Abstract

The erythemal radiometers of the Ultraviolet Monitoring Network of the Argentine Servicio Meteorológico Nacional were calibrated in an extensive in situ campaign from October 1998 to April 1999 with Austrian reference instruments. Methods to correct the influence of the location’s horizon and long-term detector changes are applied. The different terms that contribute to the measurement uncertainty are analyzed. The expanded uncertainty is estimated to be ±10% at 70° solar zenith angle (SZA) and ±6% for a SZA of <50°. We observed significant changes for some detectors over hours and days, reaching a maximum diurnal drift of ±5% at a SZA of 70° and a maximum weekly variation of ±4%.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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2002 (1)

1999 (3)

R. L. McKenzie, B. J. Connor, G. E. Bodeker, “Increased summertime UV observed in New Zealand in response to ozone loss,” Science 285, 1709–1711 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. O. Lantz, P. Disterhoft, J. J. DeLuisi, E. Early, A. Thompson, D. Bigelow, J. Slusser, “Methodology for deriving clear-sky erythemal calibration right for UV broadband radiometers of the U.S. Central UV Calibration Facility,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 16, 1736–1752 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Bernhard, G. Seckmeyer, “The uncertainty of measurements of spectral solar UV irradiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 14321–14345 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (4)

K. Leszczynski, K. Jokela, L. Ylianttila, R. Visuri, M. Blumthaler, “Erythemally weighted radiometers in solar UV monitoring: results from the WMO/STUK intercomparison,” Photochem. Photobiol. 67, 212–221 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Caldwell, L. O. Bjorn, J. F. Bornman, S. D. Flint, G. Kulandaivelu, A. H. Teramura, M. Tevini, “Effects of increased solar ultraviolet radiation on terrestrial ecosystems,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 46, 40–52 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Andrady, S. H. Hamid, X. Hu, A. Torikai, “Effects of increased solar ultraviolet radiation on materials,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 46, 96–103 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Bigelow, J. R. Slusser, A. F. Beaubien, J. H. Gibson, “The USDA Ultraviolet Radiation Monitoring Program,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 601–615 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

B. Mayer, G. Seckmeyer, A. Kylling, “Systematic long-term comparison of spectral UV measurements and UVSPEC modeling results,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 8755–8767 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

1985 (1)

J. C. Farman, B. G. Gardiner, J. D. Shanklin, “Large losses of total ozone in Antarctica reveal seasonal ClOX/NOX interaction,” Nature 315, 476–484 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Andrady, A. L.

A. L. Andrady, S. H. Hamid, X. Hu, A. Torikai, “Effects of increased solar ultraviolet radiation on materials,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 46, 96–103 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bais, A.

M. Huber, M. Blumthaler, J. Schreder, A. Bais, C. Topaloglou, “Effect of ambient temperature on Robertson-Berger type erythemal dosimeters,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4273–4277 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bais, C. Topaloglou, S. Kazadzis, M. Blumthaler, J. Schreder, A. Schmalwieser, D. Henriques, M. Janouch, “Report of the LAP/COST/WMO intercomparison of erythemal radiometers,” Report 141 (World Meteorological Organization/Global Atmosphere Watch, Thessaloniki, Greece, 1999).

Beaubien, A. F.

D. S. Bigelow, J. R. Slusser, A. F. Beaubien, J. H. Gibson, “The USDA Ultraviolet Radiation Monitoring Program,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 601–615 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bernhard, G.

G. Bernhard, G. Seckmeyer, “The uncertainty of measurements of spectral solar UV irradiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 14321–14345 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bigelow, D.

K. O. Lantz, P. Disterhoft, J. J. DeLuisi, E. Early, A. Thompson, D. Bigelow, J. Slusser, “Methodology for deriving clear-sky erythemal calibration right for UV broadband radiometers of the U.S. Central UV Calibration Facility,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 16, 1736–1752 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bigelow, D. S.

D. S. Bigelow, J. R. Slusser, A. F. Beaubien, J. H. Gibson, “The USDA Ultraviolet Radiation Monitoring Program,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 601–615 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bjorn, L. O.

M. M. Caldwell, L. O. Bjorn, J. F. Bornman, S. D. Flint, G. Kulandaivelu, A. H. Teramura, M. Tevini, “Effects of increased solar ultraviolet radiation on terrestrial ecosystems,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 46, 40–52 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Blumthaler, M.

M. Huber, M. Blumthaler, J. Schreder, A. Bais, C. Topaloglou, “Effect of ambient temperature on Robertson-Berger type erythemal dosimeters,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4273–4277 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Leszczynski, K. Jokela, L. Ylianttila, R. Visuri, M. Blumthaler, “Erythemally weighted radiometers in solar UV monitoring: results from the WMO/STUK intercomparison,” Photochem. Photobiol. 67, 212–221 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Silbernagl, M. Blumthaler, “First experiences with the Austrian UV monitoring network,” presented at European Conference on Atmospheric UV radiation (European Commission and Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland, 1998).

A. Bais, C. Topaloglou, S. Kazadzis, M. Blumthaler, J. Schreder, A. Schmalwieser, D. Henriques, M. Janouch, “Report of the LAP/COST/WMO intercomparison of erythemal radiometers,” Report 141 (World Meteorological Organization/Global Atmosphere Watch, Thessaloniki, Greece, 1999).

M. Huber, M. Blumthaler, J. Schreder, “Effect of ambient temperature and internal relative humidity on spectral sensitivity of broadband UV detectors,” in Ultraviolet Ground- and Space-Based Measurements, Models, and Effects, J. R. Slusser, J. R. Herman, W. Gao, eds., Proc. SPIE4482, 187–193 (2002).

A. Cede, E. Luccini, L. Nuñez, R. D. Piacentini, M. Blumthaler, “Monitoring of erythemal irradiance in the Argentine ultraviolet network,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

K. Leszczynski, K. Jokela, L. Ylianttila, R. Visuri, M. Blumthaler, “Report of the WMO/STUK intercomparison of erythemally-weighted solar UV radiometers,” Report 112 (World Meteorological Organization/Global Atmosphere Watch, Helsinki, Finland, 1995).

Bodeker, G. E.

R. L. McKenzie, B. J. Connor, G. E. Bodeker, “Increased summertime UV observed in New Zealand in response to ozone loss,” Science 285, 1709–1711 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bojkov, R. D.

R. D. Bojkov, R. D. Hudson, “Ozone variability and trends,” in Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 1998, Report 44 (World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 1999).

Bornman, J. F.

M. M. Caldwell, L. O. Bjorn, J. F. Bornman, S. D. Flint, G. Kulandaivelu, A. H. Teramura, M. Tevini, “Effects of increased solar ultraviolet radiation on terrestrial ecosystems,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 46, 40–52 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Caldwell, M. M.

M. M. Caldwell, L. O. Bjorn, J. F. Bornman, S. D. Flint, G. Kulandaivelu, A. H. Teramura, M. Tevini, “Effects of increased solar ultraviolet radiation on terrestrial ecosystems,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 46, 40–52 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cede, A.

A. Cede, E. Luccini, L. Nuñez, R. D. Piacentini, M. Blumthaler, “Monitoring of erythemal irradiance in the Argentine ultraviolet network,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Connor, B. J.

R. L. McKenzie, B. J. Connor, G. E. Bodeker, “Increased summertime UV observed in New Zealand in response to ozone loss,” Science 285, 1709–1711 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DeLuisi, J. J.

K. O. Lantz, P. Disterhoft, J. J. DeLuisi, E. Early, A. Thompson, D. Bigelow, J. Slusser, “Methodology for deriving clear-sky erythemal calibration right for UV broadband radiometers of the U.S. Central UV Calibration Facility,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 16, 1736–1752 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Diffey, B. L.

A. F. McKinlay, B. L. Diffey, “A reference action spectrum for ultraviolet introduced erythema in human skin,” in Human Exposure to Ultraviolet Radiation: Risks and Regulations, W. R. Passchier, B. M. F. Bosnajakovich, eds. (Elsevier, New York, 1987), pp. 83–87.

Disterhoft, P.

K. O. Lantz, P. Disterhoft, J. J. DeLuisi, E. Early, A. Thompson, D. Bigelow, J. Slusser, “Methodology for deriving clear-sky erythemal calibration right for UV broadband radiometers of the U.S. Central UV Calibration Facility,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 16, 1736–1752 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Early, E.

K. O. Lantz, P. Disterhoft, J. J. DeLuisi, E. Early, A. Thompson, D. Bigelow, J. Slusser, “Methodology for deriving clear-sky erythemal calibration right for UV broadband radiometers of the U.S. Central UV Calibration Facility,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 16, 1736–1752 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Farman, J. C.

J. C. Farman, B. G. Gardiner, J. D. Shanklin, “Large losses of total ozone in Antarctica reveal seasonal ClOX/NOX interaction,” Nature 315, 476–484 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Flint, S. D.

M. M. Caldwell, L. O. Bjorn, J. F. Bornman, S. D. Flint, G. Kulandaivelu, A. H. Teramura, M. Tevini, “Effects of increased solar ultraviolet radiation on terrestrial ecosystems,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 46, 40–52 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gardiner, B. G.

J. C. Farman, B. G. Gardiner, J. D. Shanklin, “Large losses of total ozone in Antarctica reveal seasonal ClOX/NOX interaction,” Nature 315, 476–484 (1985).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Webb, B. G. Gardiner, T. J. Martin, K. Leszczynski, J. Metzdorf, V. A. Mohnen, “Guidelines for site quality right of UV monitoring,” Report 126 (World Meteorological Organization/Global Atmosphere Watch, Geneva, 1998).

Gibson, J. H.

D. S. Bigelow, J. R. Slusser, A. F. Beaubien, J. H. Gibson, “The USDA Ultraviolet Radiation Monitoring Program,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 601–615 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hamid, S. H.

A. L. Andrady, S. H. Hamid, X. Hu, A. Torikai, “Effects of increased solar ultraviolet radiation on materials,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 46, 96–103 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Henriques, D.

A. Bais, C. Topaloglou, S. Kazadzis, M. Blumthaler, J. Schreder, A. Schmalwieser, D. Henriques, M. Janouch, “Report of the LAP/COST/WMO intercomparison of erythemal radiometers,” Report 141 (World Meteorological Organization/Global Atmosphere Watch, Thessaloniki, Greece, 1999).

Hu, X.

A. L. Andrady, S. H. Hamid, X. Hu, A. Torikai, “Effects of increased solar ultraviolet radiation on materials,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 46, 96–103 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Huber, M.

M. Huber, M. Blumthaler, J. Schreder, A. Bais, C. Topaloglou, “Effect of ambient temperature on Robertson-Berger type erythemal dosimeters,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4273–4277 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Huber, M. Blumthaler, J. Schreder, “Effect of ambient temperature and internal relative humidity on spectral sensitivity of broadband UV detectors,” in Ultraviolet Ground- and Space-Based Measurements, Models, and Effects, J. R. Slusser, J. R. Herman, W. Gao, eds., Proc. SPIE4482, 187–193 (2002).

Hudson, R. D.

R. D. Bojkov, R. D. Hudson, “Ozone variability and trends,” in Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 1998, Report 44 (World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 1999).

Janouch, M.

A. Bais, C. Topaloglou, S. Kazadzis, M. Blumthaler, J. Schreder, A. Schmalwieser, D. Henriques, M. Janouch, “Report of the LAP/COST/WMO intercomparison of erythemal radiometers,” Report 141 (World Meteorological Organization/Global Atmosphere Watch, Thessaloniki, Greece, 1999).

Jayaweera, K.

Jokela, K.

K. Leszczynski, K. Jokela, L. Ylianttila, R. Visuri, M. Blumthaler, “Erythemally weighted radiometers in solar UV monitoring: results from the WMO/STUK intercomparison,” Photochem. Photobiol. 67, 212–221 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Leszczynski, K. Jokela, L. Ylianttila, R. Visuri, M. Blumthaler, “Report of the WMO/STUK intercomparison of erythemally-weighted solar UV radiometers,” Report 112 (World Meteorological Organization/Global Atmosphere Watch, Helsinki, Finland, 1995).

Kazadzis, S.

A. Bais, C. Topaloglou, S. Kazadzis, M. Blumthaler, J. Schreder, A. Schmalwieser, D. Henriques, M. Janouch, “Report of the LAP/COST/WMO intercomparison of erythemal radiometers,” Report 141 (World Meteorological Organization/Global Atmosphere Watch, Thessaloniki, Greece, 1999).

Kulandaivelu, G.

M. M. Caldwell, L. O. Bjorn, J. F. Bornman, S. D. Flint, G. Kulandaivelu, A. H. Teramura, M. Tevini, “Effects of increased solar ultraviolet radiation on terrestrial ecosystems,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 46, 40–52 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kylling, A.

B. Mayer, G. Seckmeyer, A. Kylling, “Systematic long-term comparison of spectral UV measurements and UVSPEC modeling results,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 8755–8767 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lantz, K. O.

K. O. Lantz, P. Disterhoft, J. J. DeLuisi, E. Early, A. Thompson, D. Bigelow, J. Slusser, “Methodology for deriving clear-sky erythemal calibration right for UV broadband radiometers of the U.S. Central UV Calibration Facility,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 16, 1736–1752 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Leszczynski, K.

K. Leszczynski, K. Jokela, L. Ylianttila, R. Visuri, M. Blumthaler, “Erythemally weighted radiometers in solar UV monitoring: results from the WMO/STUK intercomparison,” Photochem. Photobiol. 67, 212–221 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Webb, B. G. Gardiner, T. J. Martin, K. Leszczynski, J. Metzdorf, V. A. Mohnen, “Guidelines for site quality right of UV monitoring,” Report 126 (World Meteorological Organization/Global Atmosphere Watch, Geneva, 1998).

K. Leszczynski, K. Jokela, L. Ylianttila, R. Visuri, M. Blumthaler, “Report of the WMO/STUK intercomparison of erythemally-weighted solar UV radiometers,” Report 112 (World Meteorological Organization/Global Atmosphere Watch, Helsinki, Finland, 1995).

Luccini, E.

A. Cede, E. Luccini, L. Nuñez, R. D. Piacentini, M. Blumthaler, “Monitoring of erythemal irradiance in the Argentine ultraviolet network,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Martin, T. J.

A. R. Webb, B. G. Gardiner, T. J. Martin, K. Leszczynski, J. Metzdorf, V. A. Mohnen, “Guidelines for site quality right of UV monitoring,” Report 126 (World Meteorological Organization/Global Atmosphere Watch, Geneva, 1998).

Mayer, B.

B. Mayer, G. Seckmeyer, A. Kylling, “Systematic long-term comparison of spectral UV measurements and UVSPEC modeling results,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 8755–8767 (1997).
[CrossRef]

McKenzie, R. L.

R. L. McKenzie, B. J. Connor, G. E. Bodeker, “Increased summertime UV observed in New Zealand in response to ozone loss,” Science 285, 1709–1711 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McKinlay, A. F.

A. F. McKinlay, B. L. Diffey, “A reference action spectrum for ultraviolet introduced erythema in human skin,” in Human Exposure to Ultraviolet Radiation: Risks and Regulations, W. R. Passchier, B. M. F. Bosnajakovich, eds. (Elsevier, New York, 1987), pp. 83–87.

Metzdorf, J.

A. R. Webb, B. G. Gardiner, T. J. Martin, K. Leszczynski, J. Metzdorf, V. A. Mohnen, “Guidelines for site quality right of UV monitoring,” Report 126 (World Meteorological Organization/Global Atmosphere Watch, Geneva, 1998).

Mohnen, V. A.

A. R. Webb, B. G. Gardiner, T. J. Martin, K. Leszczynski, J. Metzdorf, V. A. Mohnen, “Guidelines for site quality right of UV monitoring,” Report 126 (World Meteorological Organization/Global Atmosphere Watch, Geneva, 1998).

Nuñez, L.

A. Cede, E. Luccini, L. Nuñez, R. D. Piacentini, M. Blumthaler, “Monitoring of erythemal irradiance in the Argentine ultraviolet network,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Piacentini, R. D.

A. Cede, E. Luccini, L. Nuñez, R. D. Piacentini, M. Blumthaler, “Monitoring of erythemal irradiance in the Argentine ultraviolet network,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Schmalwieser, A.

A. Bais, C. Topaloglou, S. Kazadzis, M. Blumthaler, J. Schreder, A. Schmalwieser, D. Henriques, M. Janouch, “Report of the LAP/COST/WMO intercomparison of erythemal radiometers,” Report 141 (World Meteorological Organization/Global Atmosphere Watch, Thessaloniki, Greece, 1999).

Schreder, J.

M. Huber, M. Blumthaler, J. Schreder, A. Bais, C. Topaloglou, “Effect of ambient temperature on Robertson-Berger type erythemal dosimeters,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4273–4277 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bais, C. Topaloglou, S. Kazadzis, M. Blumthaler, J. Schreder, A. Schmalwieser, D. Henriques, M. Janouch, “Report of the LAP/COST/WMO intercomparison of erythemal radiometers,” Report 141 (World Meteorological Organization/Global Atmosphere Watch, Thessaloniki, Greece, 1999).

M. Huber, M. Blumthaler, J. Schreder, “Effect of ambient temperature and internal relative humidity on spectral sensitivity of broadband UV detectors,” in Ultraviolet Ground- and Space-Based Measurements, Models, and Effects, J. R. Slusser, J. R. Herman, W. Gao, eds., Proc. SPIE4482, 187–193 (2002).

Seckmeyer, G.

G. Bernhard, G. Seckmeyer, “The uncertainty of measurements of spectral solar UV irradiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 14321–14345 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Mayer, G. Seckmeyer, A. Kylling, “Systematic long-term comparison of spectral UV measurements and UVSPEC modeling results,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 8755–8767 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shanklin, J. D.

J. C. Farman, B. G. Gardiner, J. D. Shanklin, “Large losses of total ozone in Antarctica reveal seasonal ClOX/NOX interaction,” Nature 315, 476–484 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Silbernagl, R.

R. Silbernagl, M. Blumthaler, “First experiences with the Austrian UV monitoring network,” presented at European Conference on Atmospheric UV radiation (European Commission and Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland, 1998).

Slusser, J.

K. O. Lantz, P. Disterhoft, J. J. DeLuisi, E. Early, A. Thompson, D. Bigelow, J. Slusser, “Methodology for deriving clear-sky erythemal calibration right for UV broadband radiometers of the U.S. Central UV Calibration Facility,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 16, 1736–1752 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Slusser, J. R.

D. S. Bigelow, J. R. Slusser, A. F. Beaubien, J. H. Gibson, “The USDA Ultraviolet Radiation Monitoring Program,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 601–615 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stamnes, K.

Teramura, A. H.

M. M. Caldwell, L. O. Bjorn, J. F. Bornman, S. D. Flint, G. Kulandaivelu, A. H. Teramura, M. Tevini, “Effects of increased solar ultraviolet radiation on terrestrial ecosystems,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 46, 40–52 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tevini, M.

M. M. Caldwell, L. O. Bjorn, J. F. Bornman, S. D. Flint, G. Kulandaivelu, A. H. Teramura, M. Tevini, “Effects of increased solar ultraviolet radiation on terrestrial ecosystems,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 46, 40–52 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, A.

K. O. Lantz, P. Disterhoft, J. J. DeLuisi, E. Early, A. Thompson, D. Bigelow, J. Slusser, “Methodology for deriving clear-sky erythemal calibration right for UV broadband radiometers of the U.S. Central UV Calibration Facility,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 16, 1736–1752 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Topaloglou, C.

M. Huber, M. Blumthaler, J. Schreder, A. Bais, C. Topaloglou, “Effect of ambient temperature on Robertson-Berger type erythemal dosimeters,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4273–4277 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bais, C. Topaloglou, S. Kazadzis, M. Blumthaler, J. Schreder, A. Schmalwieser, D. Henriques, M. Janouch, “Report of the LAP/COST/WMO intercomparison of erythemal radiometers,” Report 141 (World Meteorological Organization/Global Atmosphere Watch, Thessaloniki, Greece, 1999).

Torikai, A.

A. L. Andrady, S. H. Hamid, X. Hu, A. Torikai, “Effects of increased solar ultraviolet radiation on materials,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 46, 96–103 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tsay, S. C.

Visuri, R.

K. Leszczynski, K. Jokela, L. Ylianttila, R. Visuri, M. Blumthaler, “Erythemally weighted radiometers in solar UV monitoring: results from the WMO/STUK intercomparison,” Photochem. Photobiol. 67, 212–221 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Leszczynski, K. Jokela, L. Ylianttila, R. Visuri, M. Blumthaler, “Report of the WMO/STUK intercomparison of erythemally-weighted solar UV radiometers,” Report 112 (World Meteorological Organization/Global Atmosphere Watch, Helsinki, Finland, 1995).

Webb, A. R.

A. R. Webb, B. G. Gardiner, T. J. Martin, K. Leszczynski, J. Metzdorf, V. A. Mohnen, “Guidelines for site quality right of UV monitoring,” Report 126 (World Meteorological Organization/Global Atmosphere Watch, Geneva, 1998).

Wiscombe, W.

Ylianttila, L.

K. Leszczynski, K. Jokela, L. Ylianttila, R. Visuri, M. Blumthaler, “Erythemally weighted radiometers in solar UV monitoring: results from the WMO/STUK intercomparison,” Photochem. Photobiol. 67, 212–221 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Leszczynski, K. Jokela, L. Ylianttila, R. Visuri, M. Blumthaler, “Report of the WMO/STUK intercomparison of erythemally-weighted solar UV radiometers,” Report 112 (World Meteorological Organization/Global Atmosphere Watch, Helsinki, Finland, 1995).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. (1)

D. S. Bigelow, J. R. Slusser, A. F. Beaubien, J. H. Gibson, “The USDA Ultraviolet Radiation Monitoring Program,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 601–615 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. (1)

K. O. Lantz, P. Disterhoft, J. J. DeLuisi, E. Early, A. Thompson, D. Bigelow, J. Slusser, “Methodology for deriving clear-sky erythemal calibration right for UV broadband radiometers of the U.S. Central UV Calibration Facility,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 16, 1736–1752 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (2)

B. Mayer, G. Seckmeyer, A. Kylling, “Systematic long-term comparison of spectral UV measurements and UVSPEC modeling results,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 8755–8767 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Bernhard, G. Seckmeyer, “The uncertainty of measurements of spectral solar UV irradiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 14321–14345 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Photochem. Photobiol. B (2)

M. M. Caldwell, L. O. Bjorn, J. F. Bornman, S. D. Flint, G. Kulandaivelu, A. H. Teramura, M. Tevini, “Effects of increased solar ultraviolet radiation on terrestrial ecosystems,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 46, 40–52 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Andrady, S. H. Hamid, X. Hu, A. Torikai, “Effects of increased solar ultraviolet radiation on materials,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 46, 96–103 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

J. C. Farman, B. G. Gardiner, J. D. Shanklin, “Large losses of total ozone in Antarctica reveal seasonal ClOX/NOX interaction,” Nature 315, 476–484 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Photochem. Photobiol. (1)

K. Leszczynski, K. Jokela, L. Ylianttila, R. Visuri, M. Blumthaler, “Erythemally weighted radiometers in solar UV monitoring: results from the WMO/STUK intercomparison,” Photochem. Photobiol. 67, 212–221 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

R. L. McKenzie, B. J. Connor, G. E. Bodeker, “Increased summertime UV observed in New Zealand in response to ozone loss,” Science 285, 1709–1711 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (13)

A. F. McKinlay, B. L. Diffey, “A reference action spectrum for ultraviolet introduced erythema in human skin,” in Human Exposure to Ultraviolet Radiation: Risks and Regulations, W. R. Passchier, B. M. F. Bosnajakovich, eds. (Elsevier, New York, 1987), pp. 83–87.

A. Cede, E. Luccini, L. Nuñez, R. D. Piacentini, M. Blumthaler, “Monitoring of erythemal irradiance in the Argentine ultraviolet network,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

R. D. Bojkov, R. D. Hudson, “Ozone variability and trends,” in Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 1998, Report 44 (World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 1999).

National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, Ozone and UV Information, “Ultraviolet Radiation,” http://katipo.niwa.cri.nz/lauder/uvinfo.htm .

Bureau of Meteorology Research Center, “Ultraviolet Index Analysis and Forecast,” http://www.bom.gov.au/bmrc/daas/uvi.html .

World Meteorological Organization, “UV Monitoring Around the World,” http://titan.srrb.noaa.gov/UV/monitoring.html .

R. Silbernagl, M. Blumthaler, “First experiences with the Austrian UV monitoring network,” presented at European Conference on Atmospheric UV radiation (European Commission and Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland, 1998).

J. G. Schreder, M. Blumthaler, M. Huber, “Design of an input optic for solar UV measurements,” Internet Photochem. Photobiol., http://www.photobiology.com/UVR98/schreder/index.html (Issue: Protection against the hazards of UV, February1999).

K. Leszczynski, K. Jokela, L. Ylianttila, R. Visuri, M. Blumthaler, “Report of the WMO/STUK intercomparison of erythemally-weighted solar UV radiometers,” Report 112 (World Meteorological Organization/Global Atmosphere Watch, Helsinki, Finland, 1995).

A. Bais, C. Topaloglou, S. Kazadzis, M. Blumthaler, J. Schreder, A. Schmalwieser, D. Henriques, M. Janouch, “Report of the LAP/COST/WMO intercomparison of erythemal radiometers,” Report 141 (World Meteorological Organization/Global Atmosphere Watch, Thessaloniki, Greece, 1999).

International Organization for Standardization (ISO), “Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement,” (International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, 1993, corrected and reprinted 1995).

A. R. Webb, B. G. Gardiner, T. J. Martin, K. Leszczynski, J. Metzdorf, V. A. Mohnen, “Guidelines for site quality right of UV monitoring,” Report 126 (World Meteorological Organization/Global Atmosphere Watch, Geneva, 1998).

M. Huber, M. Blumthaler, J. Schreder, “Effect of ambient temperature and internal relative humidity on spectral sensitivity of broadband UV detectors,” in Ultraviolet Ground- and Space-Based Measurements, Models, and Effects, J. R. Slusser, J. R. Herman, W. Gao, eds., Proc. SPIE4482, 187–193 (2002).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Ratio of spectrometer measurements weighted with the response function over raw SL1240 signals for the data of the field intercomparisons in Innsbruck before and after the calibration campaign in Argentina by use of the spectral response measurement made in the laboratory immediately before the campaign in Argentina (squares) as a function of the SZA.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Range of the measured spectral responses as a function of wavelength.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Mean percentage differences for solar zenith angles below 70° between single-station calibrations’ and all-stations calibration (solid curves) and relative percentage differences to SL1240 of the laboratory intercomparisons (squares) as a function of time. The upper plot corresponds to SL2753, the lower plot to Y970806. The gray areas indicate the stations of the intercomparison, numbered as in Table 1.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Ratio of spectrometer measurements weighted with the response function over raw SL1240 signals for one day of intercomparison B as a function of SZA. The ratio was normalized to 1 at the lowest SZA. The filled square indicates the first measurement in the morning.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Percentage differences of the erythemally weighted data of Y941105 and SL1866 as a function of the SZA for 1999 at the Pilar station.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Floating double standard deviation to a given mean of 0% of the data in Fig. 5 divided by the square root of two.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Location, Conversion, Horizon Correction, and Drift of Station Biometers

Tables Icon

Table 2 SZA-Dependent k = 2 Uncertainties of Erythemally Weighted Biometer Data

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Iery=λθφ Rλ, θ, φcosθsinθdϕdθCIEλdλ=λ IλCIEλdλ,
SB=1CBλθφ Rλ, θ, φZBθcosθsinθ×dφdθEBλdλ,
CBSZA1SBλ IλEBλdλ.
IerySBCBSZAλ IλCIEλdλλ IλEBλdλ=SBCBSZAADAPSZA, O3.
IerySBCBSZAADAPSZA, O3×HORCSZADRCΔtime.
σ12σS2+σC2+σADAP2+σHORC2+σDRC2.
σC2σSPEC2+σT12+σT22+σT32,

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