. W. Elkins, G. S. Dutton, C. M. Volk, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, D. W. Fahey, R. S. Gao, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, R. M. Stimpfle, D. W. Kohn, M. H. Proffitt, J. J. Margitan, K. R. Chan, M. M. Abbas, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, G. L. Manney, M. J. Newchurch, G. P. Stiller, “A comparison of measurements from ATMOS and instruments aboard the ER-2 aircraft: halogenated gases,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2393–2396 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Abbas, M. R. Gunson, M. J. Newchurch, H. A. Michelsen, R. J. Salawitch, M. Allen, M. C. Abrams, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, E. J. Moyer, R. Nagaraju, C. P. Rinsland, G. P. Stiller, R. Zander, “The hydrogen budget of the stratosphere inferred from ATMOS measurements of H2O and CH4,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2405–2408 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Zander, E. Mahieu, M. R. Gunson, M. C. Abrams, A. Y. Chang, M. Abbas, C. Aellig, A. Engel, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, N. Kampfer, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, “The 1994 northern mid-latitude budget of stratospheric chlorine derived from ATMOS/ATLAS-3 observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2357–2360 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Newchurch, M. Allen, M. R. Gunson, R. J. Salawitch, G. B. Collins, K. H. Huston, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, A. Y. Chang, D. W. Fahey, R. S. Gao, F. W. Irion, M. Lowenstein, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, J. R. Podolske, C. P. Rinsland, R. Zander, “Stratospheric NO and NO2 abundances from ATMOS solar-occultation measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2373–2376 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Abrams, A. Y. Chang, M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, G. P. Stiller, R. Zander, “On the assessment and uncertainty of atmospheric trace gas burden measurements with high resolution infrared solar occultation spectra from space by the ATMOS experiment,” Geophys., Res. Lett. 23, 2337–2340 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nikitin, A.

A. Nikitin, J. P. Champion, V. G. Tyuterev, L. R. Brown, G. Mellau, M. Lock, “The infrared spectrum of CH3D between 900 and 3200 cm-1: extended assignment and modeling,” J. Mol. Struct. 517, 1–24 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Norton, R. H.

R. H. Norton, C. P. Rinsland, “ATMOS data processing and science analysis methods,” Appl. Opt. 30, 389–400 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Gunson, C. B. Farmer, R. H. Norton, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, J. H. Shaw, B.-C. Gao, “Measurements of CH4, N2O, CO, H2O, and O3 in the middle atmosphere by the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy experiment on Spacelab 3,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 13867–13882 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Novelli, P. C.

J. W. Elkins, D. W. Fahey, J. M. Gilligan, G. S. Dutton, T. J. Baring, C. M. Volk, R. E. Dunn, R. C. Myers, S. A. Montzka, P. R. Wamsley, A. H. Hayden, J. H. Butler, T. M. Thompson, T. H. Swanson, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. C. Novelli, D. F. Hurst, J. M. Lobert, S. J. Ciciora, R. J. McLaughlin, T. L. Thompson, R. H. Winkler, P. J. Fraser, L. P. Steele, M. P. Lucarelli, “Airborne gas chromatograph for in situ measurements of long-lived species in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 347–350 (1996).
[CrossRef]

O’Callaghan, F. G.

C. B. Farmer, O. F. Raper, F. G. O’Callaghan, “Final report on the first flight of the ATMOS instrument during the Spacelab 3 mission, April 29 through May 6, 1985,” JPL publication 87–32 (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., 1987).

Oberheide, J.

G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, R. M. Bevilacqua, M. R. Gunson, F. W. Irion, N. J. Livesey, J. Oberheide, M. Riese, J. M. Russell, G. C. Toon, J. M. Zawodny, “Comparison of ozone observations in early November 1994 in the context of meterological variability,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 9923–9943 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Oltmans, S.

G. C. Toon, J.-F. Blavier, B. Sen, J. J. Margitan, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, D. Fahey, R. Gao, L. Del Negro, M. Proffitt, J. Elkins, P. A. Romashkin, D. F. Hurst, S. Oltmans, E. Atlas, S. Schauffler, F. Flocke, T. P. Bui, R. M. Stimpfle, G. P. Bonne, P. B. Voss, R. C. Cohen, “Comparison of MkIV balloon and ER-2 aircraft measurements of atmospheric trace gases,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 26,779–26,790 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Oltmans, S. J.

K. H. Rosenlof, S. J. Oltmans, D. Kley, J. M. Russell, E.-W. Chiou, W. P. Chu, D. G. Johnson, K. K. Kelly, H. A. Michelsen, G. E. Nedoluha, E. E. Remsberg, G. C. Toon, M. P. McCormick, “Stratospheric water vapor increases over the past half-century,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 1195–1198 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Osterman, G. B.

C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. B. Osterman, F. W. Irion, B. Sen, R. Zander, E. Mahieu, M. R. Gunson, “Stratospheric CO at tropical and mid-latitudes: ATMOS measurements and photochemical steady-state model calculations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 1395–1398 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Sen, G. C. Toon, G. B. Osterman, J.-F. Blavier, J. J. Margitan, R. J. Salawitch, “Measurements of reactive nitrogen in the stratosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 3571–3585 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Paton-Walsh, C.

A. Goldman, C. Paton-Walsh, W. Bell, G. C. Toon, J.-F. Blavier, B. Sen, M. T. Coffey, J. W. Hannigan, W. G. Mankin, “Network for the detection of stratospheric change Fourier-transform infrared intercomparison at Table Mountain Facility, November 1996,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 30481–30503 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Goldman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Perrin, J. M. Flaud, “HNO3 line parameters: 1996 HITRAN update and new results,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 851–861 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Podolske, J. R.

A. Y. Chang, R. J. Salawitch, H. A. Michelsen, M. R. Gunson, M. C. Abrams, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, J. W. Elkins, G. S. Dutton, C. M. Volk, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, D. W. Fahey, R. S. Gao, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, R. M. Stimpfle, D. W. Kohn, M. H. Proffitt, J. J. Margitan, K. R. Chan, M. M. Abbas, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, G. L. Manney, M. J. Newchurch, G. P. Stiller, “A comparison of measurements from ATMOS and instruments aboard the ER-2 aircraft: halogenated gases,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2393–2396 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Newchurch, M. Allen, M. R. Gunson, R. J. Salawitch, G. B. Collins, K. H. Huston, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, A. Y. Chang, D. W. Fahey, R. S. Gao, F. W. Irion, M. Lowenstein, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, J. R. Podolske, C. P. Rinsland, R. Zander, “Stratospheric NO and NO2 abundances from ATMOS solar-occultation measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2373–2376 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pollack, J. B.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18,745–18,763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Poole, L. R.

L. W. Thomason, L. R. Poole, T. Deshler, “A global climatology of stratospheric aerosol surface area density deduced from Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II measurements: 1984–1994,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 8967–8976 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Proffitt, M.

G. C. Toon, J.-F. Blavier, B. Sen, J. J. Margitan, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, D. Fahey, R. Gao, L. Del Negro, M. Proffitt, J. Elkins, P. A. Romashkin, D. F. Hurst, S. Oltmans, E. Atlas, S. Schauffler, F. Flocke, T. P. Bui, R. M. Stimpfle, G. P. Bonne, P. B. Voss, R. C. Cohen, “Comparison of MkIV balloon and ER-2 aircraft measurements of atmospheric trace gases,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 26,779–26,790 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Proffitt, M. H.

A. Y. Chang, R. J. Salawitch, H. A. Michelsen, M. R. Gunson, M. C. Abrams, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, J. W. Elkins, G. S. Dutton, C. M. Volk, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, D. W. Fahey, R. S. Gao, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, R. M. Stimpfle, D. W. Kohn, M. H. Proffitt, J. J. Margitan, K. R. Chan, M. M. Abbas, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, G. L. Manney, M. J. Newchurch, G. P. Stiller, “A comparison of measurements from ATMOS and instruments aboard the ER-2 aircraft: halogenated gases,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2393–2396 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pueschel, R. F.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18,745–18,763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pumphrey, H. C.

H. A. Michelsen, G. L. Manney, F. W. Irion, G. C. Toon, M. R. Gunson, C. P. Rinsland, R. Zander, E. Mahieu, M. J. Newchurch, P. N. Purcell, E. E. Remsberg, J. M. Russell, H. C. Pumphrey, J. W. Waters, R. M. Bevilacqua, K. K. Kelly, E. J. Hinsta, E. M. Weinstock, E.-W. Chiou, W. P. Chu, M. P. McCormick, C. R. Webster, “ATMOS Version 3 water vapor measurements: comparisons with ATMOS Version 2 retrievals and observations from two ER-2 Lyman-α hygrometers, MkIV, HALOE, SAGE II, MAS, and MLS,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 10.1029/2001JD000587 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Purcell, P. N.

H. A. Michelsen, G. L. Manney, F. W. Irion, G. C. Toon, M. R. Gunson, C. P. Rinsland, R. Zander, E. Mahieu, M. J. Newchurch, P. N. Purcell, E. E. Remsberg, J. M. Russell, H. C. Pumphrey, J. W. Waters, R. M. Bevilacqua, K. K. Kelly, E. J. Hinsta, E. M. Weinstock, E.-W. Chiou, W. P. Chu, M. P. McCormick, C. R. Webster, “ATMOS Version 3 water vapor measurements: comparisons with ATMOS Version 2 retrievals and observations from two ER-2 Lyman-α hygrometers, MkIV, HALOE, SAGE II, MAS, and MLS,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 10.1029/2001JD000587 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Raper, O. F.

G. P. Stiller, M. R. Gunson, L. L. Lowes, M. C. Abrams, O. F. Raper, C. B. Farmer, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, “Stratospheric and mesospheric pressure-temperature profiles from rotational analysis of CO2 lines in atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy/ATLAS 1 infrared solar occultation spectra,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 3107–3117 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Farmer, O. F. Raper, F. G. O’Callaghan, “Final report on the first flight of the ATMOS instrument during the Spacelab 3 mission, April 29 through May 6, 1985,” JPL publication 87–32 (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., 1987).

Remsberg, E. E.

H. A. Michelsen, G. L. Manney, F. W. Irion, G. C. Toon, M. R. Gunson, C. P. Rinsland, R. Zander, E. Mahieu, M. J. Newchurch, P. N. Purcell, E. E. Remsberg, J. M. Russell, H. C. Pumphrey, J. W. Waters, R. M. Bevilacqua, K. K. Kelly, E. J. Hinsta, E. M. Weinstock, E.-W. Chiou, W. P. Chu, M. P. McCormick, C. R. Webster, “ATMOS Version 3 water vapor measurements: comparisons with ATMOS Version 2 retrievals and observations from two ER-2 Lyman-α hygrometers, MkIV, HALOE, SAGE II, MAS, and MLS,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 10.1029/2001JD000587 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Rosenlof, S. J. Oltmans, D. Kley, J. M. Russell, E.-W. Chiou, W. P. Chu, D. G. Johnson, K. K. Kelly, H. A. Michelsen, G. E. Nedoluha, E. E. Remsberg, G. C. Toon, M. P. McCormick, “Stratospheric water vapor increases over the past half-century,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 1195–1198 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Riese, M.

G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, R. M. Bevilacqua, M. R. Gunson, F. W. Irion, N. J. Livesey, J. Oberheide, M. Riese, J. M. Russell, G. C. Toon, J. M. Zawodny, “Comparison of ozone observations in early November 1994 in the context of meterological variability,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 9923–9943 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rinsland, C. P.

H. A. Michelsen, G. L. Manney, F. W. Irion, G. C. Toon, M. R. Gunson, C. P. Rinsland, R. Zander, E. Mahieu, M. J. Newchurch, P. N. Purcell, E. E. Remsberg, J. M. Russell, H. C. Pumphrey, J. W. Waters, R. M. Bevilacqua, K. K. Kelly, E. J. Hinsta, E. M. Weinstock, E.-W. Chiou, W. P. Chu, M. P. McCormick, C. R. Webster, “ATMOS Version 3 water vapor measurements: comparisons with ATMOS Version 2 retrievals and observations from two ER-2 Lyman-α hygrometers, MkIV, HALOE, SAGE II, MAS, and MLS,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 10.1029/2001JD000587 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. B. Osterman, F. W. Irion, B. Sen, R. Zander, E. Mahieu, M. R. Gunson, “Stratospheric CO at tropical and mid-latitudes: ATMOS measurements and photochemical steady-state model calculations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 1395–1398 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Goldman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Perrin, J. M. Flaud, “HNO3 line parameters: 1996 HITRAN update and new results,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 851–861 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Y. Chang, R. J. Salawitch, H. A. Michelsen, M. R. Gunson, M. C. Abrams, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, J. W. Elkins, G. S. Dutton, C. M. Volk, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, D. W. Fahey, R. S. Gao, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, R. M. Stimpfle, D. W. Kohn, M. H. Proffitt, J. J. Margitan, K. R. Chan, M. M. Abbas, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, G. L. Manney, M. J. Newchurch, G. P. Stiller, “A comparison of measurements from ATMOS and instruments aboard the ER-2 aircraft: halogenated gases,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2393–2396 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Abrams, M. R. Gunson, A. Y. Chang, C. P. Rinsland, R. Zander, “Remote sensing of the Earth’s atmosphere from space with high-resolution Fourier-transform spectroscopy: development and methodology of data processing for the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy experiment,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2774–2786 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. M. Abbas, M. R. Gunson, M. J. Newchurch, H. A. Michelsen, R. J. Salawitch, M. Allen, M. C. Abrams, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, E. J. Moyer, R. Nagaraju, C. P. Rinsland, G. P. Stiller, R. Zander, “The hydrogen budget of the stratosphere inferred from ATMOS measurements of H2O and CH4,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2405–2408 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Brown, M. R. Gunson, R. A. Toth, F. W. Irion, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, “The 1995 Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) linelist,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2828–2848 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Zander, E. Mahieu, M. R. Gunson, M. C. Abrams, A. Y. Chang, M. Abbas, C. Aellig, A. Engel, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, N. Kampfer, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, “The 1994 northern mid-latitude budget of stratospheric chlorine derived from ATMOS/ATLAS-3 observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2357–2360 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Newchurch, M. Allen, M. R. Gunson, R. J. Salawitch, G. B. Collins, K. H. Huston, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, A. Y. Chang, D. W. Fahey, R. S. Gao, F. W. Irion, M. Lowenstein, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, J. R. Podolske, C. P. Rinsland, R. Zander, “Stratospheric NO and NO2 abundances from ATMOS solar-occultation measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2373–2376 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Abrams, A. Y. Chang, M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, G. P. Stiller, R. Zander, “On the assessment and uncertainty of atmospheric trace gas burden measurements with high resolution infrared solar occultation spectra from space by the ATMOS experiment,” Geophys., Res. Lett. 23, 2337–2340 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Stiller, M. R. Gunson, L. L. Lowes, M. C. Abrams, O. F. Raper, C. B. Farmer, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, “Stratospheric and mesospheric pressure-temperature profiles from rotational analysis of CO2 lines in atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy/ATLAS 1 infrared solar occultation spectra,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 3107–3117 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Gunson, M. C. Abrams, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, M. K. W. Ko, N. D. Sze, D. K. Weisenstein, “Increase in levels of stratospheric chlorine and fluorine loading between 1985 and 1992,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 2223–2226 (1994).

M. López-Puertas, M. A. López-Valverde, C. P. Rinsland, M. R. Gunson, “Analysis of the upper atmospheric CO2(ν2) vibrational temperatures retrieved from ATMOS/Spacelab 3 observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 20469–20478 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. Zander, M. R. Gunson, C. B. Farmer, C. P. Rinsland, F. W. Irion, E. Mahieu, “The 1985 chlorine and fluorine inventories in the stratosphere based on ATMOS observations at 30° north latitude,” J. Atmos. Chem. 15, 171–186 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Norton, C. P. Rinsland, “ATMOS data processing and science analysis methods,” Appl. Opt. 30, 389–400 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Gunson, C. B. Farmer, R. H. Norton, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, J. H. Shaw, B.-C. Gao, “Measurements of CH4, N2O, CO, H2O, and O3 in the middle atmosphere by the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy experiment on Spacelab 3,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 13867–13882 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. Zander, Ph. Demoulin, E. Mahieu, G. P. Adrian, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, “ESMOSII/NDSC IR spectral fitting algorithms intercomparison exercise,” in Proceedings of the Atmospheric Spectroscopy Applications Workshop, A. Barbe, L. Rothman, eds. (University of Reims Champaigne, Ardenne, 1993).

Roche, A. E.

G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, F. W. Irion, G. C. Toon, M. R. Gunson, A. E. Roche, “Lamination and polar vortex development in fall from ATMOS long-lived trace gases observed during November 1994,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 29,023–29,038 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. L. Santee, M. R. Gunson, F. W. Irion, A. E. Roche, N. J. Livesey, “Polar vortex dynamics during spring and fall diagnosed using trace gas observations from the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 18,841–18,866 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rodgers, C. D.

A. Lambert, R. G. Grainger, C. D. Rodgers, F. W. Taylor, J. L. Mergenthaler, J. B. Kumer, S. T. Massie, “Global evolution of the Mt Pinatubo volcanic aerosols observed by the infrared limb-sounding instruments CLAES and ISAMS on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 1495–1512 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Romashkin, P. A.

G. C. Toon, J.-F. Blavier, B. Sen, J. J. Margitan, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, D. Fahey, R. Gao, L. Del Negro, M. Proffitt, J. Elkins, P. A. Romashkin, D. F. Hurst, S. Oltmans, E. Atlas, S. Schauffler, F. Flocke, T. P. Bui, R. M. Stimpfle, G. P. Bonne, P. B. Voss, R. C. Cohen, “Comparison of MkIV balloon and ER-2 aircraft measurements of atmospheric trace gases,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 26,779–26,790 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rosenlof, K. H.

K. H. Rosenlof, S. J. Oltmans, D. Kley, J. M. Russell, E.-W. Chiou, W. P. Chu, D. G. Johnson, K. K. Kelly, H. A. Michelsen, G. E. Nedoluha, E. E. Remsberg, G. C. Toon, M. P. McCormick, “Stratospheric water vapor increases over the past half-century,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 1195–1198 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Russell, J. M.

H. A. Michelsen, G. L. Manney, F. W. Irion, G. C. Toon, M. R. Gunson, C. P. Rinsland, R. Zander, E. Mahieu, M. J. Newchurch, P. N. Purcell, E. E. Remsberg, J. M. Russell, H. C. Pumphrey, J. W. Waters, R. M. Bevilacqua, K. K. Kelly, E. J. Hinsta, E. M. Weinstock, E.-W. Chiou, W. P. Chu, M. P. McCormick, C. R. Webster, “ATMOS Version 3 water vapor measurements: comparisons with ATMOS Version 2 retrievals and observations from two ER-2 Lyman-α hygrometers, MkIV, HALOE, SAGE II, MAS, and MLS,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 10.1029/2001JD000587 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, R. M. Bevilacqua, M. R. Gunson, F. W. Irion, N. J. Livesey, J. Oberheide, M. Riese, J. M. Russell, G. C. Toon, J. M. Zawodny, “Comparison of ozone observations in early November 1994 in the context of meterological variability,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 9923–9943 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Rosenlof, S. J. Oltmans, D. Kley, J. M. Russell, E.-W. Chiou, W. P. Chu, D. G. Johnson, K. K. Kelly, H. A. Michelsen, G. E. Nedoluha, E. E. Remsberg, G. C. Toon, M. P. McCormick, “Stratospheric water vapor increases over the past half-century,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 1195–1198 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Webster, H. A. Michelsen, M. R. Gunson, J. J. Margitan, J. M. Russell, G. C. Toon, W. A. Traub, “Response of lower stratospheric HCl/Cly to volcanic aerosol: observations from aircraft balloon, Space Shuttle, and satellite instruments,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 11,711–11,719 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Michelsen, C. R. Webster, G. L. Manney, D. C. Scott, J. J. Margitan, R. D. May, F. W. Irion, M. R. Gunson, J. M. Russell, C. M. Spivakovsky, “Maintenance of high HCl/Cly and NOx/NOy in the Antarctic vortex: a chemical signature of confinement during spring,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 26,419–26,436 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Massie, T. Deshler, G. E. Thomas, J. L. Mergenthaler, J. M. Russell, “Evolution of the infrared properties of the Mount Pinatubo aerosol cloud over Laramie, Wyoming,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 23,007–23,019 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. B.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18,745–18,763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Salawitch, R. J.

C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. B. Osterman, F. W. Irion, B. Sen, R. Zander, E. Mahieu, M. R. Gunson, “Stratospheric CO at tropical and mid-latitudes: ATMOS measurements and photochemical steady-state model calculations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 1395–1398 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Sen, G. C. Toon, G. B. Osterman, J.-F. Blavier, J. J. Margitan, R. J. Salawitch, “Measurements of reactive nitrogen in the stratosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 3571–3585 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Y. Chang, R. J. Salawitch, H. A. Michelsen, M. R. Gunson, M. C. Abrams, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, J. W. Elkins, G. S. Dutton, C. M. Volk, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, D. W. Fahey, R. S. Gao, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, R. M. Stimpfle, D. W. Kohn, M. H. Proffitt, J. J. Margitan, K. R. Chan, M. M. Abbas, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, G. L. Manney, M. J. Newchurch, G. P. Stiller, “A comparison of measurements from ATMOS and instruments aboard the ER-2 aircraft: halogenated gases,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2393–2396 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Abbas, M. R. Gunson, M. J. Newchurch, H. A. Michelsen, R. J. Salawitch, M. Allen, M. C. Abrams, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, E. J. Moyer, R. Nagaraju, C. P. Rinsland, G. P. Stiller, R. Zander, “The hydrogen budget of the stratosphere inferred from ATMOS measurements of H2O and CH4,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2405–2408 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Zander, E. Mahieu, M. R. Gunson, M. C. Abrams, A. Y. Chang, M. Abbas, C. Aellig, A. Engel, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, N. Kampfer, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, “The 1994 northern mid-latitude budget of stratospheric chlorine derived from ATMOS/ATLAS-3 observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2357–2360 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Newchurch, M. Allen, M. R. Gunson, R. J. Salawitch, G. B. Collins, K. H. Huston, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, A. Y. Chang, D. W. Fahey, R. S. Gao, F. W. Irion, M. Lowenstein, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, J. R. Podolske, C. P. Rinsland, R. Zander, “Stratospheric NO and NO2 abundances from ATMOS solar-occultation measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2373–2376 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Santee, M. L.

G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. L. Santee, M. R. Gunson, F. W. Irion, A. E. Roche, N. J. Livesey, “Polar vortex dynamics during spring and fall diagnosed using trace gas observations from the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 18,841–18,866 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schauffler, S.

G. C. Toon, J.-F. Blavier, B. Sen, J. J. Margitan, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, D. Fahey, R. Gao, L. Del Negro, M. Proffitt, J. Elkins, P. A. Romashkin, D. F. Hurst, S. Oltmans, E. Atlas, S. Schauffler, F. Flocke, T. P. Bui, R. M. Stimpfle, G. P. Bonne, P. B. Voss, R. C. Cohen, “Comparison of MkIV balloon and ER-2 aircraft measurements of atmospheric trace gases,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 26,779–26,790 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schindler, R. A.

Schroeder, J.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Scott, D. C.

H. A. Michelsen, C. R. Webster, G. L. Manney, D. C. Scott, J. J. Margitan, R. D. May, F. W. Irion, M. R. Gunson, J. M. Russell, C. M. Spivakovsky, “Maintenance of high HCl/Cly and NOx/NOy in the Antarctic vortex: a chemical signature of confinement during spring,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 26,419–26,436 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sen, B.

C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. B. Osterman, F. W. Irion, B. Sen, R. Zander, E. Mahieu, M. R. Gunson, “Stratospheric CO at tropical and mid-latitudes: ATMOS measurements and photochemical steady-state model calculations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 1395–1398 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Toon, J.-F. Blavier, B. Sen, J. J. Margitan, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, D. Fahey, R. Gao, L. Del Negro, M. Proffitt, J. Elkins, P. A. Romashkin, D. F. Hurst, S. Oltmans, E. Atlas, S. Schauffler, F. Flocke, T. P. Bui, R. M. Stimpfle, G. P. Bonne, P. B. Voss, R. C. Cohen, “Comparison of MkIV balloon and ER-2 aircraft measurements of atmospheric trace gases,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 26,779–26,790 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Goldman, C. Paton-Walsh, W. Bell, G. C. Toon, J.-F. Blavier, B. Sen, M. T. Coffey, J. W. Hannigan, W. G. Mankin, “Network for the detection of stratospheric change Fourier-transform infrared intercomparison at Table Mountain Facility, November 1996,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 30481–30503 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Sen, G. C. Toon, G. B. Osterman, J.-F. Blavier, J. J. Margitan, R. J. Salawitch, “Measurements of reactive nitrogen in the stratosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 3571–3585 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Toon, J.-F. Blavier, B. Sen are preparing a manuscript titled, “Balloon-borne FTIR solar absorption spectrometry for measurements of atmospheric composition.”

Shaw, J. H.

M. R. Gunson, C. B. Farmer, R. H. Norton, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, J. H. Shaw, B.-C. Gao, “Measurements of CH4, N2O, CO, H2O, and O3 in the middle atmosphere by the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy experiment on Spacelab 3,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 13867–13882 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Spivakovsky, C. M.

H. A. Michelsen, C. R. Webster, G. L. Manney, D. C. Scott, J. J. Margitan, R. D. May, F. W. Irion, M. R. Gunson, J. M. Russell, C. M. Spivakovsky, “Maintenance of high HCl/Cly and NOx/NOy in the Antarctic vortex: a chemical signature of confinement during spring,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 26,419–26,436 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Steele, H. M.

Steele, L. P.

J. W. Elkins, D. W. Fahey, J. M. Gilligan, G. S. Dutton, T. J. Baring, C. M. Volk, R. E. Dunn, R. C. Myers, S. A. Montzka, P. R. Wamsley, A. H. Hayden, J. H. Butler, T. M. Thompson, T. H. Swanson, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. C. Novelli, D. F. Hurst, J. M. Lobert, S. J. Ciciora, R. J. McLaughlin, T. L. Thompson, R. H. Winkler, P. J. Fraser, L. P. Steele, M. P. Lucarelli, “Airborne gas chromatograph for in situ measurements of long-lived species in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 347–350 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Stiller, G. P.

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Abbas, M. R. Gunson, M. J. Newchurch, H. A. Michelsen, R. J. Salawitch, M. Allen, M. C. Abrams, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, E. J. Moyer, R. Nagaraju, C. P. Rinsland, G. P. Stiller, R. Zander, “The hydrogen budget of the stratosphere inferred from ATMOS measurements of H2O and CH4,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2405–2408 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Y. Chang, R. J. Salawitch, H. A. Michelsen, M. R. Gunson, M. C. Abrams, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, J. W. Elkins, G. S. Dutton, C. M. Volk, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, D. W. Fahey, R. S. Gao, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, R. M. Stimpfle, D. W. Kohn, M. H. Proffitt, J. J. Margitan, K. R. Chan, M. M. Abbas, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, G. L. Manney, M. J. Newchurch, G. P. Stiller, “A comparison of measurements from ATMOS and instruments aboard the ER-2 aircraft: halogenated gases,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2393–2396 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Abrams, A. Y. Chang, M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, G. P. Stiller, R. Zander, “On the assessment and uncertainty of atmospheric trace gas burden measurements with high resolution infrared solar occultation spectra from space by the ATMOS experiment,” Geophys., Res. Lett. 23, 2337–2340 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Zander, E. Mahieu, M. R. Gunson, M. C. Abrams, A. Y. Chang, M. Abbas, C. Aellig, A. Engel, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, N. Kampfer, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, “The 1994 northern mid-latitude budget of stratospheric chlorine derived from ATMOS/ATLAS-3 observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2357–2360 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Stiller, M. R. Gunson, L. L. Lowes, M. C. Abrams, O. F. Raper, C. B. Farmer, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, “Stratospheric and mesospheric pressure-temperature profiles from rotational analysis of CO2 lines in atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy/ATLAS 1 infrared solar occultation spectra,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 3107–3117 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Stimpfle, R. M.

G. C. Toon, J.-F. Blavier, B. Sen, J. J. Margitan, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, D. Fahey, R. Gao, L. Del Negro, M. Proffitt, J. Elkins, P. A. Romashkin, D. F. Hurst, S. Oltmans, E. Atlas, S. Schauffler, F. Flocke, T. P. Bui, R. M. Stimpfle, G. P. Bonne, P. B. Voss, R. C. Cohen, “Comparison of MkIV balloon and ER-2 aircraft measurements of atmospheric trace gases,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 26,779–26,790 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Y. Chang, R. J. Salawitch, H. A. Michelsen, M. R. Gunson, M. C. Abrams, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, J. W. Elkins, G. S. Dutton, C. M. Volk, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, D. W. Fahey, R. S. Gao, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, R. M. Stimpfle, D. W. Kohn, M. H. Proffitt, J. J. Margitan, K. R. Chan, M. M. Abbas, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, G. L. Manney, M. J. Newchurch, G. P. Stiller, “A comparison of measurements from ATMOS and instruments aboard the ER-2 aircraft: halogenated gases,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2393–2396 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Stowe, L. L.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18,745–18,763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Swanson, T. H.

J. W. Elkins, D. W. Fahey, J. M. Gilligan, G. S. Dutton, T. J. Baring, C. M. Volk, R. E. Dunn, R. C. Myers, S. A. Montzka, P. R. Wamsley, A. H. Hayden, J. H. Butler, T. M. Thompson, T. H. Swanson, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. C. Novelli, D. F. Hurst, J. M. Lobert, S. J. Ciciora, R. J. McLaughlin, T. L. Thompson, R. H. Winkler, P. J. Fraser, L. P. Steele, M. P. Lucarelli, “Airborne gas chromatograph for in situ measurements of long-lived species in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 347–350 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sze, N. D.

M. R. Gunson, M. C. Abrams, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, M. K. W. Ko, N. D. Sze, D. K. Weisenstein, “Increase in levels of stratospheric chlorine and fluorine loading between 1985 and 1992,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 2223–2226 (1994).

Taylor, F. W.

A. Lambert, R. G. Grainger, C. D. Rodgers, F. W. Taylor, J. L. Mergenthaler, J. B. Kumer, S. T. Massie, “Global evolution of the Mt Pinatubo volcanic aerosols observed by the infrared limb-sounding instruments CLAES and ISAMS on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 1495–1512 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, G. E.

S. T. Massie, T. Deshler, G. E. Thomas, J. L. Mergenthaler, J. M. Russell, “Evolution of the infrared properties of the Mount Pinatubo aerosol cloud over Laramie, Wyoming,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 23,007–23,019 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Thomason, L. W.

L. W. Thomason, L. R. Poole, T. Deshler, “A global climatology of stratospheric aerosol surface area density deduced from Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II measurements: 1984–1994,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 8967–8976 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18,745–18,763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, T. L.

J. W. Elkins, D. W. Fahey, J. M. Gilligan, G. S. Dutton, T. J. Baring, C. M. Volk, R. E. Dunn, R. C. Myers, S. A. Montzka, P. R. Wamsley, A. H. Hayden, J. H. Butler, T. M. Thompson, T. H. Swanson, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. C. Novelli, D. F. Hurst, J. M. Lobert, S. J. Ciciora, R. J. McLaughlin, T. L. Thompson, R. H. Winkler, P. J. Fraser, L. P. Steele, M. P. Lucarelli, “Airborne gas chromatograph for in situ measurements of long-lived species in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 347–350 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, T. M.

J. W. Elkins, D. W. Fahey, J. M. Gilligan, G. S. Dutton, T. J. Baring, C. M. Volk, R. E. Dunn, R. C. Myers, S. A. Montzka, P. R. Wamsley, A. H. Hayden, J. H. Butler, T. M. Thompson, T. H. Swanson, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. C. Novelli, D. F. Hurst, J. M. Lobert, S. J. Ciciora, R. J. McLaughlin, T. L. Thompson, R. H. Winkler, P. J. Fraser, L. P. Steele, M. P. Lucarelli, “Airborne gas chromatograph for in situ measurements of long-lived species in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 347–350 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Toon, G. C.

H. A. Michelsen, G. L. Manney, F. W. Irion, G. C. Toon, M. R. Gunson, C. P. Rinsland, R. Zander, E. Mahieu, M. J. Newchurch, P. N. Purcell, E. E. Remsberg, J. M. Russell, H. C. Pumphrey, J. W. Waters, R. M. Bevilacqua, K. K. Kelly, E. J. Hinsta, E. M. Weinstock, E.-W. Chiou, W. P. Chu, M. P. McCormick, C. R. Webster, “ATMOS Version 3 water vapor measurements: comparisons with ATMOS Version 2 retrievals and observations from two ER-2 Lyman-α hygrometers, MkIV, HALOE, SAGE II, MAS, and MLS,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 10.1029/2001JD000587 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, R. M. Bevilacqua, M. R. Gunson, F. W. Irion, N. J. Livesey, J. Oberheide, M. Riese, J. M. Russell, G. C. Toon, J. M. Zawodny, “Comparison of ozone observations in early November 1994 in the context of meterological variability,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 9923–9943 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Rosenlof, S. J. Oltmans, D. Kley, J. M. Russell, E.-W. Chiou, W. P. Chu, D. G. Johnson, K. K. Kelly, H. A. Michelsen, G. E. Nedoluha, E. E. Remsberg, G. C. Toon, M. P. McCormick, “Stratospheric water vapor increases over the past half-century,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 1195–1198 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Webster, H. A. Michelsen, M. R. Gunson, J. J. Margitan, J. M. Russell, G. C. Toon, W. A. Traub, “Response of lower stratospheric HCl/Cly to volcanic aerosol: observations from aircraft balloon, Space Shuttle, and satellite instruments,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 11,711–11,719 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, F. W. Irion, G. C. Toon, M. R. Gunson, A. E. Roche, “Lamination and polar vortex development in fall from ATMOS long-lived trace gases observed during November 1994,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 29,023–29,038 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Michelsen, F. W. Irion, G. L. Manney, G. C. Toon, M. R. Gunson, “Features and trends in Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) Version 3 stratospheric water vapor and methane measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 22,713–22,724 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Toon, J.-F. Blavier, B. Sen, J. J. Margitan, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, D. Fahey, R. Gao, L. Del Negro, M. Proffitt, J. Elkins, P. A. Romashkin, D. F. Hurst, S. Oltmans, E. Atlas, S. Schauffler, F. Flocke, T. P. Bui, R. M. Stimpfle, G. P. Bonne, P. B. Voss, R. C. Cohen, “Comparison of MkIV balloon and ER-2 aircraft measurements of atmospheric trace gases,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 26,779–26,790 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Goldman, C. Paton-Walsh, W. Bell, G. C. Toon, J.-F. Blavier, B. Sen, M. T. Coffey, J. W. Hannigan, W. G. Mankin, “Network for the detection of stratospheric change Fourier-transform infrared intercomparison at Table Mountain Facility, November 1996,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 30481–30503 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Sen, G. C. Toon, G. B. Osterman, J.-F. Blavier, J. J. Margitan, R. J. Salawitch, “Measurements of reactive nitrogen in the stratosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 3571–3585 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Zander, E. Mahieu, M. R. Gunson, M. C. Abrams, A. Y. Chang, M. Abbas, C. Aellig, A. Engel, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, N. Kampfer, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, “The 1994 northern mid-latitude budget of stratospheric chlorine derived from ATMOS/ATLAS-3 observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2357–2360 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Abrams, G. C. Toon, R. A. Schindler, “Practical example for the correction of Fourier-transform spectra for detector nonlinearity,” Appl. Opt. 33, 6307–6314 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Toon, “The JPL MkIV interferometer,” Opt. Photon. News 2(10), 19–21 (1991).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Toon, J.-F. Blavier, B. Sen are preparing a manuscript titled, “Balloon-borne FTIR solar absorption spectrometry for measurements of atmospheric composition.”

Toth, R. A.

Traub, W. A.

C. R. Webster, H. A. Michelsen, M. R. Gunson, J. J. Margitan, J. M. Russell, G. C. Toon, W. A. Traub, “Response of lower stratospheric HCl/Cly to volcanic aerosol: observations from aircraft balloon, Space Shuttle, and satellite instruments,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 11,711–11,719 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tyuterev, V. G.

A. Nikitin, J. P. Champion, V. G. Tyuterev, L. R. Brown, G. Mellau, M. Lock, “The infrared spectrum of CH3D between 900 and 3200 cm-1: extended assignment and modeling,” J. Mol. Struct. 517, 1–24 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Varanasi, P.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Volk, C. M.

A. Y. Chang, R. J. Salawitch, H. A. Michelsen, M. R. Gunson, M. C. Abrams, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, J. W. Elkins, G. S. Dutton, C. M. Volk, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, D. W. Fahey, R. S. Gao, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, R. M. Stimpfle, D. W. Kohn, M. H. Proffitt, J. J. Margitan, K. R. Chan, M. M. Abbas, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, G. L. Manney, M. J. Newchurch, G. P. Stiller, “A comparison of measurements from ATMOS and instruments aboard the ER-2 aircraft: halogenated gases,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2393–2396 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Elkins, D. W. Fahey, J. M. Gilligan, G. S. Dutton, T. J. Baring, C. M. Volk, R. E. Dunn, R. C. Myers, S. A. Montzka, P. R. Wamsley, A. H. Hayden, J. H. Butler, T. M. Thompson, T. H. Swanson, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. C. Novelli, D. F. Hurst, J. M. Lobert, S. J. Ciciora, R. J. McLaughlin, T. L. Thompson, R. H. Winkler, P. J. Fraser, L. P. Steele, M. P. Lucarelli, “Airborne gas chromatograph for in situ measurements of long-lived species in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 347–350 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Voss, P. B.

G. C. Toon, J.-F. Blavier, B. Sen, J. J. Margitan, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, D. Fahey, R. Gao, L. Del Negro, M. Proffitt, J. Elkins, P. A. Romashkin, D. F. Hurst, S. Oltmans, E. Atlas, S. Schauffler, F. Flocke, T. P. Bui, R. M. Stimpfle, G. P. Bonne, P. B. Voss, R. C. Cohen, “Comparison of MkIV balloon and ER-2 aircraft measurements of atmospheric trace gases,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 26,779–26,790 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wamsley, P. R.

J. W. Elkins, D. W. Fahey, J. M. Gilligan, G. S. Dutton, T. J. Baring, C. M. Volk, R. E. Dunn, R. C. Myers, S. A. Montzka, P. R. Wamsley, A. H. Hayden, J. H. Butler, T. M. Thompson, T. H. Swanson, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. C. Novelli, D. F. Hurst, J. M. Lobert, S. J. Ciciora, R. J. McLaughlin, T. L. Thompson, R. H. Winkler, P. J. Fraser, L. P. Steele, M. P. Lucarelli, “Airborne gas chromatograph for in situ measurements of long-lived species in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 347–350 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Waters, J. W.

H. A. Michelsen, G. L. Manney, F. W. Irion, G. C. Toon, M. R. Gunson, C. P. Rinsland, R. Zander, E. Mahieu, M. J. Newchurch, P. N. Purcell, E. E. Remsberg, J. M. Russell, H. C. Pumphrey, J. W. Waters, R. M. Bevilacqua, K. K. Kelly, E. J. Hinsta, E. M. Weinstock, E.-W. Chiou, W. P. Chu, M. P. McCormick, C. R. Webster, “ATMOS Version 3 water vapor measurements: comparisons with ATMOS Version 2 retrievals and observations from two ER-2 Lyman-α hygrometers, MkIV, HALOE, SAGE II, MAS, and MLS,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 10.1029/2001JD000587 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wattson, R. B.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Webster, C. R.

H. A. Michelsen, G. L. Manney, F. W. Irion, G. C. Toon, M. R. Gunson, C. P. Rinsland, R. Zander, E. Mahieu, M. J. Newchurch, P. N. Purcell, E. E. Remsberg, J. M. Russell, H. C. Pumphrey, J. W. Waters, R. M. Bevilacqua, K. K. Kelly, E. J. Hinsta, E. M. Weinstock, E.-W. Chiou, W. P. Chu, M. P. McCormick, C. R. Webster, “ATMOS Version 3 water vapor measurements: comparisons with ATMOS Version 2 retrievals and observations from two ER-2 Lyman-α hygrometers, MkIV, HALOE, SAGE II, MAS, and MLS,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 10.1029/2001JD000587 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Webster, H. A. Michelsen, M. R. Gunson, J. J. Margitan, J. M. Russell, G. C. Toon, W. A. Traub, “Response of lower stratospheric HCl/Cly to volcanic aerosol: observations from aircraft balloon, Space Shuttle, and satellite instruments,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 11,711–11,719 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Michelsen, C. R. Webster, G. L. Manney, D. C. Scott, J. J. Margitan, R. D. May, F. W. Irion, M. R. Gunson, J. M. Russell, C. M. Spivakovsky, “Maintenance of high HCl/Cly and NOx/NOy in the Antarctic vortex: a chemical signature of confinement during spring,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 26,419–26,436 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Toon, J.-F. Blavier, B. Sen, J. J. Margitan, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, D. Fahey, R. Gao, L. Del Negro, M. Proffitt, J. Elkins, P. A. Romashkin, D. F. Hurst, S. Oltmans, E. Atlas, S. Schauffler, F. Flocke, T. P. Bui, R. M. Stimpfle, G. P. Bonne, P. B. Voss, R. C. Cohen, “Comparison of MkIV balloon and ER-2 aircraft measurements of atmospheric trace gases,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 26,779–26,790 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Y. Chang, R. J. Salawitch, H. A. Michelsen, M. R. Gunson, M. C. Abrams, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, J. W. Elkins, G. S. Dutton, C. M. Volk, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, D. W. Fahey, R. S. Gao, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, R. M. Stimpfle, D. W. Kohn, M. H. Proffitt, J. J. Margitan, K. R. Chan, M. M. Abbas, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, G. L. Manney, M. J. Newchurch, G. P. Stiller, “A comparison of measurements from ATMOS and instruments aboard the ER-2 aircraft: halogenated gases,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2393–2396 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Weinstock, E. M.

H. A. Michelsen, G. L. Manney, F. W. Irion, G. C. Toon, M. R. Gunson, C. P. Rinsland, R. Zander, E. Mahieu, M. J. Newchurch, P. N. Purcell, E. E. Remsberg, J. M. Russell, H. C. Pumphrey, J. W. Waters, R. M. Bevilacqua, K. K. Kelly, E. J. Hinsta, E. M. Weinstock, E.-W. Chiou, W. P. Chu, M. P. McCormick, C. R. Webster, “ATMOS Version 3 water vapor measurements: comparisons with ATMOS Version 2 retrievals and observations from two ER-2 Lyman-α hygrometers, MkIV, HALOE, SAGE II, MAS, and MLS,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 10.1029/2001JD000587 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Weisenstein, D. K.

M. R. Gunson, M. C. Abrams, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, M. K. W. Ko, N. D. Sze, D. K. Weisenstein, “Increase in levels of stratospheric chlorine and fluorine loading between 1985 and 1992,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 2223–2226 (1994).

Wen, J.

Y. L. Yung, A. Y. T. Lee, F. W. Irion, W. B. DeMore, J. Wen, “Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere: isotope exchange with ozone and its use as a tracer in the middle atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 10,857–10,866 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Winkler, R. H.

J. W. Elkins, D. W. Fahey, J. M. Gilligan, G. S. Dutton, T. J. Baring, C. M. Volk, R. E. Dunn, R. C. Myers, S. A. Montzka, P. R. Wamsley, A. H. Hayden, J. H. Butler, T. M. Thompson, T. H. Swanson, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. C. Novelli, D. F. Hurst, J. M. Lobert, S. J. Ciciora, R. J. McLaughlin, T. L. Thompson, R. H. Winkler, P. J. Fraser, L. P. Steele, M. P. Lucarelli, “Airborne gas chromatograph for in situ measurements of long-lived species in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 347–350 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yoshino, K.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yung, Y. L.

Y. L. Yung, A. Y. T. Lee, F. W. Irion, W. B. DeMore, J. Wen, “Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere: isotope exchange with ozone and its use as a tracer in the middle atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 10,857–10,866 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zander, R.

H. A. Michelsen, G. L. Manney, F. W. Irion, G. C. Toon, M. R. Gunson, C. P. Rinsland, R. Zander, E. Mahieu, M. J. Newchurch, P. N. Purcell, E. E. Remsberg, J. M. Russell, H. C. Pumphrey, J. W. Waters, R. M. Bevilacqua, K. K. Kelly, E. J. Hinsta, E. M. Weinstock, E.-W. Chiou, W. P. Chu, M. P. McCormick, C. R. Webster, “ATMOS Version 3 water vapor measurements: comparisons with ATMOS Version 2 retrievals and observations from two ER-2 Lyman-α hygrometers, MkIV, HALOE, SAGE II, MAS, and MLS,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 10.1029/2001JD000587 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. B. Osterman, F. W. Irion, B. Sen, R. Zander, E. Mahieu, M. R. Gunson, “Stratospheric CO at tropical and mid-latitudes: ATMOS measurements and photochemical steady-state model calculations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 1395–1398 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Michelsen, G. L. Manney, M. R. Gunson, R. Zander, “Correlations of stratospheric abundances of NOy, O3, N2O and CH4 derived from ATMOS measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 28,347–28,359 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Abrams, A. Y. Chang, M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, G. P. Stiller, R. Zander, “On the assessment and uncertainty of atmospheric trace gas burden measurements with high resolution infrared solar occultation spectra from space by the ATMOS experiment,” Geophys., Res. Lett. 23, 2337–2340 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Newchurch, M. Allen, M. R. Gunson, R. J. Salawitch, G. B. Collins, K. H. Huston, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, A. Y. Chang, D. W. Fahey, R. S. Gao, F. W. Irion, M. Lowenstein, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, J. R. Podolske, C. P. Rinsland, R. Zander, “Stratospheric NO and NO2 abundances from ATMOS solar-occultation measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2373–2376 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Zander, E. Mahieu, M. R. Gunson, M. C. Abrams, A. Y. Chang, M. Abbas, C. Aellig, A. Engel, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, N. Kampfer, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, “The 1994 northern mid-latitude budget of stratospheric chlorine derived from ATMOS/ATLAS-3 observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2357–2360 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Y. Chang, R. J. Salawitch, H. A. Michelsen, M. R. Gunson, M. C. Abrams, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, J. W. Elkins, G. S. Dutton, C. M. Volk, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, D. W. Fahey, R. S. Gao, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, R. M. Stimpfle, D. W. Kohn, M. H. Proffitt, J. J. Margitan, K. R. Chan, M. M. Abbas, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, G. L. Manney, M. J. Newchurch, G. P. Stiller, “A comparison of measurements from ATMOS and instruments aboard the ER-2 aircraft: halogenated gases,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2393–2396 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Abrams, M. R. Gunson, A. Y. Chang, C. P. Rinsland, R. Zander, “Remote sensing of the Earth’s atmosphere from space with high-resolution Fourier-transform spectroscopy: development and methodology of data processing for the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy experiment,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2774–2786 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. M. Abbas, M. R. Gunson, M. J. Newchurch, H. A. Michelsen, R. J. Salawitch, M. Allen, M. C. Abrams, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, E. J. Moyer, R. Nagaraju, C. P. Rinsland, G. P. Stiller, R. Zander, “The hydrogen budget of the stratosphere inferred from ATMOS measurements of H2O and CH4,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2405–2408 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Stiller, M. R. Gunson, L. L. Lowes, M. C. Abrams, O. F. Raper, C. B. Farmer, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, “Stratospheric and mesospheric pressure-temperature profiles from rotational analysis of CO2 lines in atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy/ATLAS 1 infrared solar occultation spectra,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 3107–3117 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Gunson, M. C. Abrams, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, M. K. W. Ko, N. D. Sze, D. K. Weisenstein, “Increase in levels of stratospheric chlorine and fluorine loading between 1985 and 1992,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 2223–2226 (1994).

R. Zander, M. R. Gunson, C. B. Farmer, C. P. Rinsland, F. W. Irion, E. Mahieu, “The 1985 chlorine and fluorine inventories in the stratosphere based on ATMOS observations at 30° north latitude,” J. Atmos. Chem. 15, 171–186 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Gunson, C. B. Farmer, R. H. Norton, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, J. H. Shaw, B.-C. Gao, “Measurements of CH4, N2O, CO, H2O, and O3 in the middle atmosphere by the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy experiment on Spacelab 3,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 13867–13882 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. Zander, Ph. Demoulin, E. Mahieu, G. P. Adrian, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, “ESMOSII/NDSC IR spectral fitting algorithms intercomparison exercise,” in Proceedings of the Atmospheric Spectroscopy Applications Workshop, A. Barbe, L. Rothman, eds. (University of Reims Champaigne, Ardenne, 1993).

Zawodny, J. M.

G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, R. M. Bevilacqua, M. R. Gunson, F. W. Irion, N. J. Livesey, J. Oberheide, M. Riese, J. M. Russell, G. C. Toon, J. M. Zawodny, “Comparison of ozone observations in early November 1994 in the context of meterological variability,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 9923–9943 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (5)

Geophys. Res. Lett. (8)

A. Y. Chang, R. J. Salawitch, H. A. Michelsen, M. R. Gunson, M. C. Abrams, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, J. W. Elkins, G. S. Dutton, C. M. Volk, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, D. W. Fahey, R. S. Gao, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, R. M. Stimpfle, D. W. Kohn, M. H. Proffitt, J. J. Margitan, K. R. Chan, M. M. Abbas, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, G. L. Manney, M. J. Newchurch, G. P. Stiller, “A comparison of measurements from ATMOS and instruments aboard the ER-2 aircraft: halogenated gases,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2393–2396 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Elkins, D. W. Fahey, J. M. Gilligan, G. S. Dutton, T. J. Baring, C. M. Volk, R. E. Dunn, R. C. Myers, S. A. Montzka, P. R. Wamsley, A. H. Hayden, J. H. Butler, T. M. Thompson, T. H. Swanson, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. C. Novelli, D. F. Hurst, J. M. Lobert, S. J. Ciciora, R. J. McLaughlin, T. L. Thompson, R. H. Winkler, P. J. Fraser, L. P. Steele, M. P. Lucarelli, “Airborne gas chromatograph for in situ measurements of long-lived species in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 347–350 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Newchurch, M. Allen, M. R. Gunson, R. J. Salawitch, G. B. Collins, K. H. Huston, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, A. Y. Chang, D. W. Fahey, R. S. Gao, F. W. Irion, M. Lowenstein, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, J. R. Podolske, C. P. Rinsland, R. Zander, “Stratospheric NO and NO2 abundances from ATMOS solar-occultation measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2373–2376 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Rosenlof, S. J. Oltmans, D. Kley, J. M. Russell, E.-W. Chiou, W. P. Chu, D. G. Johnson, K. K. Kelly, H. A. Michelsen, G. E. Nedoluha, E. E. Remsberg, G. C. Toon, M. P. McCormick, “Stratospheric water vapor increases over the past half-century,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 1195–1198 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. B. Osterman, F. W. Irion, B. Sen, R. Zander, E. Mahieu, M. R. Gunson, “Stratospheric CO at tropical and mid-latitudes: ATMOS measurements and photochemical steady-state model calculations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 1395–1398 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Zander, E. Mahieu, M. R. Gunson, M. C. Abrams, A. Y. Chang, M. Abbas, C. Aellig, A. Engel, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, N. Kampfer, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, “The 1994 northern mid-latitude budget of stratospheric chlorine derived from ATMOS/ATLAS-3 observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2357–2360 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Abbas, M. R. Gunson, M. J. Newchurch, H. A. Michelsen, R. J. Salawitch, M. Allen, M. C. Abrams, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, E. J. Moyer, R. Nagaraju, C. P. Rinsland, G. P. Stiller, R. Zander, “The hydrogen budget of the stratosphere inferred from ATMOS measurements of H2O and CH4,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2405–2408 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Geophys., Res. Lett. (1)

M. C. Abrams, A. Y. Chang, M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, G. P. Stiller, R. Zander, “On the assessment and uncertainty of atmospheric trace gas burden measurements with high resolution infrared solar occultation spectra from space by the ATMOS experiment,” Geophys., Res. Lett. 23, 2337–2340 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Chem. (1)

R. Zander, M. R. Gunson, C. B. Farmer, C. P. Rinsland, F. W. Irion, E. Mahieu, “The 1985 chlorine and fluorine inventories in the stratosphere based on ATMOS observations at 30° north latitude,” J. Atmos. Chem. 15, 171–186 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (20)

H. A. Michelsen, G. L. Manney, M. R. Gunson, R. Zander, “Correlations of stratospheric abundances of NOy, O3, N2O and CH4 derived from ATMOS measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 28,347–28,359 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. L. Santee, M. R. Gunson, F. W. Irion, A. E. Roche, N. J. Livesey, “Polar vortex dynamics during spring and fall diagnosed using trace gas observations from the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 18,841–18,866 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Lambert, R. G. Grainger, C. D. Rodgers, F. W. Taylor, J. L. Mergenthaler, J. B. Kumer, S. T. Massie, “Global evolution of the Mt Pinatubo volcanic aerosols observed by the infrared limb-sounding instruments CLAES and ISAMS on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 1495–1512 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Massie, T. Deshler, G. E. Thomas, J. L. Mergenthaler, J. M. Russell, “Evolution of the infrared properties of the Mount Pinatubo aerosol cloud over Laramie, Wyoming,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 23,007–23,019 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18,745–18,763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Thomason, L. R. Poole, T. Deshler, “A global climatology of stratospheric aerosol surface area density deduced from Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II measurements: 1984–1994,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 8967–8976 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, F. W. Irion, G. C. Toon, M. R. Gunson, A. E. Roche, “Lamination and polar vortex development in fall from ATMOS long-lived trace gases observed during November 1994,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 29,023–29,038 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Michelsen, C. R. Webster, G. L. Manney, D. C. Scott, J. J. Margitan, R. D. May, F. W. Irion, M. R. Gunson, J. M. Russell, C. M. Spivakovsky, “Maintenance of high HCl/Cly and NOx/NOy in the Antarctic vortex: a chemical signature of confinement during spring,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 26,419–26,436 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, R. M. Bevilacqua, M. R. Gunson, F. W. Irion, N. J. Livesey, J. Oberheide, M. Riese, J. M. Russell, G. C. Toon, J. M. Zawodny, “Comparison of ozone observations in early November 1994 in the context of meterological variability,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 9923–9943 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Webster, H. A. Michelsen, M. R. Gunson, J. J. Margitan, J. M. Russell, G. C. Toon, W. A. Traub, “Response of lower stratospheric HCl/Cly to volcanic aerosol: observations from aircraft balloon, Space Shuttle, and satellite instruments,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 11,711–11,719 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Goldman, C. Paton-Walsh, W. Bell, G. C. Toon, J.-F. Blavier, B. Sen, M. T. Coffey, J. W. Hannigan, W. G. Mankin, “Network for the detection of stratospheric change Fourier-transform infrared intercomparison at Table Mountain Facility, November 1996,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 30481–30503 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Gunson, C. B. Farmer, R. H. Norton, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, J. H. Shaw, B.-C. Gao, “Measurements of CH4, N2O, CO, H2O, and O3 in the middle atmosphere by the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy experiment on Spacelab 3,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 13867–13882 (1990).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Stiller, M. R. Gunson, L. L. Lowes, M. C. Abrams, O. F. Raper, C. B. Farmer, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, “Stratospheric and mesospheric pressure-temperature profiles from rotational analysis of CO2 lines in atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy/ATLAS 1 infrared solar occultation spectra,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 3107–3117 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. López-Puertas, M. A. López-Valverde, C. P. Rinsland, M. R. Gunson, “Analysis of the upper atmospheric CO2(ν2) vibrational temperatures retrieved from ATMOS/Spacelab 3 observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 20469–20478 (1992).
[CrossRef]

B. Sen, G. C. Toon, G. B. Osterman, J.-F. Blavier, J. J. Margitan, R. J. Salawitch, “Measurements of reactive nitrogen in the stratosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 3571–3585 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Toon, J.-F. Blavier, B. Sen, J. J. Margitan, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, D. Fahey, R. Gao, L. Del Negro, M. Proffitt, J. Elkins, P. A. Romashkin, D. F. Hurst, S. Oltmans, E. Atlas, S. Schauffler, F. Flocke, T. P. Bui, R. M. Stimpfle, G. P. Bonne, P. B. Voss, R. C. Cohen, “Comparison of MkIV balloon and ER-2 aircraft measurements of atmospheric trace gases,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 26,779–26,790 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Yung, A. Y. T. Lee, F. W. Irion, W. B. DeMore, J. Wen, “Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere: isotope exchange with ozone and its use as a tracer in the middle atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 10,857–10,866 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Michelsen, F. W. Irion, G. L. Manney, G. C. Toon, M. R. Gunson, “Features and trends in Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) Version 3 stratospheric water vapor and methane measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 22,713–22,724 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Michelsen, G. L. Manney, F. W. Irion, G. C. Toon, M. R. Gunson, C. P. Rinsland, R. Zander, E. Mahieu, M. J. Newchurch, P. N. Purcell, E. E. Remsberg, J. M. Russell, H. C. Pumphrey, J. W. Waters, R. M. Bevilacqua, K. K. Kelly, E. J. Hinsta, E. M. Weinstock, E.-W. Chiou, W. P. Chu, M. P. McCormick, C. R. Webster, “ATMOS Version 3 water vapor measurements: comparisons with ATMOS Version 2 retrievals and observations from two ER-2 Lyman-α hygrometers, MkIV, HALOE, SAGE II, MAS, and MLS,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 10.1029/2001JD000587 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Gunson, M. C. Abrams, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, M. K. W. Ko, N. D. Sze, D. K. Weisenstein, “Increase in levels of stratospheric chlorine and fluorine loading between 1985 and 1992,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 2223–2226 (1994).

J. Mol. Struct. (1)

A. Nikitin, J. P. Champion, V. G. Tyuterev, L. R. Brown, G. Mellau, M. Lock, “The infrared spectrum of CH3D between 900 and 3200 cm-1: extended assignment and modeling,” J. Mol. Struct. 517, 1–24 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (2)

A. Goldman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Perrin, J. M. Flaud, “HNO3 line parameters: 1996 HITRAN update and new results,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 851–861 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Photon. News (1)

G. C. Toon, “The JPL MkIV interferometer,” Opt. Photon. News 2(10), 19–21 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

G. C. Toon, J.-F. Blavier, B. Sen are preparing a manuscript titled, “Balloon-borne FTIR solar absorption spectrometry for measurements of atmospheric composition.”

C. B. Farmer, O. F. Raper, F. G. O’Callaghan, “Final report on the first flight of the ATMOS instrument during the Spacelab 3 mission, April 29 through May 6, 1985,” JPL publication 87–32 (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., 1987).

Stratospheric Processes and their Role in Climate (SPARC), “Assessment of upper tropospheric and stratospheric water vapor,” WCRP-113, WMO/TD-1043 (World Climate Research Programme of World Meterological Organization/International Council for Science, Paris, France, 2000).

A. Goldman, “Intercomparison of analysis of ground-based IR synthetic spectra,” presented at NDSC Infrared Working Group Meeting, Network for Detection of Stratospheric Change, Garmisch, Germany, 23–25 April (1996).

R. Zander, Ph. Demoulin, E. Mahieu, G. P. Adrian, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, “ESMOSII/NDSC IR spectral fitting algorithms intercomparison exercise,” in Proceedings of the Atmospheric Spectroscopy Applications Workshop, A. Barbe, L. Rothman, eds. (University of Reims Champaigne, Ardenne, 1993).

World Meteorological Organization (WMO), “Scientific assessment of ozone depletion: 1998,” Report 44 (World Meteorological Organization, P.O. Box 2300, Geneva 2, CH 1211, Switzerland, 1999).

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Figures (18)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of viewing geometry. A sunset occultation is illustrated as the Shuttle enters Earth’s shadow. With selectable instrument fields of view of 1, 1.4, and 2.8 mrad, an observation field of view of 2, 3, or 6 km is achieved at the tangent altitude (defined at the central ray), typically ∼2000 km from the Shuttle. The sampling time of 2.2 s allows a vertical spacing between spectra of ∼4 km in the upper atmosphere, decreasing through the lower stratosphere and upper troposphere to ∼1 km due to refraction and drift of the suntracker up the solar disk.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Distribution of ATMOS sunset (blue) and sunrise (red) occultations from four Space Shuttle missions. The different symbols correspond to different spectral filters, as noted.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

ATMOS Version 3 spectral ranges for gas retrievals (upper panel) and ranges for spectral filters (lower panel). The numbers in the lower panel refer to the filter number.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Sample comparison of a single occultation methane profile from the software of ATMOS Versions 2 and 3 retrieval. Error bars are random errors. Version 3 random errors are calculated differently from Version 2 and tend to be the same or greater than Version 2 (see text). The Version 2 retrieval clearly produces an unrealistic profile in the free troposphere.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Sample calculation of partial slant columns as a function of altitude. C2H6 is used as an example. Assumed mixing ratio profiles are used to calculate the slant path and slant columns from the instrument to the Sun through the model atmosphere for each spectrum. This is done for both target and nontarget gases. Note that an observation’s field of view can encompass more than one model layer near the tangent point. (The vertical resolution is worse than the model layer spacing.) Thus contributions to the total slant column can be made from one or two layers immediately below the tangent point in addition to the contributions from all the layers above.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Left, successive measured absorption spectra in a C2H6 microwindow and right, a fitted spectrum and residual. The slant paths are used to calculate absorptions for target and nontarget gases, and the slant columns (Fig. 4) are scaled until the best fit with observation is achieved. Where more than one microwindow is used for analysis, the retrieved slant columns are averaged.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

When the partial slant column matrix (Fig. 4) is used, left, the averaged slant columns are inverted to, right, the retrieved vertical mixing ratio profile. The procedure (beginning with the description in Fig. 4) is then iterated until convergence is achieved. (Note that the retrieved altitude grid is not the same as that for the tangent altitudes. Error bars reflect only signal to noise and fitting error.)

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Assumed CO2 VMR profiles for ATMOS zenith-angle determination.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Median fractional random error in tangent pressure for an individual occultation.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Median random error for minor gases by filter for an individual occultation.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Median random error for selected trace gases and spectral filters for an individual occultation.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Northern-latitude zonal average VMR profiles of chlorinated species from ATMOS Version 3, ATLAS-3 retrievals. Species not measured by ATMOS are in gray. The horizontal arrow indicates the level down to which Version 2 profiles could be reliably retrieved. Triangles on the bottom scale correspond to the measured in situ ground VMRs.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Profiles of the northern-latitude zonal average mixing ratio of fluorinated species from ATMOS Version 3, ATLAS-3 retrievals. Species not measured by ATMOS are in gray. The horizontal arrow indicates the level down to which Version 2 profiles could be reliably retrieved. Triangles on the bottom scale correspond to the measured in situ ground VMR’s.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Comparison of selected retrievals of H2O. The upper row illustrates northern mid-latitude retrievals, the middle row shows northern tropic and subtropic retrievals, while the bottom row shows retrievals from within the Antarctic polar vortex. The left column shows Version 2 retrievals, the middle column shows Version 3 retrievals, and the right column shows sPV profiles for each retrieval. Note that Version 3 retrievals avoid unrealistically low mixing ratios near the tropopause. Reasonable consistency is maintained in Version 3 across spectral filters, including filter 12, for which H2O retrievals are new.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Profiles of zonal average mixing ratios of CH4, H2O, and the sum H2O + 2CH4 from ATMOS Versions 2 and 3 retrievals. A total of 34 sunset occultations between 31 and 49 °N (filters 3 and 9) from the ATLAS-3 missions were used. Error bars are standard deviations weighted by the inverse square error of the individual retrievals.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Comparison of the VMRs of NO, NO2, and CO of Versions 2 and 3, filter 3. Average VMRs are from ATLAS-3 northern protovortex retrievals. The error bars are standard deviations weighted by the inverse square signal-to-noise/fitting error.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Comparison of selected retrievals of HNO3. The upper row shows northern mid-latitude retrievals, the middle row shows northern tropic and subtropic retrievals, while the bottom row shows retrievals from within the Antarctic polar vortex. The left column shows Version 2 retrievals, the middle column shows Version 3 retrievals, and the right column shows sPV profiles for each retrieval. Version 3 retrievals tend to be larger owing to modifications in the HNO3 spectral strengths (see text).

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

Vertical profiles of stratospheric sulfurio-acid aerosol for a set of ATLAS-1 filter 9 occultations taken over the southern tip of South America in 1992. Altitudes of different profiles have been slightly offset from one another for clarity.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Number of Occultations Analyzed for ATMOS Version 3 Retrievals

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Table 2 Estimated Accuracy for Gas Retrievals

Equations (2)

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Cltot = CCly + Cly.
Ftot = CFy + Fy,

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