Abstract

A novel design of a rf afterglow source of the oxygen forbidden lines at 630.0 and 557.7 nm for use in thermospheric dynamics studies is presented. With a repetitive discharge–afterglow excitation cycle, the source yields adequate afterglow intensities of the OI lines that are sufficiently free of background continuum for use in Fabry–Perot interferometer measurements of spectral line profiles. These lines provide accurate zero-velocity references in Fabry–Perot determinations of Doppler shifts in the OI thermospheric lines. The design considerations for the rf source are described, together with its preparation and filling by an ultrahigh-vacuum gas-handling system. Examples are given of the source’s output spectrum, as measured by a grating spectrometer, and its spectral line profiles, as determined by a Fabry–Perot interferometer. Comparative interferometry between the OI afterglow source lines and nearby (within ∼0.01–0.02-nm) lines from hollow-cathode sources illustrates the means of establishing secondary reference sources in cases in which the primary OI afterglow source is not available.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. P. Sipler, M. A. Biondi, R. G. Roble, “F-region neutral winds and temperatures at equatorial latitudes: measured and predicted behaviour during geomagnetically quiet conditions,” Planet. Space Sci. 31, 53–66 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. G. Burnside, C. A. Tepley, “Optical observations of thermospheric neutral winds at Arecibo between 1980 and 1987,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 2711–2716 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. Hernandez, R. G. Roble, “The geomagnetic quiet nighttime thermospheric wind pattern over Fritz Peak Observatory during solar minimum and maximum,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 327–337 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. N. Peterson, L. L. Cogger, H. T. Meredith, G. G. Shepherd, “A laboratory discharge lamp source for the O2 atmospheric bands and OI 5577A and 6300A lines of known width,” Planet. Space Sci. 27, 1209–1212 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. D. Richmond, A. E. Ridley, R. G. Roble, “A thermosphere-ionosphere general circulation model with coupled electrodynamics,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 601–604 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. W. McConkey, R. E. W. Pettifer, K. A. Moran, “Influence of metastable helium on the laboratory excitation of O(1D),” Planet. Space Sci. 18, 771–776 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. A. Biondi, S. C. Brown, “Measurements of ambipolar diffusion in helium,” Phys. Rev. 75, 1700–1705 (1949).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. C. Zipf, “The collisional deactivation of metastable atoms and molecules in the upper atmosphere,” Can. J. Chem. 47, 1863–1870 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. P. Sipler, MIT Haystack Observatory, Westford, Mass. (personal communication, 1998).
  10. M. A. Biondi, “High-speed, direct recording Fabry–Perot interferometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 27, 36–39 (1956).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. P. Sipler, M. A. Biondi, “Midlatitude F-region neutral winds and temperatures during the geomagnetic storm of March 26, 1976,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 37–40 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. P. Sipler, MIT Haystack Observatory, Westford, Mass. (personal communication, 1999).
  13. G. R. Harrison, ed., MIT Wavelength Tables (MIT, Cambridge, Mass., 1969).

1992 (1)

A. D. Richmond, A. E. Ridley, R. G. Roble, “A thermosphere-ionosphere general circulation model with coupled electrodynamics,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 601–604 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

R. G. Burnside, C. A. Tepley, “Optical observations of thermospheric neutral winds at Arecibo between 1980 and 1987,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 2711–2716 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

G. Hernandez, R. G. Roble, “The geomagnetic quiet nighttime thermospheric wind pattern over Fritz Peak Observatory during solar minimum and maximum,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 327–337 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

D. P. Sipler, M. A. Biondi, R. G. Roble, “F-region neutral winds and temperatures at equatorial latitudes: measured and predicted behaviour during geomagnetically quiet conditions,” Planet. Space Sci. 31, 53–66 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1979 (2)

D. P. Sipler, M. A. Biondi, “Midlatitude F-region neutral winds and temperatures during the geomagnetic storm of March 26, 1976,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 37–40 (1979).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Peterson, L. L. Cogger, H. T. Meredith, G. G. Shepherd, “A laboratory discharge lamp source for the O2 atmospheric bands and OI 5577A and 6300A lines of known width,” Planet. Space Sci. 27, 1209–1212 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

J. W. McConkey, R. E. W. Pettifer, K. A. Moran, “Influence of metastable helium on the laboratory excitation of O(1D),” Planet. Space Sci. 18, 771–776 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

E. C. Zipf, “The collisional deactivation of metastable atoms and molecules in the upper atmosphere,” Can. J. Chem. 47, 1863–1870 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1956 (1)

M. A. Biondi, “High-speed, direct recording Fabry–Perot interferometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 27, 36–39 (1956).
[CrossRef]

1949 (1)

M. A. Biondi, S. C. Brown, “Measurements of ambipolar diffusion in helium,” Phys. Rev. 75, 1700–1705 (1949).
[CrossRef]

Biondi, M. A.

D. P. Sipler, M. A. Biondi, R. G. Roble, “F-region neutral winds and temperatures at equatorial latitudes: measured and predicted behaviour during geomagnetically quiet conditions,” Planet. Space Sci. 31, 53–66 (1983).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Sipler, M. A. Biondi, “Midlatitude F-region neutral winds and temperatures during the geomagnetic storm of March 26, 1976,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 37–40 (1979).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Biondi, “High-speed, direct recording Fabry–Perot interferometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 27, 36–39 (1956).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Biondi, S. C. Brown, “Measurements of ambipolar diffusion in helium,” Phys. Rev. 75, 1700–1705 (1949).
[CrossRef]

Brown, S. C.

M. A. Biondi, S. C. Brown, “Measurements of ambipolar diffusion in helium,” Phys. Rev. 75, 1700–1705 (1949).
[CrossRef]

Burnside, R. G.

R. G. Burnside, C. A. Tepley, “Optical observations of thermospheric neutral winds at Arecibo between 1980 and 1987,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 2711–2716 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Cogger, L. L.

R. N. Peterson, L. L. Cogger, H. T. Meredith, G. G. Shepherd, “A laboratory discharge lamp source for the O2 atmospheric bands and OI 5577A and 6300A lines of known width,” Planet. Space Sci. 27, 1209–1212 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Hernandez, G.

G. Hernandez, R. G. Roble, “The geomagnetic quiet nighttime thermospheric wind pattern over Fritz Peak Observatory during solar minimum and maximum,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 327–337 (1984).
[CrossRef]

McConkey, J. W.

J. W. McConkey, R. E. W. Pettifer, K. A. Moran, “Influence of metastable helium on the laboratory excitation of O(1D),” Planet. Space Sci. 18, 771–776 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Meredith, H. T.

R. N. Peterson, L. L. Cogger, H. T. Meredith, G. G. Shepherd, “A laboratory discharge lamp source for the O2 atmospheric bands and OI 5577A and 6300A lines of known width,” Planet. Space Sci. 27, 1209–1212 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Moran, K. A.

J. W. McConkey, R. E. W. Pettifer, K. A. Moran, “Influence of metastable helium on the laboratory excitation of O(1D),” Planet. Space Sci. 18, 771–776 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Peterson, R. N.

R. N. Peterson, L. L. Cogger, H. T. Meredith, G. G. Shepherd, “A laboratory discharge lamp source for the O2 atmospheric bands and OI 5577A and 6300A lines of known width,” Planet. Space Sci. 27, 1209–1212 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Pettifer, R. E. W.

J. W. McConkey, R. E. W. Pettifer, K. A. Moran, “Influence of metastable helium on the laboratory excitation of O(1D),” Planet. Space Sci. 18, 771–776 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Richmond, A. D.

A. D. Richmond, A. E. Ridley, R. G. Roble, “A thermosphere-ionosphere general circulation model with coupled electrodynamics,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 601–604 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ridley, A. E.

A. D. Richmond, A. E. Ridley, R. G. Roble, “A thermosphere-ionosphere general circulation model with coupled electrodynamics,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 601–604 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Roble, R. G.

A. D. Richmond, A. E. Ridley, R. G. Roble, “A thermosphere-ionosphere general circulation model with coupled electrodynamics,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 601–604 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G. Hernandez, R. G. Roble, “The geomagnetic quiet nighttime thermospheric wind pattern over Fritz Peak Observatory during solar minimum and maximum,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 327–337 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Sipler, M. A. Biondi, R. G. Roble, “F-region neutral winds and temperatures at equatorial latitudes: measured and predicted behaviour during geomagnetically quiet conditions,” Planet. Space Sci. 31, 53–66 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Shepherd, G. G.

R. N. Peterson, L. L. Cogger, H. T. Meredith, G. G. Shepherd, “A laboratory discharge lamp source for the O2 atmospheric bands and OI 5577A and 6300A lines of known width,” Planet. Space Sci. 27, 1209–1212 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Sipler, D. P.

D. P. Sipler, M. A. Biondi, R. G. Roble, “F-region neutral winds and temperatures at equatorial latitudes: measured and predicted behaviour during geomagnetically quiet conditions,” Planet. Space Sci. 31, 53–66 (1983).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Sipler, M. A. Biondi, “Midlatitude F-region neutral winds and temperatures during the geomagnetic storm of March 26, 1976,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 37–40 (1979).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Sipler, MIT Haystack Observatory, Westford, Mass. (personal communication, 1998).

D. P. Sipler, MIT Haystack Observatory, Westford, Mass. (personal communication, 1999).

Tepley, C. A.

R. G. Burnside, C. A. Tepley, “Optical observations of thermospheric neutral winds at Arecibo between 1980 and 1987,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 2711–2716 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Zipf, E. C.

E. C. Zipf, “The collisional deactivation of metastable atoms and molecules in the upper atmosphere,” Can. J. Chem. 47, 1863–1870 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Can. J. Chem. (1)

E. C. Zipf, “The collisional deactivation of metastable atoms and molecules in the upper atmosphere,” Can. J. Chem. 47, 1863–1870 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (1)

A. D. Richmond, A. E. Ridley, R. G. Roble, “A thermosphere-ionosphere general circulation model with coupled electrodynamics,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 601–604 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (3)

R. G. Burnside, C. A. Tepley, “Optical observations of thermospheric neutral winds at Arecibo between 1980 and 1987,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 2711–2716 (1989).
[CrossRef]

G. Hernandez, R. G. Roble, “The geomagnetic quiet nighttime thermospheric wind pattern over Fritz Peak Observatory during solar minimum and maximum,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 327–337 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Sipler, M. A. Biondi, “Midlatitude F-region neutral winds and temperatures during the geomagnetic storm of March 26, 1976,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 37–40 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

M. A. Biondi, S. C. Brown, “Measurements of ambipolar diffusion in helium,” Phys. Rev. 75, 1700–1705 (1949).
[CrossRef]

Planet. Space Sci. (3)

D. P. Sipler, M. A. Biondi, R. G. Roble, “F-region neutral winds and temperatures at equatorial latitudes: measured and predicted behaviour during geomagnetically quiet conditions,” Planet. Space Sci. 31, 53–66 (1983).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Peterson, L. L. Cogger, H. T. Meredith, G. G. Shepherd, “A laboratory discharge lamp source for the O2 atmospheric bands and OI 5577A and 6300A lines of known width,” Planet. Space Sci. 27, 1209–1212 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. W. McConkey, R. E. W. Pettifer, K. A. Moran, “Influence of metastable helium on the laboratory excitation of O(1D),” Planet. Space Sci. 18, 771–776 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

M. A. Biondi, “High-speed, direct recording Fabry–Perot interferometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 27, 36–39 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

D. P. Sipler, MIT Haystack Observatory, Westford, Mass. (personal communication, 1999).

G. R. Harrison, ed., MIT Wavelength Tables (MIT, Cambridge, Mass., 1969).

D. P. Sipler, MIT Haystack Observatory, Westford, Mass. (personal communication, 1998).

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