Abstract

A compact ammonia sensor based on a 10-µm single-frequency, thermoelectrically cooled, pulsed quantum-cascade laser with an embedded distributed feedback structure has been developed. To measure NH3 concentrations, we scanned the laser over two absorption lines of its fundamental ν 2 band. A sensitivity of better than 0.3 parts per million was achieved with just a 1-m optical path length. The sensor is computer controlled and automated to monitor NH3 concentrations continuously for extended periods of time and to store data in the computer memory.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  1. F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, R. Paiella, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, H. C. Liu, “New frontiers in quantum cascade lasers and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 931–946 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, “The sense-ability of semiconductor lasers,” Circuits Devices10–18 (May2000).
  3. K. Namjou, S. Cai, E. A. Whittaker, J. Faist, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, “Sensitive absorption spectroscopy with a room-temperature distributed-feedback quantum-cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 23, 219–221 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Trace-gas detection in ambient air with a thermoelectrically cooled, pulsed quantum-cascade distributed feedback laser,” Appl. Opt. 39, 6866–6872 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. B. McManus, M. Zahniser, D. Nelson, C. Kolb, “Recent laser spectroscopic systems developments at Aerodyne Research, Inc.,” presented at the Third International Conference on Tunable Diode Laser Spectroscopy, 8–12 July 2001, Zermatt, Switzerland.
  6. Anatoliy A. Kosterev, Alexander L. Malinovsky, Frank K. Tittel, Claire Gmachl, Federico Capasso, Deborah L. Sivco, James N. Baillargeon, Albert L. Hutchinson, Alfred Y. Cho, “Cavity ringdown spectroscopic detection of nitric oxide with a continuous-wave quantum-cascade laser,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5522–5529 (2001).
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    [CrossRef]
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2001

2000

A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Trace-gas detection in ambient air with a thermoelectrically cooled, pulsed quantum-cascade distributed feedback laser,” Appl. Opt. 39, 6866–6872 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, R. Paiella, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, H. C. Liu, “New frontiers in quantum cascade lasers and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 931–946 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

1994

1960

R. E. Kalman, “A new approach to linear filtering and prediction problems,” J. Basic Eng. 82, 35–42 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Baer, D. S.

Baillargeon, J. N.

F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, R. Paiella, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, H. C. Liu, “New frontiers in quantum cascade lasers and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 931–946 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Trace-gas detection in ambient air with a thermoelectrically cooled, pulsed quantum-cascade distributed feedback laser,” Appl. Opt. 39, 6866–6872 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, “The sense-ability of semiconductor lasers,” Circuits Devices10–18 (May2000).

Baillargeon, James N.

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cai, S.

Camy-Peyret, C.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, R. Paiella, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, H. C. Liu, “New frontiers in quantum cascade lasers and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 931–946 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Trace-gas detection in ambient air with a thermoelectrically cooled, pulsed quantum-cascade distributed feedback laser,” Appl. Opt. 39, 6866–6872 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Namjou, S. Cai, E. A. Whittaker, J. Faist, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, “Sensitive absorption spectroscopy with a room-temperature distributed-feedback quantum-cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 23, 219–221 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, “The sense-ability of semiconductor lasers,” Circuits Devices10–18 (May2000).

Capasso, Federico

Carlisle, C. B.

Chance, K. V.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.

D. P. Leleux, R. Claps, W. Chen, F. K. Tittel, T. L. Harman, “Adaptive filtering applications to realtime simultaneous CO2 and NH3 measurements,” Appl. Phys. B (to be published). (2001).

Cho, A. Y.

F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, R. Paiella, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, H. C. Liu, “New frontiers in quantum cascade lasers and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 931–946 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Trace-gas detection in ambient air with a thermoelectrically cooled, pulsed quantum-cascade distributed feedback laser,” Appl. Opt. 39, 6866–6872 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Namjou, S. Cai, E. A. Whittaker, J. Faist, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, “Sensitive absorption spectroscopy with a room-temperature distributed-feedback quantum-cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 23, 219–221 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, “The sense-ability of semiconductor lasers,” Circuits Devices10–18 (May2000).

Cho, Alfred Y.

Claps, R.

R. Claps, F. V. Englich, D. Leleux, D. Richter, F. K. Tittel, R. F. Curl, “Ammonia detection by use of near-infrared diode-laser-based overtone spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4387–4394 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Leleux, R. Claps, W. Chen, F. K. Tittel, T. L. Harman, “Adaptive filtering applications to realtime simultaneous CO2 and NH3 measurements,” Appl. Phys. B (to be published). (2001).

R. Claps, D. Leleux, F. V. Englich, F. K. Tittel, M. E. Webber, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, J. C. Graf, L. M. Vega, “Infrared overtone spectroscopy of ammonia and carbon dioxide in the effluent of a biological water processor,” in Proceedings of 31st International Conference on Environmental Systems (ICES) (Society of Automotive Engineers, 400 Commonwealth Dr., Warrendale, Pa. 15096-0001, 2001).

Curl, R. F.

Dana, V.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Edwards, D. P.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Englich, F. V.

R. Claps, F. V. Englich, D. Leleux, D. Richter, F. K. Tittel, R. F. Curl, “Ammonia detection by use of near-infrared diode-laser-based overtone spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4387–4394 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Claps, D. Leleux, F. V. Englich, F. K. Tittel, M. E. Webber, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, J. C. Graf, L. M. Vega, “Infrared overtone spectroscopy of ammonia and carbon dioxide in the effluent of a biological water processor,” in Proceedings of 31st International Conference on Environmental Systems (ICES) (Society of Automotive Engineers, 400 Commonwealth Dr., Warrendale, Pa. 15096-0001, 2001).

Faist, J.

Flaud, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gmachl, C.

F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, R. Paiella, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, H. C. Liu, “New frontiers in quantum cascade lasers and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 931–946 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Trace-gas detection in ambient air with a thermoelectrically cooled, pulsed quantum-cascade distributed feedback laser,” Appl. Opt. 39, 6866–6872 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Namjou, S. Cai, E. A. Whittaker, J. Faist, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, “Sensitive absorption spectroscopy with a room-temperature distributed-feedback quantum-cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 23, 219–221 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, “The sense-ability of semiconductor lasers,” Circuits Devices10–18 (May2000).

Gmachl, Claire

Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Graf, J. C.

R. Claps, D. Leleux, F. V. Englich, F. K. Tittel, M. E. Webber, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, J. C. Graf, L. M. Vega, “Infrared overtone spectroscopy of ammonia and carbon dioxide in the effluent of a biological water processor,” in Proceedings of 31st International Conference on Environmental Systems (ICES) (Society of Automotive Engineers, 400 Commonwealth Dr., Warrendale, Pa. 15096-0001, 2001).

Hanson, R.

Hanson, R. K.

R. Claps, D. Leleux, F. V. Englich, F. K. Tittel, M. E. Webber, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, J. C. Graf, L. M. Vega, “Infrared overtone spectroscopy of ammonia and carbon dioxide in the effluent of a biological water processor,” in Proceedings of 31st International Conference on Environmental Systems (ICES) (Society of Automotive Engineers, 400 Commonwealth Dr., Warrendale, Pa. 15096-0001, 2001).

Harman, T. L.

D. P. Leleux, R. Claps, W. Chen, F. K. Tittel, T. L. Harman, “Adaptive filtering applications to realtime simultaneous CO2 and NH3 measurements,” Appl. Phys. B (to be published). (2001).

Hutchinson, A. L.

F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, R. Paiella, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, H. C. Liu, “New frontiers in quantum cascade lasers and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 931–946 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Trace-gas detection in ambient air with a thermoelectrically cooled, pulsed quantum-cascade distributed feedback laser,” Appl. Opt. 39, 6866–6872 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, “The sense-ability of semiconductor lasers,” Circuits Devices10–18 (May2000).

Hutchinson, Albert L.

Jeffries, J. B.

R. Claps, D. Leleux, F. V. Englich, F. K. Tittel, M. E. Webber, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, J. C. Graf, L. M. Vega, “Infrared overtone spectroscopy of ammonia and carbon dioxide in the effluent of a biological water processor,” in Proceedings of 31st International Conference on Environmental Systems (ICES) (Society of Automotive Engineers, 400 Commonwealth Dr., Warrendale, Pa. 15096-0001, 2001).

Jucks, K. W.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kalman, R. E.

R. E. Kalman, “A new approach to linear filtering and prediction problems,” J. Basic Eng. 82, 35–42 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Köhler, R.

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, “The sense-ability of semiconductor lasers,” Circuits Devices10–18 (May2000).

Kolb, C.

J. B. McManus, M. Zahniser, D. Nelson, C. Kolb, “Recent laser spectroscopic systems developments at Aerodyne Research, Inc.,” presented at the Third International Conference on Tunable Diode Laser Spectroscopy, 8–12 July 2001, Zermatt, Switzerland.

Kosterev, A. A.

Kosterev, Anatoliy A.

Leleux, D.

R. Claps, F. V. Englich, D. Leleux, D. Richter, F. K. Tittel, R. F. Curl, “Ammonia detection by use of near-infrared diode-laser-based overtone spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4387–4394 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Claps, D. Leleux, F. V. Englich, F. K. Tittel, M. E. Webber, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, J. C. Graf, L. M. Vega, “Infrared overtone spectroscopy of ammonia and carbon dioxide in the effluent of a biological water processor,” in Proceedings of 31st International Conference on Environmental Systems (ICES) (Society of Automotive Engineers, 400 Commonwealth Dr., Warrendale, Pa. 15096-0001, 2001).

Leleux, D. P.

D. P. Leleux, R. Claps, W. Chen, F. K. Tittel, T. L. Harman, “Adaptive filtering applications to realtime simultaneous CO2 and NH3 measurements,” Appl. Phys. B (to be published). (2001).

Liu, H. C.

F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, R. Paiella, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, H. C. Liu, “New frontiers in quantum cascade lasers and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 931–946 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Malinovsky, Alexander L.

Mandin, J.-Y.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McCann, A.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McManus, J. B.

J. B. McManus, M. Zahniser, D. Nelson, C. Kolb, “Recent laser spectroscopic systems developments at Aerodyne Research, Inc.,” presented at the Third International Conference on Tunable Diode Laser Spectroscopy, 8–12 July 2001, Zermatt, Switzerland.

Namjou, K.

Nelson, D.

J. B. McManus, M. Zahniser, D. Nelson, C. Kolb, “Recent laser spectroscopic systems developments at Aerodyne Research, Inc.,” presented at the Third International Conference on Tunable Diode Laser Spectroscopy, 8–12 July 2001, Zermatt, Switzerland.

Nemtchinov, V.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Paiella, R.

F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, R. Paiella, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, H. C. Liu, “New frontiers in quantum cascade lasers and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 931–946 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Richter, D.

Rinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Riris, H.

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schroeder, J.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sivco, D. L.

F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, R. Paiella, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, H. C. Liu, “New frontiers in quantum cascade lasers and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 931–946 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Trace-gas detection in ambient air with a thermoelectrically cooled, pulsed quantum-cascade distributed feedback laser,” Appl. Opt. 39, 6866–6872 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Namjou, S. Cai, E. A. Whittaker, J. Faist, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, “Sensitive absorption spectroscopy with a room-temperature distributed-feedback quantum-cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 23, 219–221 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, “The sense-ability of semiconductor lasers,” Circuits Devices10–18 (May2000).

Sivco, Deborah L.

Tittel, F. K.

R. Claps, F. V. Englich, D. Leleux, D. Richter, F. K. Tittel, R. F. Curl, “Ammonia detection by use of near-infrared diode-laser-based overtone spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4387–4394 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Trace-gas detection in ambient air with a thermoelectrically cooled, pulsed quantum-cascade distributed feedback laser,” Appl. Opt. 39, 6866–6872 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Leleux, R. Claps, W. Chen, F. K. Tittel, T. L. Harman, “Adaptive filtering applications to realtime simultaneous CO2 and NH3 measurements,” Appl. Phys. B (to be published). (2001).

R. Claps, D. Leleux, F. V. Englich, F. K. Tittel, M. E. Webber, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, J. C. Graf, L. M. Vega, “Infrared overtone spectroscopy of ammonia and carbon dioxide in the effluent of a biological water processor,” in Proceedings of 31st International Conference on Environmental Systems (ICES) (Society of Automotive Engineers, 400 Commonwealth Dr., Warrendale, Pa. 15096-0001, 2001).

Tittel, Frank K.

Tredicucci, A.

F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, R. Paiella, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, H. C. Liu, “New frontiers in quantum cascade lasers and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 931–946 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, “The sense-ability of semiconductor lasers,” Circuits Devices10–18 (May2000).

Varanasi, P.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vega, L. M.

R. Claps, D. Leleux, F. V. Englich, F. K. Tittel, M. E. Webber, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, J. C. Graf, L. M. Vega, “Infrared overtone spectroscopy of ammonia and carbon dioxide in the effluent of a biological water processor,” in Proceedings of 31st International Conference on Environmental Systems (ICES) (Society of Automotive Engineers, 400 Commonwealth Dr., Warrendale, Pa. 15096-0001, 2001).

Warren, R. E.

Wattson, R. B.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Webber, M. E.

M. E. Webber, D. S. Baer, R. Hanson, “Ammonia monitoring near 1.5 µm with diode-laser absorption sensors,” Appl. Opt. 40, 2031–2042 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Claps, D. Leleux, F. V. Englich, F. K. Tittel, M. E. Webber, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, J. C. Graf, L. M. Vega, “Infrared overtone spectroscopy of ammonia and carbon dioxide in the effluent of a biological water processor,” in Proceedings of 31st International Conference on Environmental Systems (ICES) (Society of Automotive Engineers, 400 Commonwealth Dr., Warrendale, Pa. 15096-0001, 2001).

Whittaker, E. A.

Yoshino, K.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zahniser, M.

J. B. McManus, M. Zahniser, D. Nelson, C. Kolb, “Recent laser spectroscopic systems developments at Aerodyne Research, Inc.,” presented at the Third International Conference on Tunable Diode Laser Spectroscopy, 8–12 July 2001, Zermatt, Switzerland.

Appl. Opt.

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, R. Paiella, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, H. C. Liu, “New frontiers in quantum cascade lasers and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 931–946 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Basic Eng.

R. E. Kalman, “A new approach to linear filtering and prediction problems,” J. Basic Eng. 82, 35–42 (1960).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Other

D. P. Leleux, R. Claps, W. Chen, F. K. Tittel, T. L. Harman, “Adaptive filtering applications to realtime simultaneous CO2 and NH3 measurements,” Appl. Phys. B (to be published). (2001).

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, “The sense-ability of semiconductor lasers,” Circuits Devices10–18 (May2000).

J. B. McManus, M. Zahniser, D. Nelson, C. Kolb, “Recent laser spectroscopic systems developments at Aerodyne Research, Inc.,” presented at the Third International Conference on Tunable Diode Laser Spectroscopy, 8–12 July 2001, Zermatt, Switzerland.

R. Claps, D. Leleux, F. V. Englich, F. K. Tittel, M. E. Webber, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, J. C. Graf, L. M. Vega, “Infrared overtone spectroscopy of ammonia and carbon dioxide in the effluent of a biological water processor,” in Proceedings of 31st International Conference on Environmental Systems (ICES) (Society of Automotive Engineers, 400 Commonwealth Dr., Warrendale, Pa. 15096-0001, 2001).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of a QC DFB laser-based ammonia sensor; the subthreshold current is updated at a rate of 20 kilosamples per second (kS/s), synchronously with the laser pulses.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photograph of the vacuum-tight pulsed QC DFB laser housing. The laser is mounted inside on a three-stage thermoelectric element. Observation windows on top and opposite the beam output facilitate alignment of the collimating lens (f = 3 mm, 6 mm diameter). The bottom of the housing is made of copper for better thermal conductivity. It is soldered to the thermoelectric element and can be water cooled.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Energy distribution in a sample of 100,000 laser pulses with the laser excitation current fixed.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Example of an acquired data set after automated baseline correction and fitting with the previously tabulated function; see Section 3. The fitting yielded a 6.7-ppm NH3 concentration in the sample. The fit residual is shown in (b).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Time dependence of the NH3 concentration in a gas flow measured simultaneously by two spectroscopic gas sensors: the mid-IR QC DFB sensor (○) and a diode-laser overtone sensor (x). The flow was produced in a gas-mixing system that combined pure nitrogen with 100-ppm NH3-doped nitrogen. The mid-IR QC DFB laser-based sensor exhibits higher inertia because of the longer tubing that connects it to the gas source.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Relaxation behavior of NH3 concentration as measured by the QC laser-based sensor. The sensor was briefly connected to a cylinder that contained a 100-ppm NH3:N2 mixture, which resulted in a high ammonia peak. The thick curve on the expanded part of the plot depicts the Kalman-filtered results for NH3 levels of <2 ppm.

Equations (2)

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yi(Bf(i-x)+b
δA=σΔνg2(ν)dν1/2,

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