Abstract

For the atmospheric correction of ocean-color imagery obtained over Case I waters with the Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) instrument the method currently used to relax the black-pixel assumption in the near infrared (NIR) relies on (1) an approximate model for the nadir NIR remote-sensing reflectance and (2) an assumption that the water-leaving radiance is isotropic over the upward hemisphere. Radiance simulations based on a comprehensive radiative-transfer model for the coupled atmosphere–ocean system and measurements of the nadir remote-sensing reflectance at 670 nm compiled in the SeaWiFS Bio-optical Algorithm Mini-Workshop (SeaBAM) database are used to assess the validity of this method. The results show that (1) it is important to improve the flexibility of the reflectance model to provide more realistic predictions of the nadir NIR water-leaving reflectance for different ocean regions and (2) the isotropic assumption should be avoided in the retrieval of ocean color, if the chlorophyll concentration is larger than approximately 6, 10, and 40 mg m-3 when the aerosol optical depth is approximately 0.05, 0.1, and 0.3, respectively. Finally, we extend our scope to Case II ocean waters to gain insight and enhance our understanding of the NIR aspects of ocean color. The results show that the isotropic assumption is invalid in a wider range than in Case I waters owing to the enhanced water-leaving reflectance resulting from oceanic sediments in the NIR wavelengths.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. H. R. Gordon, M. Wang, “Retrieval of water-leaving radiance and aerosol optical thickness over the oceans with SeaWiFS: a preliminary algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 33, 443–452 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. H. R. Gordon, “Atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery in the Earth Observation System era,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17081–17106 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. T. O. Kirk, Light and Photosynthesis in Aquatic Ecosystems, 2nd ed. (Cambridge University, Cambridge, UK, 1994).
  4. D. A. Siegel, M. Wang, S. Maritorena, W. Robinson, “Atmospheric correction of satellite ocean-color imagery: the black pixel assumption,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3582–3591 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Muller, C. McClain, R. Caddrey, G. Feldman, “The NASA SIMBIOS Program,” Backscatter, 29–32 (1998).
  6. R. A. Arnone, P. Martinolich, R. W. Gould, M. Sydor, R. P. Stumpf, “Coastal optical properties using SeaWiFS,” presented at Ocean Optics XIV, Kailua-Kona, Hawaii, 10–13 November, 1998.
  7. H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, M. M. Jacobs, “Computed relationships between the inherent and apparent optical properties of a flat homogeneous ocean,” Appl. Opt. 14, 417–427 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. H. R. Gordon, “Ocean color remote sensing: influence of the particle phase function and the solar zenith angle,” Eos Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 14, 1055 (1986).
  9. H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988b).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Morel, “Chlorophyll-specific scattering coefficient of phytoplankton—a simplified theoretical approach,” Deep-Sea Res. Part A 34, 1093–1105 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Morel, S. Maritorena, “Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: a reappraisal,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7163–7180 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. A. Garver, D. A. Siegel, “Inherent optical property inversion of ocean color spectra and its biogeochemical interpretation: I. Time series from the Sargasso Sea,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 18607–18625 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, Z. P. Lee, S. K. Hawes, D. Kamykowski, “Semianalytic moderate-resolution imaging spectrometer algorithms for chlorophyll a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitrate-depletion temperatures,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 5403–5421 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. A. Reynolds, D. Stramski, B. G. Mitchell, “A chlorophyll-dependent semianalytical reflectance model derived from field measurements of absorption and backscattering coefficients within the Southern Ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7125–7138 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  15. N. G. Jerlov, M. Fukuda, “Radiance distribution in the upper layers of the sea,” Tellus 12, 348–355 (1960).
    [CrossRef]
  16. T. Sasaki, S. Watanabe, G. Oshiba, N. Okami, M. Kajihara, “On the instrument for measuring angular distribution of underwater radiance,” Bull. Jpn. Soc. Sci. Fish. 28, 489–496 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. E. Tyler, “Radiance distribution as a function of depth in a underwater environment,” Bull. Scripps Inst. Oceanogr. 7, 363–412 (1960).
  18. H. Yang, H. R. Gordon, “Remote sensing of ocean color: assessment of water-leaving radiance bidirectional effects on atmospheric diffuse transmittance,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7887–7897 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Remotely sensed reflectance and its dependence on the vertical structure: a theoretical derivation,” Appl. Opt. 21, 4146–4150 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A theoretical derivation of the dependence of the remotely sensed reflectance of the ocean on the inherent optical properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13135–13142 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  21. A. Morel, K. J. Voss, B. Gentili, “Bidirectional reflectance of oceanic waters: a comparison of modeled and measured upward radiance fields,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13143–13150 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  22. B. Chen, K. Stamnes, B. Yan, Ø. Frette, J. J. Stamnes, “Water-leaving radiance in the NIR spectral region and its effects on atmospheric correction of ocean-color imagery,” J. Adv. Mar. Sci. Tech. Soc. 4, 329–338 (1998).
  23. C. D. Mobley, Light and Water: Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1994).
  24. B. Yan, K. Stamnes, W. Li, B. Chen, J. J. Stamnes, S. C. Tsay, “Pitfalls in atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery: How should aerosol optical properties be computed?,” Appl. Opt. 41, 412–423 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean-color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  26. Z. Jin, K. Stamnes, “Radiative transfer in nonuniformly refracting layered media: atmosphere–ocean system,” Appl. Opt. 33, 431–442 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. G. E. Thomas, K. Stamnes, Radiative Transfer in the Atmosphere and Ocean (Cambridge University, New York, 1999).
  28. A. Bricaud, A. Morel, M. Babin, K. Allali, H. Claustre, “Variations of light absorption by suspended particles with chlorophyll a concentration in oceanic (case 1) water: analysis and implications for bio-optical models,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31,033–31,044 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  29. R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “The analysis of ocean optical data II,” in Ocean Optics VII, M. A. Blizard, ed., Proc. SPIE637, 95–107 (1986).
  30. J. L. Muller, “Comparison of irradiance immersion coefficients for several marine environmental radiometers (MERs) in Case Studies for SeaWiFS Calibration and Validation, Part 3, NASA Tech. Memo. 10456627, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, J. G. Acker, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1995).
  31. R. W. Austin, G. Halikas, The Index of Refraction of Seawater (Scripps Institute of Oceanography, La Jolla, Calif., 1976).
  32. H. M. Dierssen, R. C. Smith, “Bio-optical properties and remote-sensing ocean-color algorithms for Antarctic Peninsula waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 26,301–26,312 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  33. G. M. Hale, M. R. Query, “Optical constants of water in the 200-nm to 200-µm wavelength region,” Appl. Opt. 12, 555–563 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  34. R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “Optical properties of the clearest natural waters,” Appl. Opt. 20, 177–184 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. H. R. Gordon, A. Y. Morel, Remote Assessment of Ocean Color for Interpretation of Satellite Visible Imagery: A Review (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1983).
  36. A. Morel, “Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogenous matter content (case 1 waters),” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10749–10768 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  37. A. Morel, “Optical properties of pure water and sea water I,” in Optical Aspects of Oceanography, N. G. Jerlov, E. Steemann-Nielsen, eds. (Academic, New York, 1974), pp. 1–24.
  38. H. Loisel, A. Morel, “Light scattering and chlorophyll concentration in case 1 waters: a reexamination,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 847–858 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  39. K. Stamnes, R. Swanson, “A new look at the discrete ordinate method for radiative transfer calculations in anisotropically scattering atmospheres,” J. Atmos. Sci. 38, 387–399 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  40. K. Stamnes, H. Dale, “A new look at the discrete ordinate method for radiative-transfer calculations in anisotropically scattering atmospheres. II: Intensity computations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 38, 2696–2706 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  41. K. Stamnes, “On the computation of angular distributions of radiation in planetary atmospheres,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 28, 47–51 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  42. K. Stamnes, “Reflection and transmission by a vertically inhomogeneous planetary atmosphere,” Planet. Space Sci. 30, 727–732 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  43. K. Stamnes, P. Conklin, “A new multilayer discrete ordinate approach to radiative transfer in vertically inhomogeneous atmospheres,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 31, 273–282 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  44. K. Stamnes, S.-C. Tsay, W. Wiscombe, K. Jayaweera, “A numerically stable algorithm for discrete-ordinate-method radiative transfer in multiple scattering and emitting layered media,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2502–2509 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  45. B. Yan, K. Stamnes, “Fast yet accurate computation of the complete radiance distribution in the atmosphere–ocean system,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (to be published).
  46. C. Mobley, B. Gentili, H. R. Gordon, Z. Jin, G. Kattawar, A. Morel, P. Reinersman, K. Stamnes, R. Stavn, “Comparison of numerical models for computing underwater light fields,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7484–7504 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  47. B. Yan, “Radiative transfer modeling in the coupled atmosphere–ocean system and its application to the remote sensing of ocean-color imagery,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Alaska, Fairbanks, Alaska, 2001).
  48. K. I. Gjerstad, “Monte Carlo simulations of radiative transport in the atmosphere and ocean,” M. Sc. thesis (University of Bergen, N-5007 Bergen, Norway, 2002).
  49. K. I. Gjerstad, J. J. Stamnes, B. Hamre, B. Yan, K. Stamnes, “Monte Carlo simulations of radiative transfer in the coupled atmosphere–ocean system,” submitted to Appl. Opt. (2002).
  50. A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters: its dependence on sun angle as influenced by the molecular scattering contribution,” Appl. Opt. 30, 4427–4438 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  51. T. Petzold, “Volume scattering functions for selected ocean waters,” SIO Ref. 72–78 (Scripps Institute of Oceanography, La Jolla, Calif., 1972).
  52. H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, R. Wouts, “Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180–1197 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  53. H. R. Gordon, “Diffuse reflectance of the ocean: influence of nonuniform phytoplankton pigment profile,” Appl. Opt. 31, 2116–2129 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  54. D. Antoine, A. Morel, “A multiple scattering algorithm for atmospheric correction of remotely sensing ocean color (MERIS instrument): principle and implementation for atmospheres carrying various aerosols including absorbing ones,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 20, 1875–1916 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  55. E. P. Shettle, R. W. Fenn, “Models for the aerosols of the lower atmosphere and the effects of humidity variations on their optical properties” (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscomb AFB, Mass. 01731, 1979).
  56. B. Yan, B. Chen, K. Stamnes, “The role of oceanic air bubbles in atmospheric correction of ocean-color imagery,” Appl. Opt. 41, 2202–2212 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  57. Y. V. Villevalde, A. V. Smirnov, N. T. O’Neill, S. P. Smyshlyaev, V. V. Yakovlev, “Measurement of aerosol optical depth in the Pacific Ocean and North Atlantic,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 20983–20988 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  58. M. Wang, S. W. Bailey, C. M. Pietras, C. R. McClain, “SeaWiFS provides unique global aerosol optical property data,” Eos Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 81, 197–202 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  59. S. Sathyendranath, L. Prieur, A. Morel, “A three-component model of ocean color and its application to remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments in coastal waters,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 10, 1373–1394 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  60. L. Prieur, S. Sathyendranath, “An optical classification of coastal and oceanic waters based on the specific absorption of plankton pigments, dissolved organic matter and particulate materials,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 671–689 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  61. A. Bricaud, A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Absorption by dissolved organic matter of the sea (yellow substance) in the UV and visible domains,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 43–53 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  62. U. Kronfeld, “Die optischen Eigenschaften der ozeanischen Schwebstoffe und ihre Bedeutung die Fernerkundung von Phytoplankton,” Ph.D. dissertation, GKSS Report 88/E/40 (GKSS Forschungzentrum, 21502 Geesthacht, Germany, 1988).
  63. D. Roland, H. Schiller, “Algorithm theoretical basis document (ATBD) 2.12: pigment index, sediment and gelbstoff retrieval from directional water leaving radiance reflectances using an inverse modeling technique,” PO-TN-MEL-GS-0005 (GKSS Research Center, 21502 Geesthacht, Germany, 1997).
  64. B. Hamre, O. Frette, S. R. Erga, J. J. Stamnes, K. Stamnes, “Parameterization and analysis of the optical absorption and scattering coefficients in a Western Norwegian fjord—a case II water study,” Appl. Opt., submitted for publication.
  65. J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, “Light scattering in planetary atmospheres,” Space Sci. Rev. 16, 527–610 (1974).
    [CrossRef]

2002

2001

A. Morel, S. Maritorena, “Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: a reappraisal,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7163–7180 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Reynolds, D. Stramski, B. G. Mitchell, “A chlorophyll-dependent semianalytical reflectance model derived from field measurements of absorption and backscattering coefficients within the Southern Ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7125–7138 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

H. M. Dierssen, R. C. Smith, “Bio-optical properties and remote-sensing ocean-color algorithms for Antarctic Peninsula waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 26,301–26,312 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, S. W. Bailey, C. M. Pietras, C. R. McClain, “SeaWiFS provides unique global aerosol optical property data,” Eos Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 81, 197–202 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Siegel, M. Wang, S. Maritorena, W. Robinson, “Atmospheric correction of satellite ocean-color imagery: the black pixel assumption,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3582–3591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

D. Antoine, A. Morel, “A multiple scattering algorithm for atmospheric correction of remotely sensing ocean color (MERIS instrument): principle and implementation for atmospheres carrying various aerosols including absorbing ones,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 20, 1875–1916 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, Z. P. Lee, S. K. Hawes, D. Kamykowski, “Semianalytic moderate-resolution imaging spectrometer algorithms for chlorophyll a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitrate-depletion temperatures,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 5403–5421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

J. Muller, C. McClain, R. Caddrey, G. Feldman, “The NASA SIMBIOS Program,” Backscatter, 29–32 (1998).

B. Chen, K. Stamnes, B. Yan, Ø. Frette, J. J. Stamnes, “Water-leaving radiance in the NIR spectral region and its effects on atmospheric correction of ocean-color imagery,” J. Adv. Mar. Sci. Tech. Soc. 4, 329–338 (1998).

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean-color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, M. Babin, K. Allali, H. Claustre, “Variations of light absorption by suspended particles with chlorophyll a concentration in oceanic (case 1) water: analysis and implications for bio-optical models,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31,033–31,044 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, R. Wouts, “Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180–1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Loisel, A. Morel, “Light scattering and chlorophyll concentration in case 1 waters: a reexamination,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 847–858 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

H. R. Gordon, “Atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery in the Earth Observation System era,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17081–17106 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Garver, D. A. Siegel, “Inherent optical property inversion of ocean color spectra and its biogeochemical interpretation: I. Time series from the Sargasso Sea,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 18607–18625 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Yang, H. R. Gordon, “Remote sensing of ocean color: assessment of water-leaving radiance bidirectional effects on atmospheric diffuse transmittance,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7887–7897 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A theoretical derivation of the dependence of the remotely sensed reflectance of the ocean on the inherent optical properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13135–13142 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, K. J. Voss, B. Gentili, “Bidirectional reflectance of oceanic waters: a comparison of modeled and measured upward radiance fields,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13143–13150 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

1993

1992

1991

1989

S. Sathyendranath, L. Prieur, A. Morel, “A three-component model of ocean color and its application to remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments in coastal waters,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 10, 1373–1394 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

1987

A. Morel, “Chlorophyll-specific scattering coefficient of phytoplankton—a simplified theoretical approach,” Deep-Sea Res. Part A 34, 1093–1105 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986

H. R. Gordon, “Ocean color remote sensing: influence of the particle phase function and the solar zenith angle,” Eos Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 14, 1055 (1986).

1982

J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Remotely sensed reflectance and its dependence on the vertical structure: a theoretical derivation,” Appl. Opt. 21, 4146–4150 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Stamnes, “On the computation of angular distributions of radiation in planetary atmospheres,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 28, 47–51 (1982).
[CrossRef]

K. Stamnes, “Reflection and transmission by a vertically inhomogeneous planetary atmosphere,” Planet. Space Sci. 30, 727–732 (1982).
[CrossRef]

K. Stamnes, P. Conklin, “A new multilayer discrete ordinate approach to radiative transfer in vertically inhomogeneous atmospheres,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 31, 273–282 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981

K. Stamnes, R. Swanson, “A new look at the discrete ordinate method for radiative transfer calculations in anisotropically scattering atmospheres,” J. Atmos. Sci. 38, 387–399 (1981).
[CrossRef]

K. Stamnes, H. Dale, “A new look at the discrete ordinate method for radiative-transfer calculations in anisotropically scattering atmospheres. II: Intensity computations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 38, 2696–2706 (1981).
[CrossRef]

L. Prieur, S. Sathyendranath, “An optical classification of coastal and oceanic waters based on the specific absorption of plankton pigments, dissolved organic matter and particulate materials,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 671–689 (1981).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Absorption by dissolved organic matter of the sea (yellow substance) in the UV and visible domains,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 43–53 (1981).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “Optical properties of the clearest natural waters,” Appl. Opt. 20, 177–184 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1975

1974

J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, “Light scattering in planetary atmospheres,” Space Sci. Rev. 16, 527–610 (1974).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Hale, M. R. Query, “Optical constants of water in the 200-nm to 200-µm wavelength region,” Appl. Opt. 12, 555–563 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1962

T. Sasaki, S. Watanabe, G. Oshiba, N. Okami, M. Kajihara, “On the instrument for measuring angular distribution of underwater radiance,” Bull. Jpn. Soc. Sci. Fish. 28, 489–496 (1962).
[CrossRef]

1960

J. E. Tyler, “Radiance distribution as a function of depth in a underwater environment,” Bull. Scripps Inst. Oceanogr. 7, 363–412 (1960).

N. G. Jerlov, M. Fukuda, “Radiance distribution in the upper layers of the sea,” Tellus 12, 348–355 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Allali, K.

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, M. Babin, K. Allali, H. Claustre, “Variations of light absorption by suspended particles with chlorophyll a concentration in oceanic (case 1) water: analysis and implications for bio-optical models,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31,033–31,044 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Antoine, D.

D. Antoine, A. Morel, “A multiple scattering algorithm for atmospheric correction of remotely sensing ocean color (MERIS instrument): principle and implementation for atmospheres carrying various aerosols including absorbing ones,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 20, 1875–1916 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Arnone, R. A.

R. A. Arnone, P. Martinolich, R. W. Gould, M. Sydor, R. P. Stumpf, “Coastal optical properties using SeaWiFS,” presented at Ocean Optics XIV, Kailua-Kona, Hawaii, 10–13 November, 1998.

Austin, R. W.

R. W. Austin, G. Halikas, The Index of Refraction of Seawater (Scripps Institute of Oceanography, La Jolla, Calif., 1976).

Babin, M.

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, M. Babin, K. Allali, H. Claustre, “Variations of light absorption by suspended particles with chlorophyll a concentration in oceanic (case 1) water: analysis and implications for bio-optical models,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31,033–31,044 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bailey, S. W.

M. Wang, S. W. Bailey, C. M. Pietras, C. R. McClain, “SeaWiFS provides unique global aerosol optical property data,” Eos Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 81, 197–202 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Baker, K. S.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988b).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “Optical properties of the clearest natural waters,” Appl. Opt. 20, 177–184 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “The analysis of ocean optical data II,” in Ocean Optics VII, M. A. Blizard, ed., Proc. SPIE637, 95–107 (1986).

Bricaud, A.

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, M. Babin, K. Allali, H. Claustre, “Variations of light absorption by suspended particles with chlorophyll a concentration in oceanic (case 1) water: analysis and implications for bio-optical models,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31,033–31,044 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Absorption by dissolved organic matter of the sea (yellow substance) in the UV and visible domains,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 43–53 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Brown, J. W.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988b).
[CrossRef]

Brown, O. B.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988b).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, M. M. Jacobs, “Computed relationships between the inherent and apparent optical properties of a flat homogeneous ocean,” Appl. Opt. 14, 417–427 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Caddrey, R.

J. Muller, C. McClain, R. Caddrey, G. Feldman, “The NASA SIMBIOS Program,” Backscatter, 29–32 (1998).

Carder, K. L.

K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, Z. P. Lee, S. K. Hawes, D. Kamykowski, “Semianalytic moderate-resolution imaging spectrometer algorithms for chlorophyll a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitrate-depletion temperatures,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 5403–5421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean-color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Charlton, F.

H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, R. Wouts, “Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180–1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chen, B.

Chen, F. R.

K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, Z. P. Lee, S. K. Hawes, D. Kamykowski, “Semianalytic moderate-resolution imaging spectrometer algorithms for chlorophyll a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitrate-depletion temperatures,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 5403–5421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Clark, D. K.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988b).
[CrossRef]

Claustre, H.

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, M. Babin, K. Allali, H. Claustre, “Variations of light absorption by suspended particles with chlorophyll a concentration in oceanic (case 1) water: analysis and implications for bio-optical models,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31,033–31,044 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Conklin, P.

K. Stamnes, P. Conklin, “A new multilayer discrete ordinate approach to radiative transfer in vertically inhomogeneous atmospheres,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 31, 273–282 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Dale, H.

K. Stamnes, H. Dale, “A new look at the discrete ordinate method for radiative-transfer calculations in anisotropically scattering atmospheres. II: Intensity computations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 38, 2696–2706 (1981).
[CrossRef]

de Haan, J. F.

H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, R. Wouts, “Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180–1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dekker, A. G.

H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, R. Wouts, “Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180–1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dierssen, H. M.

H. M. Dierssen, R. C. Smith, “Bio-optical properties and remote-sensing ocean-color algorithms for Antarctic Peninsula waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 26,301–26,312 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Erga, S. R.

B. Hamre, O. Frette, S. R. Erga, J. J. Stamnes, K. Stamnes, “Parameterization and analysis of the optical absorption and scattering coefficients in a Western Norwegian fjord—a case II water study,” Appl. Opt., submitted for publication.

Evans, R. H.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988b).
[CrossRef]

Feldman, G.

J. Muller, C. McClain, R. Caddrey, G. Feldman, “The NASA SIMBIOS Program,” Backscatter, 29–32 (1998).

Fenn, R. W.

E. P. Shettle, R. W. Fenn, “Models for the aerosols of the lower atmosphere and the effects of humidity variations on their optical properties” (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscomb AFB, Mass. 01731, 1979).

Frette, O.

B. Hamre, O. Frette, S. R. Erga, J. J. Stamnes, K. Stamnes, “Parameterization and analysis of the optical absorption and scattering coefficients in a Western Norwegian fjord—a case II water study,” Appl. Opt., submitted for publication.

Frette, Ø.

B. Chen, K. Stamnes, B. Yan, Ø. Frette, J. J. Stamnes, “Water-leaving radiance in the NIR spectral region and its effects on atmospheric correction of ocean-color imagery,” J. Adv. Mar. Sci. Tech. Soc. 4, 329–338 (1998).

Fukuda, M.

N. G. Jerlov, M. Fukuda, “Radiance distribution in the upper layers of the sea,” Tellus 12, 348–355 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Garver, S. A.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean-color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Garver, D. A. Siegel, “Inherent optical property inversion of ocean color spectra and its biogeochemical interpretation: I. Time series from the Sargasso Sea,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 18607–18625 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gentili, B.

Gjerstad, K. I.

K. I. Gjerstad, J. J. Stamnes, B. Hamre, B. Yan, K. Stamnes, “Monte Carlo simulations of radiative transfer in the coupled atmosphere–ocean system,” submitted to Appl. Opt. (2002).

K. I. Gjerstad, “Monte Carlo simulations of radiative transport in the atmosphere and ocean,” M. Sc. thesis (University of Bergen, N-5007 Bergen, Norway, 2002).

Gordon, H. R.

H. Yang, H. R. Gordon, “Remote sensing of ocean color: assessment of water-leaving radiance bidirectional effects on atmospheric diffuse transmittance,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7887–7897 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, “Atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery in the Earth Observation System era,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17081–17106 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, M. Wang, “Retrieval of water-leaving radiance and aerosol optical thickness over the oceans with SeaWiFS: a preliminary algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 33, 443–452 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Mobley, B. Gentili, H. R. Gordon, Z. Jin, G. Kattawar, A. Morel, P. Reinersman, K. Stamnes, R. Stavn, “Comparison of numerical models for computing underwater light fields,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7484–7504 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, “Diffuse reflectance of the ocean: influence of nonuniform phytoplankton pigment profile,” Appl. Opt. 31, 2116–2129 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988b).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, “Ocean color remote sensing: influence of the particle phase function and the solar zenith angle,” Eos Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 14, 1055 (1986).

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, M. M. Jacobs, “Computed relationships between the inherent and apparent optical properties of a flat homogeneous ocean,” Appl. Opt. 14, 417–427 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, A. Y. Morel, Remote Assessment of Ocean Color for Interpretation of Satellite Visible Imagery: A Review (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1983).

Gould, R. W.

R. A. Arnone, P. Martinolich, R. W. Gould, M. Sydor, R. P. Stumpf, “Coastal optical properties using SeaWiFS,” presented at Ocean Optics XIV, Kailua-Kona, Hawaii, 10–13 November, 1998.

Hale, G. M.

Halikas, G.

R. W. Austin, G. Halikas, The Index of Refraction of Seawater (Scripps Institute of Oceanography, La Jolla, Calif., 1976).

Hamre, B.

K. I. Gjerstad, J. J. Stamnes, B. Hamre, B. Yan, K. Stamnes, “Monte Carlo simulations of radiative transfer in the coupled atmosphere–ocean system,” submitted to Appl. Opt. (2002).

B. Hamre, O. Frette, S. R. Erga, J. J. Stamnes, K. Stamnes, “Parameterization and analysis of the optical absorption and scattering coefficients in a Western Norwegian fjord—a case II water study,” Appl. Opt., submitted for publication.

Hansen, J. E.

J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, “Light scattering in planetary atmospheres,” Space Sci. Rev. 16, 527–610 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Hawes, S. K.

K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, Z. P. Lee, S. K. Hawes, D. Kamykowski, “Semianalytic moderate-resolution imaging spectrometer algorithms for chlorophyll a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitrate-depletion temperatures,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 5403–5421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hoogenboom, H. J.

H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, R. Wouts, “Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180–1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hovenier, J. W.

H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, R. Wouts, “Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180–1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jacobs, M. M.

Jayaweera, K.

Jerlov, N. G.

N. G. Jerlov, M. Fukuda, “Radiance distribution in the upper layers of the sea,” Tellus 12, 348–355 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Jin, Z.

Kahru, M.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean-color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kajihara, M.

T. Sasaki, S. Watanabe, G. Oshiba, N. Okami, M. Kajihara, “On the instrument for measuring angular distribution of underwater radiance,” Bull. Jpn. Soc. Sci. Fish. 28, 489–496 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Kamykowski, D.

K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, Z. P. Lee, S. K. Hawes, D. Kamykowski, “Semianalytic moderate-resolution imaging spectrometer algorithms for chlorophyll a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitrate-depletion temperatures,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 5403–5421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kattawar, G.

Kirk, J. T. O.

J. T. O. Kirk, Light and Photosynthesis in Aquatic Ecosystems, 2nd ed. (Cambridge University, Cambridge, UK, 1994).

Kronfeld, U.

U. Kronfeld, “Die optischen Eigenschaften der ozeanischen Schwebstoffe und ihre Bedeutung die Fernerkundung von Phytoplankton,” Ph.D. dissertation, GKSS Report 88/E/40 (GKSS Forschungzentrum, 21502 Geesthacht, Germany, 1988).

Lee, Z. P.

K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, Z. P. Lee, S. K. Hawes, D. Kamykowski, “Semianalytic moderate-resolution imaging spectrometer algorithms for chlorophyll a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitrate-depletion temperatures,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 5403–5421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Li, W.

Loisel, H.

H. Loisel, A. Morel, “Light scattering and chlorophyll concentration in case 1 waters: a reexamination,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 847–858 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Maritorena, S.

A. Morel, S. Maritorena, “Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: a reappraisal,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7163–7180 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Siegel, M. Wang, S. Maritorena, W. Robinson, “Atmospheric correction of satellite ocean-color imagery: the black pixel assumption,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3582–3591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean-color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Martinolich, P.

R. A. Arnone, P. Martinolich, R. W. Gould, M. Sydor, R. P. Stumpf, “Coastal optical properties using SeaWiFS,” presented at Ocean Optics XIV, Kailua-Kona, Hawaii, 10–13 November, 1998.

McClain, C.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean-color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Muller, C. McClain, R. Caddrey, G. Feldman, “The NASA SIMBIOS Program,” Backscatter, 29–32 (1998).

McClain, C. R.

M. Wang, S. W. Bailey, C. M. Pietras, C. R. McClain, “SeaWiFS provides unique global aerosol optical property data,” Eos Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 81, 197–202 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, B. G.

R. A. Reynolds, D. Stramski, B. G. Mitchell, “A chlorophyll-dependent semianalytical reflectance model derived from field measurements of absorption and backscattering coefficients within the Southern Ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7125–7138 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean-color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mobley, C.

Mobley, C. D.

C. D. Mobley, Light and Water: Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1994).

Morel, A.

A. Morel, S. Maritorena, “Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: a reappraisal,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7163–7180 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Antoine, A. Morel, “A multiple scattering algorithm for atmospheric correction of remotely sensing ocean color (MERIS instrument): principle and implementation for atmospheres carrying various aerosols including absorbing ones,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 20, 1875–1916 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Loisel, A. Morel, “Light scattering and chlorophyll concentration in case 1 waters: a reexamination,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 847–858 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, M. Babin, K. Allali, H. Claustre, “Variations of light absorption by suspended particles with chlorophyll a concentration in oceanic (case 1) water: analysis and implications for bio-optical models,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31,033–31,044 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, K. J. Voss, B. Gentili, “Bidirectional reflectance of oceanic waters: a comparison of modeled and measured upward radiance fields,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13143–13150 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Mobley, B. Gentili, H. R. Gordon, Z. Jin, G. Kattawar, A. Morel, P. Reinersman, K. Stamnes, R. Stavn, “Comparison of numerical models for computing underwater light fields,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7484–7504 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters: its dependence on sun angle as influenced by the molecular scattering contribution,” Appl. Opt. 30, 4427–4438 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Sathyendranath, L. Prieur, A. Morel, “A three-component model of ocean color and its application to remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments in coastal waters,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 10, 1373–1394 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, “Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogenous matter content (case 1 waters),” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10749–10768 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, “Chlorophyll-specific scattering coefficient of phytoplankton—a simplified theoretical approach,” Deep-Sea Res. Part A 34, 1093–1105 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Absorption by dissolved organic matter of the sea (yellow substance) in the UV and visible domains,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 43–53 (1981).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, “Optical properties of pure water and sea water I,” in Optical Aspects of Oceanography, N. G. Jerlov, E. Steemann-Nielsen, eds. (Academic, New York, 1974), pp. 1–24.

Morel, A. Y.

H. R. Gordon, A. Y. Morel, Remote Assessment of Ocean Color for Interpretation of Satellite Visible Imagery: A Review (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1983).

Muller, J.

J. Muller, C. McClain, R. Caddrey, G. Feldman, “The NASA SIMBIOS Program,” Backscatter, 29–32 (1998).

Muller, J. L.

J. L. Muller, “Comparison of irradiance immersion coefficients for several marine environmental radiometers (MERs) in Case Studies for SeaWiFS Calibration and Validation, Part 3, NASA Tech. Memo. 10456627, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, J. G. Acker, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1995).

O’Neill, N. T.

Y. V. Villevalde, A. V. Smirnov, N. T. O’Neill, S. P. Smyshlyaev, V. V. Yakovlev, “Measurement of aerosol optical depth in the Pacific Ocean and North Atlantic,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 20983–20988 (1994).
[CrossRef]

O’Reilly, J. E.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean-color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Okami, N.

T. Sasaki, S. Watanabe, G. Oshiba, N. Okami, M. Kajihara, “On the instrument for measuring angular distribution of underwater radiance,” Bull. Jpn. Soc. Sci. Fish. 28, 489–496 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Oshiba, G.

T. Sasaki, S. Watanabe, G. Oshiba, N. Okami, M. Kajihara, “On the instrument for measuring angular distribution of underwater radiance,” Bull. Jpn. Soc. Sci. Fish. 28, 489–496 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Petzold, T.

T. Petzold, “Volume scattering functions for selected ocean waters,” SIO Ref. 72–78 (Scripps Institute of Oceanography, La Jolla, Calif., 1972).

Pietras, C. M.

M. Wang, S. W. Bailey, C. M. Pietras, C. R. McClain, “SeaWiFS provides unique global aerosol optical property data,” Eos Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 81, 197–202 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Prieur, L.

S. Sathyendranath, L. Prieur, A. Morel, “A three-component model of ocean color and its application to remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments in coastal waters,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 10, 1373–1394 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Absorption by dissolved organic matter of the sea (yellow substance) in the UV and visible domains,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 43–53 (1981).
[CrossRef]

L. Prieur, S. Sathyendranath, “An optical classification of coastal and oceanic waters based on the specific absorption of plankton pigments, dissolved organic matter and particulate materials,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 671–689 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Query, M. R.

Reinersman, P.

Reynolds, R. A.

R. A. Reynolds, D. Stramski, B. G. Mitchell, “A chlorophyll-dependent semianalytical reflectance model derived from field measurements of absorption and backscattering coefficients within the Southern Ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7125–7138 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, W.

Roland, D.

D. Roland, H. Schiller, “Algorithm theoretical basis document (ATBD) 2.12: pigment index, sediment and gelbstoff retrieval from directional water leaving radiance reflectances using an inverse modeling technique,” PO-TN-MEL-GS-0005 (GKSS Research Center, 21502 Geesthacht, Germany, 1997).

Sasaki, T.

T. Sasaki, S. Watanabe, G. Oshiba, N. Okami, M. Kajihara, “On the instrument for measuring angular distribution of underwater radiance,” Bull. Jpn. Soc. Sci. Fish. 28, 489–496 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Sathyendranath, S.

S. Sathyendranath, L. Prieur, A. Morel, “A three-component model of ocean color and its application to remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments in coastal waters,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 10, 1373–1394 (1989).
[CrossRef]

L. Prieur, S. Sathyendranath, “An optical classification of coastal and oceanic waters based on the specific absorption of plankton pigments, dissolved organic matter and particulate materials,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 671–689 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Schiller, H.

D. Roland, H. Schiller, “Algorithm theoretical basis document (ATBD) 2.12: pigment index, sediment and gelbstoff retrieval from directional water leaving radiance reflectances using an inverse modeling technique,” PO-TN-MEL-GS-0005 (GKSS Research Center, 21502 Geesthacht, Germany, 1997).

Schreurs, R.

H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, R. Wouts, “Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180–1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shettle, E. P.

E. P. Shettle, R. W. Fenn, “Models for the aerosols of the lower atmosphere and the effects of humidity variations on their optical properties” (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscomb AFB, Mass. 01731, 1979).

Siegel, D. A.

D. A. Siegel, M. Wang, S. Maritorena, W. Robinson, “Atmospheric correction of satellite ocean-color imagery: the black pixel assumption,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3582–3591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean-color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Garver, D. A. Siegel, “Inherent optical property inversion of ocean color spectra and its biogeochemical interpretation: I. Time series from the Sargasso Sea,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 18607–18625 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Smirnov, A. V.

Y. V. Villevalde, A. V. Smirnov, N. T. O’Neill, S. P. Smyshlyaev, V. V. Yakovlev, “Measurement of aerosol optical depth in the Pacific Ocean and North Atlantic,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 20983–20988 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. C.

H. M. Dierssen, R. C. Smith, “Bio-optical properties and remote-sensing ocean-color algorithms for Antarctic Peninsula waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 26,301–26,312 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988b).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “Optical properties of the clearest natural waters,” Appl. Opt. 20, 177–184 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “The analysis of ocean optical data II,” in Ocean Optics VII, M. A. Blizard, ed., Proc. SPIE637, 95–107 (1986).

Smyshlyaev, S. P.

Y. V. Villevalde, A. V. Smirnov, N. T. O’Neill, S. P. Smyshlyaev, V. V. Yakovlev, “Measurement of aerosol optical depth in the Pacific Ocean and North Atlantic,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 20983–20988 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Stamnes, J. J.

B. Yan, K. Stamnes, W. Li, B. Chen, J. J. Stamnes, S. C. Tsay, “Pitfalls in atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery: How should aerosol optical properties be computed?,” Appl. Opt. 41, 412–423 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Chen, K. Stamnes, B. Yan, Ø. Frette, J. J. Stamnes, “Water-leaving radiance in the NIR spectral region and its effects on atmospheric correction of ocean-color imagery,” J. Adv. Mar. Sci. Tech. Soc. 4, 329–338 (1998).

K. I. Gjerstad, J. J. Stamnes, B. Hamre, B. Yan, K. Stamnes, “Monte Carlo simulations of radiative transfer in the coupled atmosphere–ocean system,” submitted to Appl. Opt. (2002).

B. Hamre, O. Frette, S. R. Erga, J. J. Stamnes, K. Stamnes, “Parameterization and analysis of the optical absorption and scattering coefficients in a Western Norwegian fjord—a case II water study,” Appl. Opt., submitted for publication.

Stamnes, K.

B. Yan, K. Stamnes, W. Li, B. Chen, J. J. Stamnes, S. C. Tsay, “Pitfalls in atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery: How should aerosol optical properties be computed?,” Appl. Opt. 41, 412–423 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Yan, B. Chen, K. Stamnes, “The role of oceanic air bubbles in atmospheric correction of ocean-color imagery,” Appl. Opt. 41, 2202–2212 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Chen, K. Stamnes, B. Yan, Ø. Frette, J. J. Stamnes, “Water-leaving radiance in the NIR spectral region and its effects on atmospheric correction of ocean-color imagery,” J. Adv. Mar. Sci. Tech. Soc. 4, 329–338 (1998).

Z. Jin, K. Stamnes, “Radiative transfer in nonuniformly refracting layered media: atmosphere–ocean system,” Appl. Opt. 33, 431–442 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Mobley, B. Gentili, H. R. Gordon, Z. Jin, G. Kattawar, A. Morel, P. Reinersman, K. Stamnes, R. Stavn, “Comparison of numerical models for computing underwater light fields,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7484–7504 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Stamnes, S.-C. Tsay, W. Wiscombe, K. Jayaweera, “A numerically stable algorithm for discrete-ordinate-method radiative transfer in multiple scattering and emitting layered media,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2502–2509 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Stamnes, “On the computation of angular distributions of radiation in planetary atmospheres,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 28, 47–51 (1982).
[CrossRef]

K. Stamnes, P. Conklin, “A new multilayer discrete ordinate approach to radiative transfer in vertically inhomogeneous atmospheres,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 31, 273–282 (1982).
[CrossRef]

K. Stamnes, “Reflection and transmission by a vertically inhomogeneous planetary atmosphere,” Planet. Space Sci. 30, 727–732 (1982).
[CrossRef]

K. Stamnes, H. Dale, “A new look at the discrete ordinate method for radiative-transfer calculations in anisotropically scattering atmospheres. II: Intensity computations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 38, 2696–2706 (1981).
[CrossRef]

K. Stamnes, R. Swanson, “A new look at the discrete ordinate method for radiative transfer calculations in anisotropically scattering atmospheres,” J. Atmos. Sci. 38, 387–399 (1981).
[CrossRef]

B. Yan, K. Stamnes, “Fast yet accurate computation of the complete radiance distribution in the atmosphere–ocean system,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (to be published).

G. E. Thomas, K. Stamnes, Radiative Transfer in the Atmosphere and Ocean (Cambridge University, New York, 1999).

B. Hamre, O. Frette, S. R. Erga, J. J. Stamnes, K. Stamnes, “Parameterization and analysis of the optical absorption and scattering coefficients in a Western Norwegian fjord—a case II water study,” Appl. Opt., submitted for publication.

K. I. Gjerstad, J. J. Stamnes, B. Hamre, B. Yan, K. Stamnes, “Monte Carlo simulations of radiative transfer in the coupled atmosphere–ocean system,” submitted to Appl. Opt. (2002).

Stavn, R.

Stramski, D.

R. A. Reynolds, D. Stramski, B. G. Mitchell, “A chlorophyll-dependent semianalytical reflectance model derived from field measurements of absorption and backscattering coefficients within the Southern Ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7125–7138 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Stumpf, R. P.

R. A. Arnone, P. Martinolich, R. W. Gould, M. Sydor, R. P. Stumpf, “Coastal optical properties using SeaWiFS,” presented at Ocean Optics XIV, Kailua-Kona, Hawaii, 10–13 November, 1998.

Swanson, R.

K. Stamnes, R. Swanson, “A new look at the discrete ordinate method for radiative transfer calculations in anisotropically scattering atmospheres,” J. Atmos. Sci. 38, 387–399 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Sydor, M.

R. A. Arnone, P. Martinolich, R. W. Gould, M. Sydor, R. P. Stumpf, “Coastal optical properties using SeaWiFS,” presented at Ocean Optics XIV, Kailua-Kona, Hawaii, 10–13 November, 1998.

Thomas, G. E.

G. E. Thomas, K. Stamnes, Radiative Transfer in the Atmosphere and Ocean (Cambridge University, New York, 1999).

Travis, L. D.

J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, “Light scattering in planetary atmospheres,” Space Sci. Rev. 16, 527–610 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Tsay, S. C.

Tsay, S.-C.

Tyler, J. E.

J. E. Tyler, “Radiance distribution as a function of depth in a underwater environment,” Bull. Scripps Inst. Oceanogr. 7, 363–412 (1960).

Vassen, W.

H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, R. Wouts, “Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180–1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Villevalde, Y. V.

Y. V. Villevalde, A. V. Smirnov, N. T. O’Neill, S. P. Smyshlyaev, V. V. Yakovlev, “Measurement of aerosol optical depth in the Pacific Ocean and North Atlantic,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 20983–20988 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Volten, H.

H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, R. Wouts, “Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180–1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Voss, K. J.

A. Morel, K. J. Voss, B. Gentili, “Bidirectional reflectance of oceanic waters: a comparison of modeled and measured upward radiance fields,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13143–13150 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wang, M.

Watanabe, S.

T. Sasaki, S. Watanabe, G. Oshiba, N. Okami, M. Kajihara, “On the instrument for measuring angular distribution of underwater radiance,” Bull. Jpn. Soc. Sci. Fish. 28, 489–496 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Wiscombe, W.

Wouts, R.

H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, R. Wouts, “Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180–1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yakovlev, V. V.

Y. V. Villevalde, A. V. Smirnov, N. T. O’Neill, S. P. Smyshlyaev, V. V. Yakovlev, “Measurement of aerosol optical depth in the Pacific Ocean and North Atlantic,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 20983–20988 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Yan, B.

B. Yan, B. Chen, K. Stamnes, “The role of oceanic air bubbles in atmospheric correction of ocean-color imagery,” Appl. Opt. 41, 2202–2212 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Yan, K. Stamnes, W. Li, B. Chen, J. J. Stamnes, S. C. Tsay, “Pitfalls in atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery: How should aerosol optical properties be computed?,” Appl. Opt. 41, 412–423 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Chen, K. Stamnes, B. Yan, Ø. Frette, J. J. Stamnes, “Water-leaving radiance in the NIR spectral region and its effects on atmospheric correction of ocean-color imagery,” J. Adv. Mar. Sci. Tech. Soc. 4, 329–338 (1998).

B. Yan, K. Stamnes, “Fast yet accurate computation of the complete radiance distribution in the atmosphere–ocean system,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (to be published).

B. Yan, “Radiative transfer modeling in the coupled atmosphere–ocean system and its application to the remote sensing of ocean-color imagery,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Alaska, Fairbanks, Alaska, 2001).

K. I. Gjerstad, J. J. Stamnes, B. Hamre, B. Yan, K. Stamnes, “Monte Carlo simulations of radiative transfer in the coupled atmosphere–ocean system,” submitted to Appl. Opt. (2002).

Yang, H.

Zaneveld, J. R. V.

J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A theoretical derivation of the dependence of the remotely sensed reflectance of the ocean on the inherent optical properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13135–13142 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Remotely sensed reflectance and its dependence on the vertical structure: a theoretical derivation,” Appl. Opt. 21, 4146–4150 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

G. M. Hale, M. R. Query, “Optical constants of water in the 200-nm to 200-µm wavelength region,” Appl. Opt. 12, 555–563 (1974).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, M. M. Jacobs, “Computed relationships between the inherent and apparent optical properties of a flat homogeneous ocean,” Appl. Opt. 14, 417–427 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “Optical properties of the clearest natural waters,” Appl. Opt. 20, 177–184 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Remotely sensed reflectance and its dependence on the vertical structure: a theoretical derivation,” Appl. Opt. 21, 4146–4150 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Stamnes, S.-C. Tsay, W. Wiscombe, K. Jayaweera, “A numerically stable algorithm for discrete-ordinate-method radiative transfer in multiple scattering and emitting layered media,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2502–2509 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, “Diffuse reflectance of the ocean: influence of nonuniform phytoplankton pigment profile,” Appl. Opt. 31, 2116–2129 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Jin, K. Stamnes, “Radiative transfer in nonuniformly refracting layered media: atmosphere–ocean system,” Appl. Opt. 33, 431–442 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, M. Wang, “Retrieval of water-leaving radiance and aerosol optical thickness over the oceans with SeaWiFS: a preliminary algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 33, 443–452 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yang, H. R. Gordon, “Remote sensing of ocean color: assessment of water-leaving radiance bidirectional effects on atmospheric diffuse transmittance,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7887–7897 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters: its dependence on sun angle as influenced by the molecular scattering contribution,” Appl. Opt. 30, 4427–4438 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Siegel, M. Wang, S. Maritorena, W. Robinson, “Atmospheric correction of satellite ocean-color imagery: the black pixel assumption,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3582–3591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Yan, K. Stamnes, W. Li, B. Chen, J. J. Stamnes, S. C. Tsay, “Pitfalls in atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery: How should aerosol optical properties be computed?,” Appl. Opt. 41, 412–423 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Yan, B. Chen, K. Stamnes, “The role of oceanic air bubbles in atmospheric correction of ocean-color imagery,” Appl. Opt. 41, 2202–2212 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Mobley, B. Gentili, H. R. Gordon, Z. Jin, G. Kattawar, A. Morel, P. Reinersman, K. Stamnes, R. Stavn, “Comparison of numerical models for computing underwater light fields,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7484–7504 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Backscatter

J. Muller, C. McClain, R. Caddrey, G. Feldman, “The NASA SIMBIOS Program,” Backscatter, 29–32 (1998).

Bull. Jpn. Soc. Sci. Fish.

T. Sasaki, S. Watanabe, G. Oshiba, N. Okami, M. Kajihara, “On the instrument for measuring angular distribution of underwater radiance,” Bull. Jpn. Soc. Sci. Fish. 28, 489–496 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Bull. Scripps Inst. Oceanogr.

J. E. Tyler, “Radiance distribution as a function of depth in a underwater environment,” Bull. Scripps Inst. Oceanogr. 7, 363–412 (1960).

Deep-Sea Res. Part A

A. Morel, “Chlorophyll-specific scattering coefficient of phytoplankton—a simplified theoretical approach,” Deep-Sea Res. Part A 34, 1093–1105 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Eos Trans. Am. Geophys. Union

H. R. Gordon, “Ocean color remote sensing: influence of the particle phase function and the solar zenith angle,” Eos Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 14, 1055 (1986).

M. Wang, S. W. Bailey, C. M. Pietras, C. R. McClain, “SeaWiFS provides unique global aerosol optical property data,” Eos Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 81, 197–202 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Remote Sensing

S. Sathyendranath, L. Prieur, A. Morel, “A three-component model of ocean color and its application to remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments in coastal waters,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 10, 1373–1394 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. Antoine, A. Morel, “A multiple scattering algorithm for atmospheric correction of remotely sensing ocean color (MERIS instrument): principle and implementation for atmospheres carrying various aerosols including absorbing ones,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 20, 1875–1916 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Adv. Mar. Sci. Tech. Soc.

B. Chen, K. Stamnes, B. Yan, Ø. Frette, J. J. Stamnes, “Water-leaving radiance in the NIR spectral region and its effects on atmospheric correction of ocean-color imagery,” J. Adv. Mar. Sci. Tech. Soc. 4, 329–338 (1998).

J. Atmos. Sci.

K. Stamnes, R. Swanson, “A new look at the discrete ordinate method for radiative transfer calculations in anisotropically scattering atmospheres,” J. Atmos. Sci. 38, 387–399 (1981).
[CrossRef]

K. Stamnes, H. Dale, “A new look at the discrete ordinate method for radiative-transfer calculations in anisotropically scattering atmospheres. II: Intensity computations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 38, 2696–2706 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, M. Babin, K. Allali, H. Claustre, “Variations of light absorption by suspended particles with chlorophyll a concentration in oceanic (case 1) water: analysis and implications for bio-optical models,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31,033–31,044 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Dierssen, R. C. Smith, “Bio-optical properties and remote-sensing ocean-color algorithms for Antarctic Peninsula waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 26,301–26,312 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, “Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogenous matter content (case 1 waters),” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10749–10768 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A theoretical derivation of the dependence of the remotely sensed reflectance of the ocean on the inherent optical properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13135–13142 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, K. J. Voss, B. Gentili, “Bidirectional reflectance of oceanic waters: a comparison of modeled and measured upward radiance fields,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13143–13150 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988b).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, S. Maritorena, “Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: a reappraisal,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7163–7180 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Garver, D. A. Siegel, “Inherent optical property inversion of ocean color spectra and its biogeochemical interpretation: I. Time series from the Sargasso Sea,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 18607–18625 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, Z. P. Lee, S. K. Hawes, D. Kamykowski, “Semianalytic moderate-resolution imaging spectrometer algorithms for chlorophyll a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitrate-depletion temperatures,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 5403–5421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Reynolds, D. Stramski, B. G. Mitchell, “A chlorophyll-dependent semianalytical reflectance model derived from field measurements of absorption and backscattering coefficients within the Southern Ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7125–7138 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, “Atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery in the Earth Observation System era,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17081–17106 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. V. Villevalde, A. V. Smirnov, N. T. O’Neill, S. P. Smyshlyaev, V. V. Yakovlev, “Measurement of aerosol optical depth in the Pacific Ocean and North Atlantic,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 20983–20988 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. Oceans

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean-color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer

K. Stamnes, “On the computation of angular distributions of radiation in planetary atmospheres,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 28, 47–51 (1982).
[CrossRef]

K. Stamnes, P. Conklin, “A new multilayer discrete ordinate approach to radiative transfer in vertically inhomogeneous atmospheres,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 31, 273–282 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceanogr.

H. Loisel, A. Morel, “Light scattering and chlorophyll concentration in case 1 waters: a reexamination,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 847–858 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Prieur, S. Sathyendranath, “An optical classification of coastal and oceanic waters based on the specific absorption of plankton pigments, dissolved organic matter and particulate materials,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 671–689 (1981).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Absorption by dissolved organic matter of the sea (yellow substance) in the UV and visible domains,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 43–53 (1981).
[CrossRef]

H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, R. Wouts, “Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180–1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Planet. Space Sci.

K. Stamnes, “Reflection and transmission by a vertically inhomogeneous planetary atmosphere,” Planet. Space Sci. 30, 727–732 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Space Sci. Rev.

J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, “Light scattering in planetary atmospheres,” Space Sci. Rev. 16, 527–610 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Tellus

N. G. Jerlov, M. Fukuda, “Radiance distribution in the upper layers of the sea,” Tellus 12, 348–355 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. T. O. Kirk, Light and Photosynthesis in Aquatic Ecosystems, 2nd ed. (Cambridge University, Cambridge, UK, 1994).

R. A. Arnone, P. Martinolich, R. W. Gould, M. Sydor, R. P. Stumpf, “Coastal optical properties using SeaWiFS,” presented at Ocean Optics XIV, Kailua-Kona, Hawaii, 10–13 November, 1998.

C. D. Mobley, Light and Water: Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1994).

G. E. Thomas, K. Stamnes, Radiative Transfer in the Atmosphere and Ocean (Cambridge University, New York, 1999).

B. Yan, “Radiative transfer modeling in the coupled atmosphere–ocean system and its application to the remote sensing of ocean-color imagery,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Alaska, Fairbanks, Alaska, 2001).

K. I. Gjerstad, “Monte Carlo simulations of radiative transport in the atmosphere and ocean,” M. Sc. thesis (University of Bergen, N-5007 Bergen, Norway, 2002).

K. I. Gjerstad, J. J. Stamnes, B. Hamre, B. Yan, K. Stamnes, “Monte Carlo simulations of radiative transfer in the coupled atmosphere–ocean system,” submitted to Appl. Opt. (2002).

A. Morel, “Optical properties of pure water and sea water I,” in Optical Aspects of Oceanography, N. G. Jerlov, E. Steemann-Nielsen, eds. (Academic, New York, 1974), pp. 1–24.

H. R. Gordon, A. Y. Morel, Remote Assessment of Ocean Color for Interpretation of Satellite Visible Imagery: A Review (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1983).

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “The analysis of ocean optical data II,” in Ocean Optics VII, M. A. Blizard, ed., Proc. SPIE637, 95–107 (1986).

J. L. Muller, “Comparison of irradiance immersion coefficients for several marine environmental radiometers (MERs) in Case Studies for SeaWiFS Calibration and Validation, Part 3, NASA Tech. Memo. 10456627, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, J. G. Acker, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1995).

R. W. Austin, G. Halikas, The Index of Refraction of Seawater (Scripps Institute of Oceanography, La Jolla, Calif., 1976).

B. Yan, K. Stamnes, “Fast yet accurate computation of the complete radiance distribution in the atmosphere–ocean system,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (to be published).

T. Petzold, “Volume scattering functions for selected ocean waters,” SIO Ref. 72–78 (Scripps Institute of Oceanography, La Jolla, Calif., 1972).

U. Kronfeld, “Die optischen Eigenschaften der ozeanischen Schwebstoffe und ihre Bedeutung die Fernerkundung von Phytoplankton,” Ph.D. dissertation, GKSS Report 88/E/40 (GKSS Forschungzentrum, 21502 Geesthacht, Germany, 1988).

D. Roland, H. Schiller, “Algorithm theoretical basis document (ATBD) 2.12: pigment index, sediment and gelbstoff retrieval from directional water leaving radiance reflectances using an inverse modeling technique,” PO-TN-MEL-GS-0005 (GKSS Research Center, 21502 Geesthacht, Germany, 1997).

B. Hamre, O. Frette, S. R. Erga, J. J. Stamnes, K. Stamnes, “Parameterization and analysis of the optical absorption and scattering coefficients in a Western Norwegian fjord—a case II water study,” Appl. Opt., submitted for publication.

E. P. Shettle, R. W. Fenn, “Models for the aerosols of the lower atmosphere and the effects of humidity variations on their optical properties” (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscomb AFB, Mass. 01731, 1979).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Metrics