Abstract

Integral imaging (II) is one of the promising techniques in the field of autostereoscopic three-dimensional display. Despite of its many advantages, the narrow viewing angle has been a drawback. We propose a technique that enhances the viewing angle of II by resizing the elemental images taken by the pickup process and switching the elemental lenses in the display process. We explain the principle of the proposed technique, analyze the effect on the resolution of the integrated image, and show the experimental results.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. Lippmann, “La photographie integrale,” C. R. Acad. Sci. 146, 446–451 (1908).
  2. H. E. Ives, “Optical properties of a Lippmann lenticulated sheet,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 21, 171–176 (1931).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. B. Burckhardt, “Optimum parameters and resolution limitation of integral photography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 71–76 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  4. F. Okano, H. Hoshino, J. Arai, I. Yuyama, “Real-time pickup method for a three-dimensional image based on integral photography,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1598–1603 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S.-W. Min, S. Jung, J.-H. Park, B. Lee, “Three-dimensional display system based on computer-generated integral photography,” in Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems VIII, A. J. Woods, M. T. Bolas, J. O. Merritt, S. A. Benton, eds., Proc. SPIE4297, 187–195 (2001).
  6. J.-H. Park, S.-W. Min, S. Jung, B. Lee, “Analysis of viewing parameters for two display methods based on integral photography,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5217–5232 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. Javidi, S.-W. Min, B. Lee, “Enhanced 3D color integral imaging using multiple display devices,” IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (LEOS) Annual Meeting, San Diego, CA, USA, 2, 491–492 (2001).
  8. B. Lee, S. Jung, J.-H. Park, S.-W. Min, “Viewing-angle-enhanced integral imaging using lens switching,” in Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems IX, A. J. Woods, W. A. Perth, J. O. Merritt, S. A. Benton, S. A. Bolas, eds., Proc. SPIE4660, 146–154 (2002).
  9. B. Lee, S. Jung, J.-H. Park, “Viewing-angle-enhanced integral imaging using lens switching,” Opt. Lett. 27, 818–820 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. W. J. Smith, Modern Optical Engineering, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1990).

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

1997 (1)

1968 (1)

1931 (1)

1908 (1)

G. Lippmann, “La photographie integrale,” C. R. Acad. Sci. 146, 446–451 (1908).

Arai, J.

Burckhardt, C. B.

Hoshino, H.

Ives, H. E.

Javidi, B.

B. Javidi, S.-W. Min, B. Lee, “Enhanced 3D color integral imaging using multiple display devices,” IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (LEOS) Annual Meeting, San Diego, CA, USA, 2, 491–492 (2001).

Jung, S.

B. Lee, S. Jung, J.-H. Park, “Viewing-angle-enhanced integral imaging using lens switching,” Opt. Lett. 27, 818–820 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Park, S.-W. Min, S. Jung, B. Lee, “Analysis of viewing parameters for two display methods based on integral photography,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5217–5232 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S.-W. Min, S. Jung, J.-H. Park, B. Lee, “Three-dimensional display system based on computer-generated integral photography,” in Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems VIII, A. J. Woods, M. T. Bolas, J. O. Merritt, S. A. Benton, eds., Proc. SPIE4297, 187–195 (2001).

B. Lee, S. Jung, J.-H. Park, S.-W. Min, “Viewing-angle-enhanced integral imaging using lens switching,” in Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems IX, A. J. Woods, W. A. Perth, J. O. Merritt, S. A. Benton, S. A. Bolas, eds., Proc. SPIE4660, 146–154 (2002).

Lee, B.

B. Lee, S. Jung, J.-H. Park, “Viewing-angle-enhanced integral imaging using lens switching,” Opt. Lett. 27, 818–820 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Park, S.-W. Min, S. Jung, B. Lee, “Analysis of viewing parameters for two display methods based on integral photography,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5217–5232 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Javidi, S.-W. Min, B. Lee, “Enhanced 3D color integral imaging using multiple display devices,” IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (LEOS) Annual Meeting, San Diego, CA, USA, 2, 491–492 (2001).

S.-W. Min, S. Jung, J.-H. Park, B. Lee, “Three-dimensional display system based on computer-generated integral photography,” in Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems VIII, A. J. Woods, M. T. Bolas, J. O. Merritt, S. A. Benton, eds., Proc. SPIE4297, 187–195 (2001).

B. Lee, S. Jung, J.-H. Park, S.-W. Min, “Viewing-angle-enhanced integral imaging using lens switching,” in Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems IX, A. J. Woods, W. A. Perth, J. O. Merritt, S. A. Benton, S. A. Bolas, eds., Proc. SPIE4660, 146–154 (2002).

Lippmann, G.

G. Lippmann, “La photographie integrale,” C. R. Acad. Sci. 146, 446–451 (1908).

Min, S.-W.

J.-H. Park, S.-W. Min, S. Jung, B. Lee, “Analysis of viewing parameters for two display methods based on integral photography,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5217–5232 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Lee, S. Jung, J.-H. Park, S.-W. Min, “Viewing-angle-enhanced integral imaging using lens switching,” in Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems IX, A. J. Woods, W. A. Perth, J. O. Merritt, S. A. Benton, S. A. Bolas, eds., Proc. SPIE4660, 146–154 (2002).

S.-W. Min, S. Jung, J.-H. Park, B. Lee, “Three-dimensional display system based on computer-generated integral photography,” in Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems VIII, A. J. Woods, M. T. Bolas, J. O. Merritt, S. A. Benton, eds., Proc. SPIE4297, 187–195 (2001).

B. Javidi, S.-W. Min, B. Lee, “Enhanced 3D color integral imaging using multiple display devices,” IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (LEOS) Annual Meeting, San Diego, CA, USA, 2, 491–492 (2001).

Okano, F.

Park, J.-H.

B. Lee, S. Jung, J.-H. Park, “Viewing-angle-enhanced integral imaging using lens switching,” Opt. Lett. 27, 818–820 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Park, S.-W. Min, S. Jung, B. Lee, “Analysis of viewing parameters for two display methods based on integral photography,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5217–5232 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S.-W. Min, S. Jung, J.-H. Park, B. Lee, “Three-dimensional display system based on computer-generated integral photography,” in Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems VIII, A. J. Woods, M. T. Bolas, J. O. Merritt, S. A. Benton, eds., Proc. SPIE4297, 187–195 (2001).

B. Lee, S. Jung, J.-H. Park, S.-W. Min, “Viewing-angle-enhanced integral imaging using lens switching,” in Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems IX, A. J. Woods, W. A. Perth, J. O. Merritt, S. A. Benton, S. A. Bolas, eds., Proc. SPIE4660, 146–154 (2002).

Smith, W. J.

W. J. Smith, Modern Optical Engineering, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1990).

Yuyama, I.

Appl. Opt. (2)

C. R. Acad. Sci. (1)

G. Lippmann, “La photographie integrale,” C. R. Acad. Sci. 146, 446–451 (1908).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (4)

S.-W. Min, S. Jung, J.-H. Park, B. Lee, “Three-dimensional display system based on computer-generated integral photography,” in Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems VIII, A. J. Woods, M. T. Bolas, J. O. Merritt, S. A. Benton, eds., Proc. SPIE4297, 187–195 (2001).

B. Javidi, S.-W. Min, B. Lee, “Enhanced 3D color integral imaging using multiple display devices,” IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (LEOS) Annual Meeting, San Diego, CA, USA, 2, 491–492 (2001).

B. Lee, S. Jung, J.-H. Park, S.-W. Min, “Viewing-angle-enhanced integral imaging using lens switching,” in Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems IX, A. J. Woods, W. A. Perth, J. O. Merritt, S. A. Benton, S. A. Bolas, eds., Proc. SPIE4660, 146–154 (2002).

W. J. Smith, Modern Optical Engineering, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1990).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Principle of the lens mask method.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Detailed setup of the direct-pickup method.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Operational principle of the proposed method: (a) overall system, (b) elemental image processing procedure.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Simplified pickup configuration.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Captured elemental images by the CCD camera: (a) when the object distance is 10 cm, (b) when the object distance is 20 cm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Collection of the resized and cropped elemental images: (a) in odd columns, (b) in even columns.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Reconstructed image without applying the proposed method: (a) observed at an angle of 0°, (b) observed at an angle of 12°, (c) observed at an angle of 16°, (d) observed at an angle of 22°.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Reconstructed image by the proposed method: (a) observed at an angle of 0°, (b) observed at an angle of 12°, (c) observed at an angle of 16°, (d) observed at an angle of 22°.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Variation of the Primary Aberrations with Fielda

Tables Icon

Table 2 Specification of the Experimental Setup

Equations (13)

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yi,qy, z=qϕ+fazqϕ-y,
yt,qy, z=fdfayi,qy, z-qϕ+ϕ2=fdfaΔyi,qy, z+ϕ2,
yb,qy, z=fdfayi,qy, z-qϕ-ϕ2=fdfaΔyi,qy, z-ϕ2,
|yt,q|, |yb,q|Wc2,
qϕ-ϕ2fa z<y<qϕ+ϕ2fa z.
qϕ-ϕfaz<y<qϕ+ϕfaz,
yc,qy, z=-fcfdqφ+fazqφ-y.
Δyd,q=-fdzfczΔyc,qy, z=fazqϕ-y,
ψ=2 tan-1ϕ2fazzϕfazz.
Iu=exp-u24.08π2ϕ2z4g2π2λ2z4+4.16b2ϕ4=exp-4u2sz2,
sz2=0.415 ϕ2b2g2z4+0.981 λ2g2ϕ2,
sz2=0.415ϕbfazz-fa2+0.981λzfaϕz-fa2,
Δyc,q=-fcli,cfazqφ-y-qφfc1li,c-1li,c+fa,

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