Abstract

The Along-Track Scanning Radiometer-2 (ATSR-2) is equipped with visible and near-infrared channels at 1.6, 0.87, 0.66, and 0.56 µm. An in-flight visible calibration (VISCAL) system used to convert the raw signal to top-of-the-atmosphere reflectances is described. To monitor the long-term stability of the VISCAL, a number of large-area stable terrestrial sites have been employed. We describe the methods used to determine the long-term drifts in the ATSR-2 onboard calibration device and evaluate the suitability of the sites for calibration monitoring.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. McKay, M. D. Steven, J. A. Clark, “An atmospheric correction procedure for the ATSR-2 visible and near-infrared land surface data,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 19, 2949–2968 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. R. N. Rao, J. Chen, “Calibration of the visible and near-infrared channels of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) after launch,” in Recent Advances in Sensors, Radiometric Calibration, and Processing of Remotely Sensed Data, P. S. Chavez, R. A. Schowengerdt, eds., Proc. SPIE1938, 56–66 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. R. N. Rao, J. Chen, “Inter satellite calibration linkages for the visible and near infrared channels of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer on the NOAA-7, -9 and -11 spacecraft,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 16, 1931–1942 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. R. N. Rao, J. Chen, “Revised post-launch calibration of the visible and near-infrared channels of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer on the NOAA-14 spacecraft,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 3485–3491 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. L. Smith, P. D. Read, C. T. Mutlow, “The calibration of the visible/near infra-red channels of the Along-Track Scanning Radiometer-2 (ATSR-2),” in Sensors, Systems and Next-Generation Satellites, H. Fujisadsa, ed., Proc. SPIE3221, 53–62 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. F. Staylor, “Degradation rates of the AVHRR visible channel for the NOAA 6, 7 and 9 spacecraft,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 7, 411–423 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. N. Holben, Y. J. Kaufmann, J. D. Kendall, “NOAA-11 AVHRR visible and near-IR inflight calibration,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 11, 1511–1519 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. D. Read, A. L. Hardie, J. E. Magraw, H. S. Taylor, J. V. Jelley, “A calibration system, using an opal diffuser, for the visual channels of the Along Track Scanning Radiometer, ATSR-2,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 121, 207–213 (1991).
  9. N. G. Loeb, “In-flight calibration of NOAA AVHRR visible and near-IR bands over Greenland and Antarctica,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 18, 477–490 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Cosnefroy, M. Leroy, X. Briottet, “Selection and characterisation of Saharan and Aarbian desert sites for the calibration of optical sensors,” Remote Sens. Environ. 58, 101–114 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. Wu, Y. Yin, Z. Wang, X. Gu, M. Verbrugghe, G. Guyot, “Radiometric characterisation of Dunhuang satellite calibration test site (China),” in Physical Measurements and Signatures in Remote Sensing, G. Guyot, T. Phulpin, eds. (Balkema, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, 1997), pp. 151–160.
  12. S. M. Anderson, K. Mauersberger, “Laser measurement of ozone absorption cross sections in the Chappuis band,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 933–936 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  13. W. J. Wiscombe, S. G. Warren, “A model for the spectral albedo of snow. 1: Pure snow,” J. Atmos. Sci. 37, 2712–2745 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. G. Warren, R. E. Brandt, P. O. Hinton, “Effect of surface roughness on bidirectional reflectance of Antarctic snow,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 25789–25807 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  15. The modified version of the calibration tables, including these corrections, is available at the ATSR website http://www.atsr.rl.ac.uk .

1999

C. R. N. Rao, J. Chen, “Revised post-launch calibration of the visible and near-infrared channels of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer on the NOAA-14 spacecraft,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 3485–3491 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

G. McKay, M. D. Steven, J. A. Clark, “An atmospheric correction procedure for the ATSR-2 visible and near-infrared land surface data,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 19, 2949–2968 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Warren, R. E. Brandt, P. O. Hinton, “Effect of surface roughness on bidirectional reflectance of Antarctic snow,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 25789–25807 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

N. G. Loeb, “In-flight calibration of NOAA AVHRR visible and near-IR bands over Greenland and Antarctica,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 18, 477–490 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

H. Cosnefroy, M. Leroy, X. Briottet, “Selection and characterisation of Saharan and Aarbian desert sites for the calibration of optical sensors,” Remote Sens. Environ. 58, 101–114 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

C. R. N. Rao, J. Chen, “Inter satellite calibration linkages for the visible and near infrared channels of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer on the NOAA-7, -9 and -11 spacecraft,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 16, 1931–1942 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992

S. M. Anderson, K. Mauersberger, “Laser measurement of ozone absorption cross sections in the Chappuis band,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 933–936 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

P. D. Read, A. L. Hardie, J. E. Magraw, H. S. Taylor, J. V. Jelley, “A calibration system, using an opal diffuser, for the visual channels of the Along Track Scanning Radiometer, ATSR-2,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 121, 207–213 (1991).

1990

W. F. Staylor, “Degradation rates of the AVHRR visible channel for the NOAA 6, 7 and 9 spacecraft,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 7, 411–423 (1990).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, Y. J. Kaufmann, J. D. Kendall, “NOAA-11 AVHRR visible and near-IR inflight calibration,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 11, 1511–1519 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1980

W. J. Wiscombe, S. G. Warren, “A model for the spectral albedo of snow. 1: Pure snow,” J. Atmos. Sci. 37, 2712–2745 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, S. M.

S. M. Anderson, K. Mauersberger, “Laser measurement of ozone absorption cross sections in the Chappuis band,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 933–936 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Brandt, R. E.

S. G. Warren, R. E. Brandt, P. O. Hinton, “Effect of surface roughness on bidirectional reflectance of Antarctic snow,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 25789–25807 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Briottet, X.

H. Cosnefroy, M. Leroy, X. Briottet, “Selection and characterisation of Saharan and Aarbian desert sites for the calibration of optical sensors,” Remote Sens. Environ. 58, 101–114 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

C. R. N. Rao, J. Chen, “Revised post-launch calibration of the visible and near-infrared channels of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer on the NOAA-14 spacecraft,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 3485–3491 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. R. N. Rao, J. Chen, “Inter satellite calibration linkages for the visible and near infrared channels of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer on the NOAA-7, -9 and -11 spacecraft,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 16, 1931–1942 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. R. N. Rao, J. Chen, “Calibration of the visible and near-infrared channels of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) after launch,” in Recent Advances in Sensors, Radiometric Calibration, and Processing of Remotely Sensed Data, P. S. Chavez, R. A. Schowengerdt, eds., Proc. SPIE1938, 56–66 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Clark, J. A.

G. McKay, M. D. Steven, J. A. Clark, “An atmospheric correction procedure for the ATSR-2 visible and near-infrared land surface data,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 19, 2949–2968 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cosnefroy, H.

H. Cosnefroy, M. Leroy, X. Briottet, “Selection and characterisation of Saharan and Aarbian desert sites for the calibration of optical sensors,” Remote Sens. Environ. 58, 101–114 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gu, X.

D. Wu, Y. Yin, Z. Wang, X. Gu, M. Verbrugghe, G. Guyot, “Radiometric characterisation of Dunhuang satellite calibration test site (China),” in Physical Measurements and Signatures in Remote Sensing, G. Guyot, T. Phulpin, eds. (Balkema, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, 1997), pp. 151–160.

Guyot, G.

D. Wu, Y. Yin, Z. Wang, X. Gu, M. Verbrugghe, G. Guyot, “Radiometric characterisation of Dunhuang satellite calibration test site (China),” in Physical Measurements and Signatures in Remote Sensing, G. Guyot, T. Phulpin, eds. (Balkema, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, 1997), pp. 151–160.

Hardie, A. L.

P. D. Read, A. L. Hardie, J. E. Magraw, H. S. Taylor, J. V. Jelley, “A calibration system, using an opal diffuser, for the visual channels of the Along Track Scanning Radiometer, ATSR-2,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 121, 207–213 (1991).

Hinton, P. O.

S. G. Warren, R. E. Brandt, P. O. Hinton, “Effect of surface roughness on bidirectional reflectance of Antarctic snow,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 25789–25807 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Holben, B. N.

B. N. Holben, Y. J. Kaufmann, J. D. Kendall, “NOAA-11 AVHRR visible and near-IR inflight calibration,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 11, 1511–1519 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Jelley, J. V.

P. D. Read, A. L. Hardie, J. E. Magraw, H. S. Taylor, J. V. Jelley, “A calibration system, using an opal diffuser, for the visual channels of the Along Track Scanning Radiometer, ATSR-2,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 121, 207–213 (1991).

Kaufmann, Y. J.

B. N. Holben, Y. J. Kaufmann, J. D. Kendall, “NOAA-11 AVHRR visible and near-IR inflight calibration,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 11, 1511–1519 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kendall, J. D.

B. N. Holben, Y. J. Kaufmann, J. D. Kendall, “NOAA-11 AVHRR visible and near-IR inflight calibration,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 11, 1511–1519 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Leroy, M.

H. Cosnefroy, M. Leroy, X. Briottet, “Selection and characterisation of Saharan and Aarbian desert sites for the calibration of optical sensors,” Remote Sens. Environ. 58, 101–114 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Loeb, N. G.

N. G. Loeb, “In-flight calibration of NOAA AVHRR visible and near-IR bands over Greenland and Antarctica,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 18, 477–490 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Magraw, J. E.

P. D. Read, A. L. Hardie, J. E. Magraw, H. S. Taylor, J. V. Jelley, “A calibration system, using an opal diffuser, for the visual channels of the Along Track Scanning Radiometer, ATSR-2,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 121, 207–213 (1991).

Mauersberger, K.

S. M. Anderson, K. Mauersberger, “Laser measurement of ozone absorption cross sections in the Chappuis band,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 933–936 (1992).
[CrossRef]

McKay, G.

G. McKay, M. D. Steven, J. A. Clark, “An atmospheric correction procedure for the ATSR-2 visible and near-infrared land surface data,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 19, 2949–2968 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mutlow, C. T.

D. L. Smith, P. D. Read, C. T. Mutlow, “The calibration of the visible/near infra-red channels of the Along-Track Scanning Radiometer-2 (ATSR-2),” in Sensors, Systems and Next-Generation Satellites, H. Fujisadsa, ed., Proc. SPIE3221, 53–62 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rao, C. R. N.

C. R. N. Rao, J. Chen, “Revised post-launch calibration of the visible and near-infrared channels of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer on the NOAA-14 spacecraft,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 3485–3491 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. R. N. Rao, J. Chen, “Inter satellite calibration linkages for the visible and near infrared channels of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer on the NOAA-7, -9 and -11 spacecraft,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 16, 1931–1942 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. R. N. Rao, J. Chen, “Calibration of the visible and near-infrared channels of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) after launch,” in Recent Advances in Sensors, Radiometric Calibration, and Processing of Remotely Sensed Data, P. S. Chavez, R. A. Schowengerdt, eds., Proc. SPIE1938, 56–66 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Read, P. D.

P. D. Read, A. L. Hardie, J. E. Magraw, H. S. Taylor, J. V. Jelley, “A calibration system, using an opal diffuser, for the visual channels of the Along Track Scanning Radiometer, ATSR-2,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 121, 207–213 (1991).

D. L. Smith, P. D. Read, C. T. Mutlow, “The calibration of the visible/near infra-red channels of the Along-Track Scanning Radiometer-2 (ATSR-2),” in Sensors, Systems and Next-Generation Satellites, H. Fujisadsa, ed., Proc. SPIE3221, 53–62 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. L.

D. L. Smith, P. D. Read, C. T. Mutlow, “The calibration of the visible/near infra-red channels of the Along-Track Scanning Radiometer-2 (ATSR-2),” in Sensors, Systems and Next-Generation Satellites, H. Fujisadsa, ed., Proc. SPIE3221, 53–62 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Staylor, W. F.

W. F. Staylor, “Degradation rates of the AVHRR visible channel for the NOAA 6, 7 and 9 spacecraft,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 7, 411–423 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Steven, M. D.

G. McKay, M. D. Steven, J. A. Clark, “An atmospheric correction procedure for the ATSR-2 visible and near-infrared land surface data,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 19, 2949–2968 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, H. S.

P. D. Read, A. L. Hardie, J. E. Magraw, H. S. Taylor, J. V. Jelley, “A calibration system, using an opal diffuser, for the visual channels of the Along Track Scanning Radiometer, ATSR-2,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 121, 207–213 (1991).

Verbrugghe, M.

D. Wu, Y. Yin, Z. Wang, X. Gu, M. Verbrugghe, G. Guyot, “Radiometric characterisation of Dunhuang satellite calibration test site (China),” in Physical Measurements and Signatures in Remote Sensing, G. Guyot, T. Phulpin, eds. (Balkema, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, 1997), pp. 151–160.

Wang, Z.

D. Wu, Y. Yin, Z. Wang, X. Gu, M. Verbrugghe, G. Guyot, “Radiometric characterisation of Dunhuang satellite calibration test site (China),” in Physical Measurements and Signatures in Remote Sensing, G. Guyot, T. Phulpin, eds. (Balkema, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, 1997), pp. 151–160.

Warren, S. G.

S. G. Warren, R. E. Brandt, P. O. Hinton, “Effect of surface roughness on bidirectional reflectance of Antarctic snow,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 25789–25807 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Wiscombe, S. G. Warren, “A model for the spectral albedo of snow. 1: Pure snow,” J. Atmos. Sci. 37, 2712–2745 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Wiscombe, W. J.

W. J. Wiscombe, S. G. Warren, “A model for the spectral albedo of snow. 1: Pure snow,” J. Atmos. Sci. 37, 2712–2745 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Wu, D.

D. Wu, Y. Yin, Z. Wang, X. Gu, M. Verbrugghe, G. Guyot, “Radiometric characterisation of Dunhuang satellite calibration test site (China),” in Physical Measurements and Signatures in Remote Sensing, G. Guyot, T. Phulpin, eds. (Balkema, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, 1997), pp. 151–160.

Yin, Y.

D. Wu, Y. Yin, Z. Wang, X. Gu, M. Verbrugghe, G. Guyot, “Radiometric characterisation of Dunhuang satellite calibration test site (China),” in Physical Measurements and Signatures in Remote Sensing, G. Guyot, T. Phulpin, eds. (Balkema, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, 1997), pp. 151–160.

Geophys. Res. Lett.

S. M. Anderson, K. Mauersberger, “Laser measurement of ozone absorption cross sections in the Chappuis band,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 933–936 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser.

P. D. Read, A. L. Hardie, J. E. Magraw, H. S. Taylor, J. V. Jelley, “A calibration system, using an opal diffuser, for the visual channels of the Along Track Scanning Radiometer, ATSR-2,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 121, 207–213 (1991).

Int. J. Remote Sens.

N. G. Loeb, “In-flight calibration of NOAA AVHRR visible and near-IR bands over Greenland and Antarctica,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 18, 477–490 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. McKay, M. D. Steven, J. A. Clark, “An atmospheric correction procedure for the ATSR-2 visible and near-infrared land surface data,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 19, 2949–2968 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. R. N. Rao, J. Chen, “Inter satellite calibration linkages for the visible and near infrared channels of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer on the NOAA-7, -9 and -11 spacecraft,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 16, 1931–1942 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. R. N. Rao, J. Chen, “Revised post-launch calibration of the visible and near-infrared channels of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer on the NOAA-14 spacecraft,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 3485–3491 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, Y. J. Kaufmann, J. D. Kendall, “NOAA-11 AVHRR visible and near-IR inflight calibration,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 11, 1511–1519 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol.

W. F. Staylor, “Degradation rates of the AVHRR visible channel for the NOAA 6, 7 and 9 spacecraft,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 7, 411–423 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci.

W. J. Wiscombe, S. G. Warren, “A model for the spectral albedo of snow. 1: Pure snow,” J. Atmos. Sci. 37, 2712–2745 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

S. G. Warren, R. E. Brandt, P. O. Hinton, “Effect of surface roughness on bidirectional reflectance of Antarctic snow,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 25789–25807 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Remote Sens. Environ.

H. Cosnefroy, M. Leroy, X. Briottet, “Selection and characterisation of Saharan and Aarbian desert sites for the calibration of optical sensors,” Remote Sens. Environ. 58, 101–114 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other

D. Wu, Y. Yin, Z. Wang, X. Gu, M. Verbrugghe, G. Guyot, “Radiometric characterisation of Dunhuang satellite calibration test site (China),” in Physical Measurements and Signatures in Remote Sensing, G. Guyot, T. Phulpin, eds. (Balkema, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, 1997), pp. 151–160.

D. L. Smith, P. D. Read, C. T. Mutlow, “The calibration of the visible/near infra-red channels of the Along-Track Scanning Radiometer-2 (ATSR-2),” in Sensors, Systems and Next-Generation Satellites, H. Fujisadsa, ed., Proc. SPIE3221, 53–62 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. R. N. Rao, J. Chen, “Calibration of the visible and near-infrared channels of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) after launch,” in Recent Advances in Sensors, Radiometric Calibration, and Processing of Remotely Sensed Data, P. S. Chavez, R. A. Schowengerdt, eds., Proc. SPIE1938, 56–66 (1993).
[CrossRef]

The modified version of the calibration tables, including these corrections, is available at the ATSR website http://www.atsr.rl.ac.uk .

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of ATSR-2 showing the VISCAL system. FPA, focal-plane assembly.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Satellite (diamonds) and solar (triangles) geometry for the Sonoran Desert observations, typical of all the desert sites used in this study.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Shown are the 0.87-µm reflectance versus scattering angle for Libya 1, Sudan, Sonoran, and Dunhuang deserts. Data for all view angles are included, and drift correction was applied.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

ATSR-2 reflectance for Greenland for 1997.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Drift of normalized reflectances over the Algeria (West) site.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Drift of normalized reflectances over Greenland.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Time series of NDVIs measured by ATSR-2 for the Algerian (West), Saudi Arabian, Dunhuang, southeastern Sudan, and Sonoran deserts.

Tables (5)

Tables Icon

Table 1 ATSR-2 Signal Channel Bandwidths and VISCAL Reflectance Factors

Tables Icon

Table 2 Calibration Sites used in the Study

Tables Icon

Table 3 ATSR-2 Pixel Maps

Tables Icon

Table 4 Rms Differences of Least-Squares Fit of Polynomial through Reflectances as a Function of Scattering Angle

Tables Icon

Table 5 Percentage Calibration Drift Rate per Year

Equations (15)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

RVISCAL=απCVISCAL-Cdark/gain/I0,λdλ,
Rscene=πLscene/μ0I0,λdλ,
Lscene=αCscene-Cdark/gain,
Rscene=RVISCALCscene-Cdark/CVISCAL-Cdarkμ0.
R=R/τozone.
τozone=1-sec θ+sec θ0σχ,
Rscene=Rˆθ, θ0, φ, φ0Dt.
-cos180-γ=×cos θ cos θ0+sin θ sin θ0×cosφ-φ0,
Rˆ=a0+a1γ+a2γ2.
Rˆ=a0+a1 cos θ0.
NDVIs=R0.87 μm-R0.66 μm/R0.87 μm+R0.66 μm.
R=FN/μ0,
N=Cscene-CdarkS/gain,
F=RVISCAL gain/CVISCAL-CdarkS,
F=F exp-kt/365

Metrics