Abstract

A novel design of a rf afterglow source of the oxygen forbidden lines at 630.0 and 557.7 nm for use in thermospheric dynamics studies is presented. With a repetitive discharge–afterglow excitation cycle, the source yields adequate afterglow intensities of the OI lines that are sufficiently free of background continuum for use in Fabry–Perot interferometer measurements of spectral line profiles. These lines provide accurate zero-velocity references in Fabry–Perot determinations of Doppler shifts in the OI thermospheric lines. The design considerations for the rf source are described, together with its preparation and filling by an ultrahigh-vacuum gas-handling system. Examples are given of the source’s output spectrum, as measured by a grating spectrometer, and its spectral line profiles, as determined by a Fabry–Perot interferometer. Comparative interferometry between the OI afterglow source lines and nearby (within ∼0.01–0.02-nm) lines from hollow-cathode sources illustrates the means of establishing secondary reference sources in cases in which the primary OI afterglow source is not available.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. P. Sipler, M. A. Biondi, R. G. Roble, “F-region neutral winds and temperatures at equatorial latitudes: measured and predicted behaviour during geomagnetically quiet conditions,” Planet. Space Sci. 31, 53–66 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. G. Burnside, C. A. Tepley, “Optical observations of thermospheric neutral winds at Arecibo between 1980 and 1987,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 2711–2716 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. Hernandez, R. G. Roble, “The geomagnetic quiet nighttime thermospheric wind pattern over Fritz Peak Observatory during solar minimum and maximum,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 327–337 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. N. Peterson, L. L. Cogger, H. T. Meredith, G. G. Shepherd, “A laboratory discharge lamp source for the O2 atmospheric bands and OI 5577A and 6300A lines of known width,” Planet. Space Sci. 27, 1209–1212 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. D. Richmond, A. E. Ridley, R. G. Roble, “A thermosphere-ionosphere general circulation model with coupled electrodynamics,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 601–604 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. W. McConkey, R. E. W. Pettifer, K. A. Moran, “Influence of metastable helium on the laboratory excitation of O(1D),” Planet. Space Sci. 18, 771–776 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. A. Biondi, S. C. Brown, “Measurements of ambipolar diffusion in helium,” Phys. Rev. 75, 1700–1705 (1949).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. C. Zipf, “The collisional deactivation of metastable atoms and molecules in the upper atmosphere,” Can. J. Chem. 47, 1863–1870 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. P. Sipler, MIT Haystack Observatory, Westford, Mass. (personal communication, 1998).
  10. M. A. Biondi, “High-speed, direct recording Fabry–Perot interferometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 27, 36–39 (1956).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. P. Sipler, M. A. Biondi, “Midlatitude F-region neutral winds and temperatures during the geomagnetic storm of March 26, 1976,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 37–40 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. P. Sipler, MIT Haystack Observatory, Westford, Mass. (personal communication, 1999).
  13. G. R. Harrison, ed., MIT Wavelength Tables (MIT, Cambridge, Mass., 1969).

1992 (1)

A. D. Richmond, A. E. Ridley, R. G. Roble, “A thermosphere-ionosphere general circulation model with coupled electrodynamics,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 601–604 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

R. G. Burnside, C. A. Tepley, “Optical observations of thermospheric neutral winds at Arecibo between 1980 and 1987,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 2711–2716 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

G. Hernandez, R. G. Roble, “The geomagnetic quiet nighttime thermospheric wind pattern over Fritz Peak Observatory during solar minimum and maximum,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 327–337 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

D. P. Sipler, M. A. Biondi, R. G. Roble, “F-region neutral winds and temperatures at equatorial latitudes: measured and predicted behaviour during geomagnetically quiet conditions,” Planet. Space Sci. 31, 53–66 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1979 (2)

D. P. Sipler, M. A. Biondi, “Midlatitude F-region neutral winds and temperatures during the geomagnetic storm of March 26, 1976,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 37–40 (1979).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Peterson, L. L. Cogger, H. T. Meredith, G. G. Shepherd, “A laboratory discharge lamp source for the O2 atmospheric bands and OI 5577A and 6300A lines of known width,” Planet. Space Sci. 27, 1209–1212 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

J. W. McConkey, R. E. W. Pettifer, K. A. Moran, “Influence of metastable helium on the laboratory excitation of O(1D),” Planet. Space Sci. 18, 771–776 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

E. C. Zipf, “The collisional deactivation of metastable atoms and molecules in the upper atmosphere,” Can. J. Chem. 47, 1863–1870 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1956 (1)

M. A. Biondi, “High-speed, direct recording Fabry–Perot interferometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 27, 36–39 (1956).
[CrossRef]

1949 (1)

M. A. Biondi, S. C. Brown, “Measurements of ambipolar diffusion in helium,” Phys. Rev. 75, 1700–1705 (1949).
[CrossRef]

Biondi, M. A.

D. P. Sipler, M. A. Biondi, R. G. Roble, “F-region neutral winds and temperatures at equatorial latitudes: measured and predicted behaviour during geomagnetically quiet conditions,” Planet. Space Sci. 31, 53–66 (1983).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Sipler, M. A. Biondi, “Midlatitude F-region neutral winds and temperatures during the geomagnetic storm of March 26, 1976,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 37–40 (1979).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Biondi, “High-speed, direct recording Fabry–Perot interferometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 27, 36–39 (1956).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Biondi, S. C. Brown, “Measurements of ambipolar diffusion in helium,” Phys. Rev. 75, 1700–1705 (1949).
[CrossRef]

Brown, S. C.

M. A. Biondi, S. C. Brown, “Measurements of ambipolar diffusion in helium,” Phys. Rev. 75, 1700–1705 (1949).
[CrossRef]

Burnside, R. G.

R. G. Burnside, C. A. Tepley, “Optical observations of thermospheric neutral winds at Arecibo between 1980 and 1987,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 2711–2716 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Cogger, L. L.

R. N. Peterson, L. L. Cogger, H. T. Meredith, G. G. Shepherd, “A laboratory discharge lamp source for the O2 atmospheric bands and OI 5577A and 6300A lines of known width,” Planet. Space Sci. 27, 1209–1212 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Hernandez, G.

G. Hernandez, R. G. Roble, “The geomagnetic quiet nighttime thermospheric wind pattern over Fritz Peak Observatory during solar minimum and maximum,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 327–337 (1984).
[CrossRef]

McConkey, J. W.

J. W. McConkey, R. E. W. Pettifer, K. A. Moran, “Influence of metastable helium on the laboratory excitation of O(1D),” Planet. Space Sci. 18, 771–776 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Meredith, H. T.

R. N. Peterson, L. L. Cogger, H. T. Meredith, G. G. Shepherd, “A laboratory discharge lamp source for the O2 atmospheric bands and OI 5577A and 6300A lines of known width,” Planet. Space Sci. 27, 1209–1212 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Moran, K. A.

J. W. McConkey, R. E. W. Pettifer, K. A. Moran, “Influence of metastable helium on the laboratory excitation of O(1D),” Planet. Space Sci. 18, 771–776 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Peterson, R. N.

R. N. Peterson, L. L. Cogger, H. T. Meredith, G. G. Shepherd, “A laboratory discharge lamp source for the O2 atmospheric bands and OI 5577A and 6300A lines of known width,” Planet. Space Sci. 27, 1209–1212 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Pettifer, R. E. W.

J. W. McConkey, R. E. W. Pettifer, K. A. Moran, “Influence of metastable helium on the laboratory excitation of O(1D),” Planet. Space Sci. 18, 771–776 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Richmond, A. D.

A. D. Richmond, A. E. Ridley, R. G. Roble, “A thermosphere-ionosphere general circulation model with coupled electrodynamics,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 601–604 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ridley, A. E.

A. D. Richmond, A. E. Ridley, R. G. Roble, “A thermosphere-ionosphere general circulation model with coupled electrodynamics,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 601–604 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Roble, R. G.

A. D. Richmond, A. E. Ridley, R. G. Roble, “A thermosphere-ionosphere general circulation model with coupled electrodynamics,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 601–604 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G. Hernandez, R. G. Roble, “The geomagnetic quiet nighttime thermospheric wind pattern over Fritz Peak Observatory during solar minimum and maximum,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 327–337 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Sipler, M. A. Biondi, R. G. Roble, “F-region neutral winds and temperatures at equatorial latitudes: measured and predicted behaviour during geomagnetically quiet conditions,” Planet. Space Sci. 31, 53–66 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Shepherd, G. G.

R. N. Peterson, L. L. Cogger, H. T. Meredith, G. G. Shepherd, “A laboratory discharge lamp source for the O2 atmospheric bands and OI 5577A and 6300A lines of known width,” Planet. Space Sci. 27, 1209–1212 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Sipler, D. P.

D. P. Sipler, M. A. Biondi, R. G. Roble, “F-region neutral winds and temperatures at equatorial latitudes: measured and predicted behaviour during geomagnetically quiet conditions,” Planet. Space Sci. 31, 53–66 (1983).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Sipler, M. A. Biondi, “Midlatitude F-region neutral winds and temperatures during the geomagnetic storm of March 26, 1976,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 37–40 (1979).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Sipler, MIT Haystack Observatory, Westford, Mass. (personal communication, 1998).

D. P. Sipler, MIT Haystack Observatory, Westford, Mass. (personal communication, 1999).

Tepley, C. A.

R. G. Burnside, C. A. Tepley, “Optical observations of thermospheric neutral winds at Arecibo between 1980 and 1987,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 2711–2716 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Zipf, E. C.

E. C. Zipf, “The collisional deactivation of metastable atoms and molecules in the upper atmosphere,” Can. J. Chem. 47, 1863–1870 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Can. J. Chem. (1)

E. C. Zipf, “The collisional deactivation of metastable atoms and molecules in the upper atmosphere,” Can. J. Chem. 47, 1863–1870 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (1)

A. D. Richmond, A. E. Ridley, R. G. Roble, “A thermosphere-ionosphere general circulation model with coupled electrodynamics,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 601–604 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (3)

R. G. Burnside, C. A. Tepley, “Optical observations of thermospheric neutral winds at Arecibo between 1980 and 1987,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 2711–2716 (1989).
[CrossRef]

G. Hernandez, R. G. Roble, “The geomagnetic quiet nighttime thermospheric wind pattern over Fritz Peak Observatory during solar minimum and maximum,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 327–337 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Sipler, M. A. Biondi, “Midlatitude F-region neutral winds and temperatures during the geomagnetic storm of March 26, 1976,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 37–40 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

M. A. Biondi, S. C. Brown, “Measurements of ambipolar diffusion in helium,” Phys. Rev. 75, 1700–1705 (1949).
[CrossRef]

Planet. Space Sci. (3)

D. P. Sipler, M. A. Biondi, R. G. Roble, “F-region neutral winds and temperatures at equatorial latitudes: measured and predicted behaviour during geomagnetically quiet conditions,” Planet. Space Sci. 31, 53–66 (1983).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Peterson, L. L. Cogger, H. T. Meredith, G. G. Shepherd, “A laboratory discharge lamp source for the O2 atmospheric bands and OI 5577A and 6300A lines of known width,” Planet. Space Sci. 27, 1209–1212 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. W. McConkey, R. E. W. Pettifer, K. A. Moran, “Influence of metastable helium on the laboratory excitation of O(1D),” Planet. Space Sci. 18, 771–776 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

M. A. Biondi, “High-speed, direct recording Fabry–Perot interferometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 27, 36–39 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

D. P. Sipler, MIT Haystack Observatory, Westford, Mass. (personal communication, 1999).

G. R. Harrison, ed., MIT Wavelength Tables (MIT, Cambridge, Mass., 1969).

D. P. Sipler, MIT Haystack Observatory, Westford, Mass. (personal communication, 1998).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the apparatus. The elements inside the large, dashed box (with the exception of the removable resonant cavity) are heated to 330 °C during vacuum processing. PMT, photomultiplier tube.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Scale drawing of the Pyrex source tube within the cylindrical 445-MHz reentrant resonant cavity. The large coupling loop and coaxial line to the uhf source are also shown.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Timing diagram: (top) discharge (plasma-generating) pulses; (bottom) PM output blanking pulses.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Simplified diagram of the FPI apparatus and with refractive-index tuning.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Upper curve: source emission in the vicinity of 630.0 nm during the discharge plus afterglow (D + A) period (the intensities were divided by a factor of 10). Lower curve: emission during the afterglow (A), indicating the OI 630.0-nm forbidden line atop a modest background continuum passed by the ∼0.1-nm-wide spectrometer slits. (The dark counting rate from the PM is ∼5 counts/s.)

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Upper curve: source emission in the 557.7-nm region during the discharge plus afterglow (D + A) period (intensities divided by a factor of 10). Lower curve: emission during the afterglow (A) indicating the OI 557.7-nm forbidden line and remnants of spectra at ∼558.0 and ∼558.8 nm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

FPI scans of the 630.0-nm line over ∼5 interference orders. The abscissa is the wave-number difference, Δν, in relative units (MCA channel number). The spacing between orders is 0.454 cm-1 or 0.0180 nm. The solid diamonds are the data points, whereas the solid curve represents a rough Airy function fit to the peak locations (see text).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

FPI scans of the 557.7-nm line over >5 interference orders. Same format as in Fig. 7. The spacing between orders is 0.454 cm-1 or 0.0141 nm.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Comparative interferometry: FPI scans of the OI 630.0308-nm line with an interposed Ce line at 630.0210 nm to act as a secondary standard (the Ce intensities were divided by a factor of 600). Similar format to that in Fig. 7, except that here the lines simply connect the data points.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Comparative interferometry: FPI scans of the OI 557.735-nm line with an interposed Eu line at 557.713 nm to act as a secondary standard (the Eu intensities were divided by a factor of 70). Same format as in Fig. 9.

Equations (4)

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ef-+Hees-+Hem,
Hem+O2He+O+O*1D or 1S,
Nλ=2μt,
Iν=I01+B sin2ν-νcπ/C-1+D+Sνbk,

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