Abstract

The potential of measuring temperature and multiple species concentrations (N2, O2, CO) by use of combined vibrational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) and pure rotational CARS has been investigated. This was achieved with only one Nd:YAG laser and one dye laser together with a single spectrograph and CCD camera. From measurements in premixed sooting C2H4-air flames it was possible to evaluate temperatures from both vibrational CARS and rotational CARS spectra, O2 concentration from the rotational CARS spectra, and CO concentration from the vibrational CARS spectra. Quantitative results from premixed sooting C2H4–air flames are presented, and the uncertainties in the results as well as the possibility of extending the combined CARS technique for probing of additional species are discussed.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. C. Eckbreth, Laser Diagnostics for Combustion Temperature and Species, 2nd ed. (Gordon Breach, Amsterdam, 1996).
  2. A. C. Eckbreth, T. J. Anderson, J. A. Shirley, “In situ measurements of concentration and temperatures,” Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 97, 1597–1608 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. W. Dibble, A. R. Masri, R. W. Bilger, “The spontaneous Raman scattering technique applied to nonpremixed flames of methane,” Combust. Flame 67, 189–206 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T.-S. Cheng, J. A. Wehrmeyer, R. W. Pitz, “Simultaneous temperature and multi-species measurement in a lifted hydrogen diffusion flame by a KrF excimer laser,” paper AIAA 91-0181 presented at the Twenty-Ninth Aerospace Science Meeting, Reno, Nevada, 7–10 January 1991 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, Va., 1991).
  5. N. Ebersohl, Th. Klos, R. Suntz, H. Bockhorn, “One-dimensional Raman scattering for determination of multipoint joint scalar probability density functions in turbulent diffusion flames,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Seventh International Symposium on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1998), pp. 997–1005.
    [CrossRef]
  6. F. Rabenstein, A. Leipertz, “One-dimensional, time-resolved Raman measurements in a sooting flame made with 355-nm excitation,” Appl. Opt. 37, 4937–4943 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. W. Meier, R. S. Barlow, Y.-L. Chen, J.-Y. Chen, “Raman/Rayleigh/LIF measurements in a turbulent CH4/H2/N2 jet diffusion flame: experimental techniques and turbulence-chemistry-interaction,” Combust. Flame 123, 326–343 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. A. Nooren, M. Versluis, T. H. van der Meer, R. S. Barlow, J. H. Frank, “Raman-Rayleigh-LIF measurements of temperature and species concentrations in the Delft piloted turbulent jet diffusion flame,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 95–111 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. Kohse-Höinghaus, “Laser and probe diagnostics in fundamental combustion research,” Isr. J. Chem. 39, 25–39 (1999).
  10. P.-E. Bengtsson, L. Martinsson, M. Aldén, S. Kröll, “Rotational CARS thermometry in sooting flames,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 81, 129–140 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Aldén, P.-E. Bengtsson, H. Edner, “Rotational CARS generation through a multiple four-color interaction,” Appl. Opt. 25, 4493–4500 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. A. C. Eckbreth, T. J. Anderson, “Simultaneous rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy and coherent Stokes Raman spectroscopy with arbitrary pump–Stokes spectral separation,” Opt. Lett. 11, 496–498 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. L. Martinsson, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Aldén, “Oxygen concentration and temperature measurements in N2–O2 mixtures using rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 62, 29–37 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  14. T. Seeger, A. Leipertz, “Experimental comparison of single-shot broadband vibrational and dual-broadband pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering in hot air,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2665–2671 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. A. Thumann, M. Schenk, J. Jonuscheit, T. Seeger, A. Leipertz, “Simultaneous temperature and relative nitrogen–oxygen concentration measurements in air with pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering for temperatures to as high as 2050 K,” Appl. Opt. 36, 3500–3505 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. J. Bood, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Aldén, “Nonintrusive temperature and oxygen concentration measurements in a catalytic combustor using rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy,” presented at American Society of Mechanical Engineers Turbo Expo ’99, Technical Paper ASME 99-GT-114 (International Gas Turbine Institute, Atlanta, Ga., 1999).
  17. M. Schenk, T. Seeger, A. Leipertz, “Simultaneous single-shot temperature and relative O2/CO2/N2-concentration measurements for high pressures using dual broadband pure rotational CARS,” in Proceedings of the French–German Combustion Symposium (Combustion Institute, Nancy, France, 1999), pp. 471–473.
  18. J. Bood, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Aldén, “Temperature and concentration measurements in acetylene–nitrogen mixtures in the range 300–600 K using dual broadband rotational CARS,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 607–620 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. Zheng, J. B. Snow, D. V. Murphy, A. Leipertz, R. K. Chang, R. L. Farrow, “Experimental comparison of broadband rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering and broadband vibrational CARS in a flame,” Opt. Lett. 9, 341–343 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. M. Aldén, P.-E. Bengtsson, H. Edner, S. Kröll, D. Nilsson, “Rotational CARS: a comparison of different techniques with emphasis on accuracy in temperature determination,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3206–3219 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. M. Aldén, P.-E. Bengtsson, H. Edner, S. Kröll, D. Nilsson, “Rotational CARS: a comparison of different techniques with emphasis on accuracy in temperature determination: erratum,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4434 (1990).
  22. A. C. Eckbreth, T. J. Anderson, “Dual broadband CARS for simultaneous, multiple species measurements,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2731–2736 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. A. C. Eckbreth, T. J. Anderson, G. M. Dobbs, “Multi-color CARS for hydrogen-fueled scramjet applications,” Appl. Phys. B 45, 215–223 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  24. K. W. Boyack, P. O. Hedman, “Dual-Stokes CARS system for simultaneous measurement of temperature and multiple species in turbulent flames,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Third International Symposium on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1990), pp. 1893–1899.
  25. S. M. Green, P. J. Rubas, M. K. Paul, J. E. Peters, R. P. Lucht, “Annular phase-matched dual-pumped coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering system for the simultaneous detection of nitrogen and methane,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1690–1701 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  26. R. D. Hancock, F. R. Schauer, R. P. Lucht, R. L. Farrow, “Dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering measurements of nitrogen and oxygen in a laminar jet diffusion flame,” Appl. Opt. 36, 3217–3226 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. L. Martinsson, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Aldén, S. Kröll, “Applications of rotational CARS for temperature measurements at high pressure and in particle-laden flames,” in Temperature: Its Measurements and Control in Science and Industry, J. F. Schooley, ed. (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1991), Vol. 6, pp. 679–684.
  28. R. P. Lucht, R. E. Palmer, M. A. Maris, “Simultaneous acquisition of pure rotational and vibrational nitrogen spectra using three-laser coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 12, 386–388 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. R. E. Foglesong, S. M. Green, R. P. Lucht, J. C. Dutton, “Dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering for simultaneous pressure/temperature measurement,” AIAA J. 36, 234–240 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  30. P.-E. Bengtsson, L. Martinsson, M. Aldén, “Combined vibrational and rotational CARS for simultaneous measurements of temperature and concentrations of fuel, oxygen, and nitrogen,” Appl. Spectrosc. 49, 188–192 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  31. F. Y. Yueh, E. J. Beiting, “Simultaneous N2, CO, and H2 multiplex CARS measurements in combustion environments using a single dye laser,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3233–3243 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. L. Martinsson, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Aldén, S. Kröll, J. Bonamy, “A test of different rotational linewidth models: accuracy of rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering thermometry in nitrogen from 295 to 1850 K,” J. Chem. Phys. 99, 2466–2477 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  33. P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Aldén, S. Kröll, D. Nilsson, “Vibrational CARS thermometry in sooty flames: quantitative evaluation of C2 absorption interference,” Combust. Flame 82, 199–210 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  34. E. Magens, “Nutzung von Rotations-CARS zur Temperatur-und Konzentrationsbestimmung in Flammen,” Ph.D. dissertation (Universität Erlangen Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany, 1993).
  35. L. A. Rahn, R. E. Palmer, M. L. Koszykowski, D. A. Greenhalgh, “Comparison of rotationally inelastic collision models for Q-branch Raman spectra of N2,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 133, 513–516 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  36. L. A. Rahn, R. E. Palmer, “Studies of nitrogen self-broadening at high temperature with inverse Raman spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 1164–1169 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  37. A. Roblin, J. Bonamy, D. Robert, M. Lefebvre, M. Pealat, “Rotational relaxation model for CO–N2: prediction of CARS profiles and comparison with experiment,” J. Phys. II 2, 285–294 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  38. J. W. Hahn, S. N. Park, E. S. Lee, C. Rhee, K. T. Kang, S. H. Chung, C. Y. Choi, Y. D. Huh, “Measuring the concentration of minor species from the modulation dip of the nonresonant backround of broad-band CARS spectra,” Appl. Spectrosc. 47, 710–714 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  39. W. A. England, J. M. Milne, S. N. Jenny, D. A. Greenhalgh, “Application of CARS to an operating chemical reactor,” Appl. Spectrosc. 38, 867–875 (1984).
    [CrossRef]

2000

W. Meier, R. S. Barlow, Y.-L. Chen, J.-Y. Chen, “Raman/Rayleigh/LIF measurements in a turbulent CH4/H2/N2 jet diffusion flame: experimental techniques and turbulence-chemistry-interaction,” Combust. Flame 123, 326–343 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Nooren, M. Versluis, T. H. van der Meer, R. S. Barlow, J. H. Frank, “Raman-Rayleigh-LIF measurements of temperature and species concentrations in the Delft piloted turbulent jet diffusion flame,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 95–111 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Bood, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Aldén, “Temperature and concentration measurements in acetylene–nitrogen mixtures in the range 300–600 K using dual broadband rotational CARS,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 607–620 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

K. Kohse-Höinghaus, “Laser and probe diagnostics in fundamental combustion research,” Isr. J. Chem. 39, 25–39 (1999).

1998

1997

1996

T. Seeger, A. Leipertz, “Experimental comparison of single-shot broadband vibrational and dual-broadband pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering in hot air,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2665–2671 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Martinsson, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Aldén, “Oxygen concentration and temperature measurements in N2–O2 mixtures using rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 62, 29–37 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

1993

J. W. Hahn, S. N. Park, E. S. Lee, C. Rhee, K. T. Kang, S. H. Chung, C. Y. Choi, Y. D. Huh, “Measuring the concentration of minor species from the modulation dip of the nonresonant backround of broad-band CARS spectra,” Appl. Spectrosc. 47, 710–714 (1993).
[CrossRef]

L. Martinsson, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Aldén, S. Kröll, J. Bonamy, “A test of different rotational linewidth models: accuracy of rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering thermometry in nitrogen from 295 to 1850 K,” J. Chem. Phys. 99, 2466–2477 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Eckbreth, T. J. Anderson, J. A. Shirley, “In situ measurements of concentration and temperatures,” Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 97, 1597–1608 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

P.-E. Bengtsson, L. Martinsson, M. Aldén, S. Kröll, “Rotational CARS thermometry in sooting flames,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 81, 129–140 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Roblin, J. Bonamy, D. Robert, M. Lefebvre, M. Pealat, “Rotational relaxation model for CO–N2: prediction of CARS profiles and comparison with experiment,” J. Phys. II 2, 285–294 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990

P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Aldén, S. Kröll, D. Nilsson, “Vibrational CARS thermometry in sooty flames: quantitative evaluation of C2 absorption interference,” Combust. Flame 82, 199–210 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Aldén, P.-E. Bengtsson, H. Edner, S. Kröll, D. Nilsson, “Rotational CARS: a comparison of different techniques with emphasis on accuracy in temperature determination: erratum,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4434 (1990).

1989

1988

F. Y. Yueh, E. J. Beiting, “Simultaneous N2, CO, and H2 multiplex CARS measurements in combustion environments using a single dye laser,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3233–3243 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Eckbreth, T. J. Anderson, G. M. Dobbs, “Multi-color CARS for hydrogen-fueled scramjet applications,” Appl. Phys. B 45, 215–223 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987

R. W. Dibble, A. R. Masri, R. W. Bilger, “The spontaneous Raman scattering technique applied to nonpremixed flames of methane,” Combust. Flame 67, 189–206 (1987).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Rahn, R. E. Palmer, M. L. Koszykowski, D. A. Greenhalgh, “Comparison of rotationally inelastic collision models for Q-branch Raman spectra of N2,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 133, 513–516 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Lucht, R. E. Palmer, M. A. Maris, “Simultaneous acquisition of pure rotational and vibrational nitrogen spectra using three-laser coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 12, 386–388 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986

1985

1984

Aldén, M.

J. Bood, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Aldén, “Temperature and concentration measurements in acetylene–nitrogen mixtures in the range 300–600 K using dual broadband rotational CARS,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 607–620 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Martinsson, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Aldén, “Oxygen concentration and temperature measurements in N2–O2 mixtures using rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 62, 29–37 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P.-E. Bengtsson, L. Martinsson, M. Aldén, “Combined vibrational and rotational CARS for simultaneous measurements of temperature and concentrations of fuel, oxygen, and nitrogen,” Appl. Spectrosc. 49, 188–192 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. Martinsson, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Aldén, S. Kröll, J. Bonamy, “A test of different rotational linewidth models: accuracy of rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering thermometry in nitrogen from 295 to 1850 K,” J. Chem. Phys. 99, 2466–2477 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P.-E. Bengtsson, L. Martinsson, M. Aldén, S. Kröll, “Rotational CARS thermometry in sooting flames,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 81, 129–140 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Aldén, P.-E. Bengtsson, H. Edner, S. Kröll, D. Nilsson, “Rotational CARS: a comparison of different techniques with emphasis on accuracy in temperature determination: erratum,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4434 (1990).

P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Aldén, S. Kröll, D. Nilsson, “Vibrational CARS thermometry in sooty flames: quantitative evaluation of C2 absorption interference,” Combust. Flame 82, 199–210 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Aldén, P.-E. Bengtsson, H. Edner, S. Kröll, D. Nilsson, “Rotational CARS: a comparison of different techniques with emphasis on accuracy in temperature determination,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3206–3219 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Aldén, P.-E. Bengtsson, H. Edner, “Rotational CARS generation through a multiple four-color interaction,” Appl. Opt. 25, 4493–4500 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Martinsson, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Aldén, S. Kröll, “Applications of rotational CARS for temperature measurements at high pressure and in particle-laden flames,” in Temperature: Its Measurements and Control in Science and Industry, J. F. Schooley, ed. (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1991), Vol. 6, pp. 679–684.

J. Bood, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Aldén, “Nonintrusive temperature and oxygen concentration measurements in a catalytic combustor using rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy,” presented at American Society of Mechanical Engineers Turbo Expo ’99, Technical Paper ASME 99-GT-114 (International Gas Turbine Institute, Atlanta, Ga., 1999).

Anderson, T. J.

A. C. Eckbreth, T. J. Anderson, J. A. Shirley, “In situ measurements of concentration and temperatures,” Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 97, 1597–1608 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Eckbreth, T. J. Anderson, G. M. Dobbs, “Multi-color CARS for hydrogen-fueled scramjet applications,” Appl. Phys. B 45, 215–223 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Eckbreth, T. J. Anderson, “Simultaneous rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy and coherent Stokes Raman spectroscopy with arbitrary pump–Stokes spectral separation,” Opt. Lett. 11, 496–498 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Eckbreth, T. J. Anderson, “Dual broadband CARS for simultaneous, multiple species measurements,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2731–2736 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barlow, R. S.

W. Meier, R. S. Barlow, Y.-L. Chen, J.-Y. Chen, “Raman/Rayleigh/LIF measurements in a turbulent CH4/H2/N2 jet diffusion flame: experimental techniques and turbulence-chemistry-interaction,” Combust. Flame 123, 326–343 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Nooren, M. Versluis, T. H. van der Meer, R. S. Barlow, J. H. Frank, “Raman-Rayleigh-LIF measurements of temperature and species concentrations in the Delft piloted turbulent jet diffusion flame,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 95–111 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Beiting, E. J.

Bengtsson, P.-E.

J. Bood, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Aldén, “Temperature and concentration measurements in acetylene–nitrogen mixtures in the range 300–600 K using dual broadband rotational CARS,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 607–620 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Martinsson, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Aldén, “Oxygen concentration and temperature measurements in N2–O2 mixtures using rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 62, 29–37 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P.-E. Bengtsson, L. Martinsson, M. Aldén, “Combined vibrational and rotational CARS for simultaneous measurements of temperature and concentrations of fuel, oxygen, and nitrogen,” Appl. Spectrosc. 49, 188–192 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. Martinsson, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Aldén, S. Kröll, J. Bonamy, “A test of different rotational linewidth models: accuracy of rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering thermometry in nitrogen from 295 to 1850 K,” J. Chem. Phys. 99, 2466–2477 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P.-E. Bengtsson, L. Martinsson, M. Aldén, S. Kröll, “Rotational CARS thermometry in sooting flames,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 81, 129–140 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Aldén, P.-E. Bengtsson, H. Edner, S. Kröll, D. Nilsson, “Rotational CARS: a comparison of different techniques with emphasis on accuracy in temperature determination: erratum,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4434 (1990).

P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Aldén, S. Kröll, D. Nilsson, “Vibrational CARS thermometry in sooty flames: quantitative evaluation of C2 absorption interference,” Combust. Flame 82, 199–210 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Aldén, P.-E. Bengtsson, H. Edner, S. Kröll, D. Nilsson, “Rotational CARS: a comparison of different techniques with emphasis on accuracy in temperature determination,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3206–3219 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Aldén, P.-E. Bengtsson, H. Edner, “Rotational CARS generation through a multiple four-color interaction,” Appl. Opt. 25, 4493–4500 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Martinsson, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Aldén, S. Kröll, “Applications of rotational CARS for temperature measurements at high pressure and in particle-laden flames,” in Temperature: Its Measurements and Control in Science and Industry, J. F. Schooley, ed. (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1991), Vol. 6, pp. 679–684.

J. Bood, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Aldén, “Nonintrusive temperature and oxygen concentration measurements in a catalytic combustor using rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy,” presented at American Society of Mechanical Engineers Turbo Expo ’99, Technical Paper ASME 99-GT-114 (International Gas Turbine Institute, Atlanta, Ga., 1999).

Bilger, R. W.

R. W. Dibble, A. R. Masri, R. W. Bilger, “The spontaneous Raman scattering technique applied to nonpremixed flames of methane,” Combust. Flame 67, 189–206 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bockhorn, H.

N. Ebersohl, Th. Klos, R. Suntz, H. Bockhorn, “One-dimensional Raman scattering for determination of multipoint joint scalar probability density functions in turbulent diffusion flames,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Seventh International Symposium on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1998), pp. 997–1005.
[CrossRef]

Bonamy, J.

L. Martinsson, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Aldén, S. Kröll, J. Bonamy, “A test of different rotational linewidth models: accuracy of rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering thermometry in nitrogen from 295 to 1850 K,” J. Chem. Phys. 99, 2466–2477 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Roblin, J. Bonamy, D. Robert, M. Lefebvre, M. Pealat, “Rotational relaxation model for CO–N2: prediction of CARS profiles and comparison with experiment,” J. Phys. II 2, 285–294 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bood, J.

J. Bood, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Aldén, “Temperature and concentration measurements in acetylene–nitrogen mixtures in the range 300–600 K using dual broadband rotational CARS,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 607–620 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Bood, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Aldén, “Nonintrusive temperature and oxygen concentration measurements in a catalytic combustor using rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy,” presented at American Society of Mechanical Engineers Turbo Expo ’99, Technical Paper ASME 99-GT-114 (International Gas Turbine Institute, Atlanta, Ga., 1999).

Boyack, K. W.

K. W. Boyack, P. O. Hedman, “Dual-Stokes CARS system for simultaneous measurement of temperature and multiple species in turbulent flames,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Third International Symposium on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1990), pp. 1893–1899.

Chang, R. K.

Chen, J.-Y.

W. Meier, R. S. Barlow, Y.-L. Chen, J.-Y. Chen, “Raman/Rayleigh/LIF measurements in a turbulent CH4/H2/N2 jet diffusion flame: experimental techniques and turbulence-chemistry-interaction,” Combust. Flame 123, 326–343 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.-L.

W. Meier, R. S. Barlow, Y.-L. Chen, J.-Y. Chen, “Raman/Rayleigh/LIF measurements in a turbulent CH4/H2/N2 jet diffusion flame: experimental techniques and turbulence-chemistry-interaction,” Combust. Flame 123, 326–343 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, T.-S.

T.-S. Cheng, J. A. Wehrmeyer, R. W. Pitz, “Simultaneous temperature and multi-species measurement in a lifted hydrogen diffusion flame by a KrF excimer laser,” paper AIAA 91-0181 presented at the Twenty-Ninth Aerospace Science Meeting, Reno, Nevada, 7–10 January 1991 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, Va., 1991).

Choi, C. Y.

Chung, S. H.

Dibble, R. W.

R. W. Dibble, A. R. Masri, R. W. Bilger, “The spontaneous Raman scattering technique applied to nonpremixed flames of methane,” Combust. Flame 67, 189–206 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Dobbs, G. M.

A. C. Eckbreth, T. J. Anderson, G. M. Dobbs, “Multi-color CARS for hydrogen-fueled scramjet applications,” Appl. Phys. B 45, 215–223 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Dutton, J. C.

R. E. Foglesong, S. M. Green, R. P. Lucht, J. C. Dutton, “Dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering for simultaneous pressure/temperature measurement,” AIAA J. 36, 234–240 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ebersohl, N.

N. Ebersohl, Th. Klos, R. Suntz, H. Bockhorn, “One-dimensional Raman scattering for determination of multipoint joint scalar probability density functions in turbulent diffusion flames,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Seventh International Symposium on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1998), pp. 997–1005.
[CrossRef]

Eckbreth, A. C.

A. C. Eckbreth, T. J. Anderson, J. A. Shirley, “In situ measurements of concentration and temperatures,” Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 97, 1597–1608 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Eckbreth, T. J. Anderson, G. M. Dobbs, “Multi-color CARS for hydrogen-fueled scramjet applications,” Appl. Phys. B 45, 215–223 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Eckbreth, T. J. Anderson, “Simultaneous rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy and coherent Stokes Raman spectroscopy with arbitrary pump–Stokes spectral separation,” Opt. Lett. 11, 496–498 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Eckbreth, T. J. Anderson, “Dual broadband CARS for simultaneous, multiple species measurements,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2731–2736 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Eckbreth, Laser Diagnostics for Combustion Temperature and Species, 2nd ed. (Gordon Breach, Amsterdam, 1996).

Edner, H.

England, W. A.

Farrow, R. L.

Foglesong, R. E.

R. E. Foglesong, S. M. Green, R. P. Lucht, J. C. Dutton, “Dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering for simultaneous pressure/temperature measurement,” AIAA J. 36, 234–240 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Frank, J. H.

P. A. Nooren, M. Versluis, T. H. van der Meer, R. S. Barlow, J. H. Frank, “Raman-Rayleigh-LIF measurements of temperature and species concentrations in the Delft piloted turbulent jet diffusion flame,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 95–111 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Green, S. M.

S. M. Green, P. J. Rubas, M. K. Paul, J. E. Peters, R. P. Lucht, “Annular phase-matched dual-pumped coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering system for the simultaneous detection of nitrogen and methane,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1690–1701 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Foglesong, S. M. Green, R. P. Lucht, J. C. Dutton, “Dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering for simultaneous pressure/temperature measurement,” AIAA J. 36, 234–240 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Greenhalgh, D. A.

L. A. Rahn, R. E. Palmer, M. L. Koszykowski, D. A. Greenhalgh, “Comparison of rotationally inelastic collision models for Q-branch Raman spectra of N2,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 133, 513–516 (1987).
[CrossRef]

W. A. England, J. M. Milne, S. N. Jenny, D. A. Greenhalgh, “Application of CARS to an operating chemical reactor,” Appl. Spectrosc. 38, 867–875 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Hahn, J. W.

Hancock, R. D.

Hedman, P. O.

K. W. Boyack, P. O. Hedman, “Dual-Stokes CARS system for simultaneous measurement of temperature and multiple species in turbulent flames,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Third International Symposium on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1990), pp. 1893–1899.

Huh, Y. D.

Jenny, S. N.

Jonuscheit, J.

Kang, K. T.

Klos, Th.

N. Ebersohl, Th. Klos, R. Suntz, H. Bockhorn, “One-dimensional Raman scattering for determination of multipoint joint scalar probability density functions in turbulent diffusion flames,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Seventh International Symposium on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1998), pp. 997–1005.
[CrossRef]

Kohse-Höinghaus, K.

K. Kohse-Höinghaus, “Laser and probe diagnostics in fundamental combustion research,” Isr. J. Chem. 39, 25–39 (1999).

Koszykowski, M. L.

L. A. Rahn, R. E. Palmer, M. L. Koszykowski, D. A. Greenhalgh, “Comparison of rotationally inelastic collision models for Q-branch Raman spectra of N2,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 133, 513–516 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Kröll, S.

L. Martinsson, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Aldén, S. Kröll, J. Bonamy, “A test of different rotational linewidth models: accuracy of rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering thermometry in nitrogen from 295 to 1850 K,” J. Chem. Phys. 99, 2466–2477 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P.-E. Bengtsson, L. Martinsson, M. Aldén, S. Kröll, “Rotational CARS thermometry in sooting flames,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 81, 129–140 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Aldén, P.-E. Bengtsson, H. Edner, S. Kröll, D. Nilsson, “Rotational CARS: a comparison of different techniques with emphasis on accuracy in temperature determination: erratum,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4434 (1990).

P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Aldén, S. Kröll, D. Nilsson, “Vibrational CARS thermometry in sooty flames: quantitative evaluation of C2 absorption interference,” Combust. Flame 82, 199–210 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Aldén, P.-E. Bengtsson, H. Edner, S. Kröll, D. Nilsson, “Rotational CARS: a comparison of different techniques with emphasis on accuracy in temperature determination,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3206–3219 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Martinsson, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Aldén, S. Kröll, “Applications of rotational CARS for temperature measurements at high pressure and in particle-laden flames,” in Temperature: Its Measurements and Control in Science and Industry, J. F. Schooley, ed. (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1991), Vol. 6, pp. 679–684.

Lee, E. S.

Lefebvre, M.

A. Roblin, J. Bonamy, D. Robert, M. Lefebvre, M. Pealat, “Rotational relaxation model for CO–N2: prediction of CARS profiles and comparison with experiment,” J. Phys. II 2, 285–294 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Leipertz, A.

Lucht, R. P.

Magens, E.

E. Magens, “Nutzung von Rotations-CARS zur Temperatur-und Konzentrationsbestimmung in Flammen,” Ph.D. dissertation (Universität Erlangen Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany, 1993).

Maris, M. A.

Martinsson, L.

L. Martinsson, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Aldén, “Oxygen concentration and temperature measurements in N2–O2 mixtures using rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 62, 29–37 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P.-E. Bengtsson, L. Martinsson, M. Aldén, “Combined vibrational and rotational CARS for simultaneous measurements of temperature and concentrations of fuel, oxygen, and nitrogen,” Appl. Spectrosc. 49, 188–192 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. Martinsson, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Aldén, S. Kröll, J. Bonamy, “A test of different rotational linewidth models: accuracy of rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering thermometry in nitrogen from 295 to 1850 K,” J. Chem. Phys. 99, 2466–2477 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P.-E. Bengtsson, L. Martinsson, M. Aldén, S. Kröll, “Rotational CARS thermometry in sooting flames,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 81, 129–140 (1992).
[CrossRef]

L. Martinsson, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Aldén, S. Kröll, “Applications of rotational CARS for temperature measurements at high pressure and in particle-laden flames,” in Temperature: Its Measurements and Control in Science and Industry, J. F. Schooley, ed. (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1991), Vol. 6, pp. 679–684.

Masri, A. R.

R. W. Dibble, A. R. Masri, R. W. Bilger, “The spontaneous Raman scattering technique applied to nonpremixed flames of methane,” Combust. Flame 67, 189–206 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Meier, W.

W. Meier, R. S. Barlow, Y.-L. Chen, J.-Y. Chen, “Raman/Rayleigh/LIF measurements in a turbulent CH4/H2/N2 jet diffusion flame: experimental techniques and turbulence-chemistry-interaction,” Combust. Flame 123, 326–343 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Milne, J. M.

Murphy, D. V.

Nilsson, D.

Nooren, P. A.

P. A. Nooren, M. Versluis, T. H. van der Meer, R. S. Barlow, J. H. Frank, “Raman-Rayleigh-LIF measurements of temperature and species concentrations in the Delft piloted turbulent jet diffusion flame,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 95–111 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Palmer, R. E.

Park, S. N.

Paul, M. K.

Pealat, M.

A. Roblin, J. Bonamy, D. Robert, M. Lefebvre, M. Pealat, “Rotational relaxation model for CO–N2: prediction of CARS profiles and comparison with experiment,” J. Phys. II 2, 285–294 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Peters, J. E.

Pitz, R. W.

T.-S. Cheng, J. A. Wehrmeyer, R. W. Pitz, “Simultaneous temperature and multi-species measurement in a lifted hydrogen diffusion flame by a KrF excimer laser,” paper AIAA 91-0181 presented at the Twenty-Ninth Aerospace Science Meeting, Reno, Nevada, 7–10 January 1991 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, Va., 1991).

Rabenstein, F.

Rahn, L. A.

L. A. Rahn, R. E. Palmer, M. L. Koszykowski, D. A. Greenhalgh, “Comparison of rotationally inelastic collision models for Q-branch Raman spectra of N2,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 133, 513–516 (1987).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Rahn, R. E. Palmer, “Studies of nitrogen self-broadening at high temperature with inverse Raman spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 1164–1169 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Rhee, C.

Robert, D.

A. Roblin, J. Bonamy, D. Robert, M. Lefebvre, M. Pealat, “Rotational relaxation model for CO–N2: prediction of CARS profiles and comparison with experiment,” J. Phys. II 2, 285–294 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Roblin, A.

A. Roblin, J. Bonamy, D. Robert, M. Lefebvre, M. Pealat, “Rotational relaxation model for CO–N2: prediction of CARS profiles and comparison with experiment,” J. Phys. II 2, 285–294 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rubas, P. J.

Schauer, F. R.

Schenk, M.

A. Thumann, M. Schenk, J. Jonuscheit, T. Seeger, A. Leipertz, “Simultaneous temperature and relative nitrogen–oxygen concentration measurements in air with pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering for temperatures to as high as 2050 K,” Appl. Opt. 36, 3500–3505 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schenk, T. Seeger, A. Leipertz, “Simultaneous single-shot temperature and relative O2/CO2/N2-concentration measurements for high pressures using dual broadband pure rotational CARS,” in Proceedings of the French–German Combustion Symposium (Combustion Institute, Nancy, France, 1999), pp. 471–473.

Seeger, T.

Shirley, J. A.

A. C. Eckbreth, T. J. Anderson, J. A. Shirley, “In situ measurements of concentration and temperatures,” Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 97, 1597–1608 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Snow, J. B.

Suntz, R.

N. Ebersohl, Th. Klos, R. Suntz, H. Bockhorn, “One-dimensional Raman scattering for determination of multipoint joint scalar probability density functions in turbulent diffusion flames,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Seventh International Symposium on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1998), pp. 997–1005.
[CrossRef]

Thumann, A.

van der Meer, T. H.

P. A. Nooren, M. Versluis, T. H. van der Meer, R. S. Barlow, J. H. Frank, “Raman-Rayleigh-LIF measurements of temperature and species concentrations in the Delft piloted turbulent jet diffusion flame,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 95–111 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Versluis, M.

P. A. Nooren, M. Versluis, T. H. van der Meer, R. S. Barlow, J. H. Frank, “Raman-Rayleigh-LIF measurements of temperature and species concentrations in the Delft piloted turbulent jet diffusion flame,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 95–111 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wehrmeyer, J. A.

T.-S. Cheng, J. A. Wehrmeyer, R. W. Pitz, “Simultaneous temperature and multi-species measurement in a lifted hydrogen diffusion flame by a KrF excimer laser,” paper AIAA 91-0181 presented at the Twenty-Ninth Aerospace Science Meeting, Reno, Nevada, 7–10 January 1991 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, Va., 1991).

Yueh, F. Y.

Zheng, J.

AIAA J.

R. E. Foglesong, S. M. Green, R. P. Lucht, J. C. Dutton, “Dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering for simultaneous pressure/temperature measurement,” AIAA J. 36, 234–240 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

A. C. Eckbreth, T. J. Anderson, “Dual broadband CARS for simultaneous, multiple species measurements,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2731–2736 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Y. Yueh, E. J. Beiting, “Simultaneous N2, CO, and H2 multiplex CARS measurements in combustion environments using a single dye laser,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3233–3243 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Thumann, M. Schenk, J. Jonuscheit, T. Seeger, A. Leipertz, “Simultaneous temperature and relative nitrogen–oxygen concentration measurements in air with pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering for temperatures to as high as 2050 K,” Appl. Opt. 36, 3500–3505 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Rabenstein, A. Leipertz, “One-dimensional, time-resolved Raman measurements in a sooting flame made with 355-nm excitation,” Appl. Opt. 37, 4937–4943 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Seeger, A. Leipertz, “Experimental comparison of single-shot broadband vibrational and dual-broadband pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering in hot air,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2665–2671 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Hancock, F. R. Schauer, R. P. Lucht, R. L. Farrow, “Dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering measurements of nitrogen and oxygen in a laminar jet diffusion flame,” Appl. Opt. 36, 3217–3226 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Green, P. J. Rubas, M. K. Paul, J. E. Peters, R. P. Lucht, “Annular phase-matched dual-pumped coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering system for the simultaneous detection of nitrogen and methane,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1690–1701 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Aldén, P.-E. Bengtsson, H. Edner, “Rotational CARS generation through a multiple four-color interaction,” Appl. Opt. 25, 4493–4500 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Aldén, P.-E. Bengtsson, H. Edner, S. Kröll, D. Nilsson, “Rotational CARS: a comparison of different techniques with emphasis on accuracy in temperature determination,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3206–3219 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Aldén, P.-E. Bengtsson, H. Edner, S. Kröll, D. Nilsson, “Rotational CARS: a comparison of different techniques with emphasis on accuracy in temperature determination: erratum,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4434 (1990).

Appl. Phys. B

L. Martinsson, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Aldén, “Oxygen concentration and temperature measurements in N2–O2 mixtures using rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 62, 29–37 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Bood, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Aldén, “Temperature and concentration measurements in acetylene–nitrogen mixtures in the range 300–600 K using dual broadband rotational CARS,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 607–620 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Eckbreth, T. J. Anderson, G. M. Dobbs, “Multi-color CARS for hydrogen-fueled scramjet applications,” Appl. Phys. B 45, 215–223 (1988).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Nooren, M. Versluis, T. H. van der Meer, R. S. Barlow, J. H. Frank, “Raman-Rayleigh-LIF measurements of temperature and species concentrations in the Delft piloted turbulent jet diffusion flame,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 95–111 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Spectrosc.

Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem.

A. C. Eckbreth, T. J. Anderson, J. A. Shirley, “In situ measurements of concentration and temperatures,” Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 97, 1597–1608 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett.

L. A. Rahn, R. E. Palmer, M. L. Koszykowski, D. A. Greenhalgh, “Comparison of rotationally inelastic collision models for Q-branch Raman spectra of N2,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 133, 513–516 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Combust. Flame

P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Aldén, S. Kröll, D. Nilsson, “Vibrational CARS thermometry in sooty flames: quantitative evaluation of C2 absorption interference,” Combust. Flame 82, 199–210 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Dibble, A. R. Masri, R. W. Bilger, “The spontaneous Raman scattering technique applied to nonpremixed flames of methane,” Combust. Flame 67, 189–206 (1987).
[CrossRef]

W. Meier, R. S. Barlow, Y.-L. Chen, J.-Y. Chen, “Raman/Rayleigh/LIF measurements in a turbulent CH4/H2/N2 jet diffusion flame: experimental techniques and turbulence-chemistry-interaction,” Combust. Flame 123, 326–343 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Combust. Sci. Technol.

P.-E. Bengtsson, L. Martinsson, M. Aldén, S. Kröll, “Rotational CARS thermometry in sooting flames,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 81, 129–140 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Isr. J. Chem.

K. Kohse-Höinghaus, “Laser and probe diagnostics in fundamental combustion research,” Isr. J. Chem. 39, 25–39 (1999).

J. Chem. Phys.

L. Martinsson, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Aldén, S. Kröll, J. Bonamy, “A test of different rotational linewidth models: accuracy of rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering thermometry in nitrogen from 295 to 1850 K,” J. Chem. Phys. 99, 2466–2477 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Phys. II

A. Roblin, J. Bonamy, D. Robert, M. Lefebvre, M. Pealat, “Rotational relaxation model for CO–N2: prediction of CARS profiles and comparison with experiment,” J. Phys. II 2, 285–294 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Other

E. Magens, “Nutzung von Rotations-CARS zur Temperatur-und Konzentrationsbestimmung in Flammen,” Ph.D. dissertation (Universität Erlangen Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany, 1993).

J. Bood, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Aldén, “Nonintrusive temperature and oxygen concentration measurements in a catalytic combustor using rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy,” presented at American Society of Mechanical Engineers Turbo Expo ’99, Technical Paper ASME 99-GT-114 (International Gas Turbine Institute, Atlanta, Ga., 1999).

M. Schenk, T. Seeger, A. Leipertz, “Simultaneous single-shot temperature and relative O2/CO2/N2-concentration measurements for high pressures using dual broadband pure rotational CARS,” in Proceedings of the French–German Combustion Symposium (Combustion Institute, Nancy, France, 1999), pp. 471–473.

K. W. Boyack, P. O. Hedman, “Dual-Stokes CARS system for simultaneous measurement of temperature and multiple species in turbulent flames,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Third International Symposium on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1990), pp. 1893–1899.

L. Martinsson, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Aldén, S. Kröll, “Applications of rotational CARS for temperature measurements at high pressure and in particle-laden flames,” in Temperature: Its Measurements and Control in Science and Industry, J. F. Schooley, ed. (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1991), Vol. 6, pp. 679–684.

A. C. Eckbreth, Laser Diagnostics for Combustion Temperature and Species, 2nd ed. (Gordon Breach, Amsterdam, 1996).

T.-S. Cheng, J. A. Wehrmeyer, R. W. Pitz, “Simultaneous temperature and multi-species measurement in a lifted hydrogen diffusion flame by a KrF excimer laser,” paper AIAA 91-0181 presented at the Twenty-Ninth Aerospace Science Meeting, Reno, Nevada, 7–10 January 1991 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, Va., 1991).

N. Ebersohl, Th. Klos, R. Suntz, H. Bockhorn, “One-dimensional Raman scattering for determination of multipoint joint scalar probability density functions in turbulent diffusion flames,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Seventh International Symposium on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1998), pp. 997–1005.
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Double-folded BOXCARS phase-matching scheme for the generation of nearly superimposed vibrational and dual-broadband pure rotational CARS signal beams. The red laser beams are illustrated in dark gray, the green laser beams in light gray, and the CARS signals in medium gray.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectrograph setup and CCD camera picture with spectrally resolved dual-broadband pure rotational CARS signal (upper) and vibrational CARS signal (lower).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Energy level diagrams: (a) Q-branch vibrational CARS, (b) dual-broadband pure rotational CARS, (c) vibrational CARS process generated by the same laser beams as rotational CARS.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Vibrational and pure rotational CARS spectra recorded in a premixed C2H4–air flame. Each pair of spectra was simultaneously detected at a different height above the burner, corresponding to different positions in a reaction zone: (a) highest position, that is, the one closest to the product zone; (b) middle position; (c) lowest position, that is, the one closest to the reactant side.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Two illustrations of a rotational CARS spectrum recorded in a premixed C2H4–air flame of equivalence ratio ϕ = 2.3. At these measurement conditions the CARS spectrum covers a larger spectral range than the detector, and therefore the spectra are cut at approximately 280 cm-1. The interfering vibrational CARS signal can be seen in the upper spectrum but has been subtracted in the lower illustration.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Experimental vibrational CARS spectrum recorded in a premixed C2H4–air flame (Φ = 2.7). The difference between the experimental spectrum and the theoretical spectrum that corresponds to the best fit is given in the plot below the spectrum.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Temperature profiles in a premixed C2H4–air flame with an equivalence ratio of ϕ = 2.3.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Experimental (———) and calculated (– – – –) vibrational CARS spectra for (a) CO and (b) N2 recorded at the same time in a premixed C2H4–air flame. The corresponding N2 and CO temperatures were achieved separately by a contour fit.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Temperature, O2 concentration, and CO concentration profiles in a premixed C2H4–air flame with an equivalence ratio of ϕ = 2.7.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Vibrational and pure rotational CARS spectra recorded in a premixed CO–air flame, which demonstrates the potential for multispecies detection of this technique. In addition to the species identified in the spectra from C2H4–air flames, lines from CO2 can also be observed at the lower Raman shifts in the rotational CARS spectrum from this flame.

Metrics