Abstract

The temporal stability of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) spectral irradiance scale as measured with broadband filter radiometers calibrated for absolute spectral irradiance responsivity is described. The working standard free-electron laser (FEL) lamps and the check standard FEL lamps have been monitored with radiometers in the ultraviolet and the visible wavelength regions. The measurements made with these two radiometers reveal that the NIST spectral irradiance scale as compared with an absolute thermodynamic scale has not changed by more than 1.5% in the visible from 1993 to 1999. Similar measurements in the ultraviolet reveal that the corresponding change is less than 1.5% from 1995 to 1999. Furthermore, a check of the spectral irradiance scale by six different filter radiometers calibrated for absolute spectral irradiance responsivity based on the high-accuracy cryogenic radiometer shows that the agreement between the present scale and the detector-based scale is better than 1.3% throughout the visible to the near-infrared wavelength region. These results validate the assigned spectral irradiance of the widely disseminated NIST or NIST-traceable standard sources.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. K. D. Mielenz, R. D. Saunders, A. C. Parr, J. J. Hsia, “The 1990 NIST scales of thermal radiometry,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 95, 621–629 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. H. Walker, R. D. Sauncers, J. K. Jackson, D. A. McSparron, “Spectral irradiance calibrations,” NBS Measurement Services SP 250-20 (National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, Md., 1987).
  3. A. Thompson, E. A. Early, T. R. O’Brian, “Ultraviolet spectral irradiance scale comparison: 210 nm to 300 nm,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 103, 1–13 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. R. Gentile, J. M. Houston, J. E. Hardis, C. L. Cromer, A. C. Parr, “National Institute of Standards and Technology high-accuracy cryogenic radiometer,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1056–1068 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Y. Ohno, “Improved photometric standards and calibration procedures at NIST,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 102, 323–331 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Metzdorf, A. Sperling, S. Winter, K.-H. Raatz, W. Möller, “A new FEL-type quartz-halogen lamp as an improved standard of spectral irradiance,” Metrologia 35, 423–426 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. W. Kiedron, J. J. Michalsky, J. L. Berndt, L. Harrison, “Comparison of spectral irradiance standards used to calibrate shortwave radiometers and spectroradiometers,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2432–2439 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. B. Fowler, R. Durvasula, A. C. Parr, “High-accuracy aperture-area measurement facilities at the National Institute of Standards and Technology,” Metrologia 35, 497–500 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. C. Larason, S. S. Bruce, C. L. Cromer, “The NIST high-accuracy scale for absolute spectral response from 406 nm to 920 nm,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 101, 133–140 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. W. Brown, G. P. Eppeldauer, K. R. Lykke, “NIST facility for spectral irradiance and radiance responsivity calibrations with uniform sources,” Metrologia 37, 579–582 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. W. Yoon, C. E. Gibson, “Determination of radiance temperatures using detectors calibrated for absolute spectral power response,” in Proceeding of the Seventh International Symposium on Temperature and Thermal Measurements in Industry and Science, J. Dubbeldam, M. J. de Groot, eds. (Edauw and Johannisen, The Netherlands, 1999), pp. 737–742.
  12. F. E. Nicodemus, “Self-study manual on optical radiation measurements: Part I—Concepts,” NBS Technical Note 910-2 (National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, Md., 1978), Chaps. 4 and 5.
  13. B. K. Tsai, B. C. Johnson, R. D. Saunders, C. L. Cromer, “Comparison of the filter radiometer spectral responsivity with the NIST spectral irradiance and illuminance scales,” Metrologia 32, 473–477 (1995).
    [CrossRef]

2000 (1)

S. W. Brown, G. P. Eppeldauer, K. R. Lykke, “NIST facility for spectral irradiance and radiance responsivity calibrations with uniform sources,” Metrologia 37, 579–582 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1998 (3)

J. B. Fowler, R. Durvasula, A. C. Parr, “High-accuracy aperture-area measurement facilities at the National Institute of Standards and Technology,” Metrologia 35, 497–500 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Thompson, E. A. Early, T. R. O’Brian, “Ultraviolet spectral irradiance scale comparison: 210 nm to 300 nm,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 103, 1–13 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Metzdorf, A. Sperling, S. Winter, K.-H. Raatz, W. Möller, “A new FEL-type quartz-halogen lamp as an improved standard of spectral irradiance,” Metrologia 35, 423–426 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

Y. Ohno, “Improved photometric standards and calibration procedures at NIST,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 102, 323–331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

T. R. Gentile, J. M. Houston, J. E. Hardis, C. L. Cromer, A. C. Parr, “National Institute of Standards and Technology high-accuracy cryogenic radiometer,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1056–1068 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. C. Larason, S. S. Bruce, C. L. Cromer, “The NIST high-accuracy scale for absolute spectral response from 406 nm to 920 nm,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 101, 133–140 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

B. K. Tsai, B. C. Johnson, R. D. Saunders, C. L. Cromer, “Comparison of the filter radiometer spectral responsivity with the NIST spectral irradiance and illuminance scales,” Metrologia 32, 473–477 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

K. D. Mielenz, R. D. Saunders, A. C. Parr, J. J. Hsia, “The 1990 NIST scales of thermal radiometry,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 95, 621–629 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Berndt, J. L.

Brown, S. W.

S. W. Brown, G. P. Eppeldauer, K. R. Lykke, “NIST facility for spectral irradiance and radiance responsivity calibrations with uniform sources,” Metrologia 37, 579–582 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bruce, S. S.

T. C. Larason, S. S. Bruce, C. L. Cromer, “The NIST high-accuracy scale for absolute spectral response from 406 nm to 920 nm,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 101, 133–140 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cromer, C. L.

T. C. Larason, S. S. Bruce, C. L. Cromer, “The NIST high-accuracy scale for absolute spectral response from 406 nm to 920 nm,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 101, 133–140 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Gentile, J. M. Houston, J. E. Hardis, C. L. Cromer, A. C. Parr, “National Institute of Standards and Technology high-accuracy cryogenic radiometer,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1056–1068 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. K. Tsai, B. C. Johnson, R. D. Saunders, C. L. Cromer, “Comparison of the filter radiometer spectral responsivity with the NIST spectral irradiance and illuminance scales,” Metrologia 32, 473–477 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Durvasula, R.

J. B. Fowler, R. Durvasula, A. C. Parr, “High-accuracy aperture-area measurement facilities at the National Institute of Standards and Technology,” Metrologia 35, 497–500 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Early, E. A.

A. Thompson, E. A. Early, T. R. O’Brian, “Ultraviolet spectral irradiance scale comparison: 210 nm to 300 nm,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 103, 1–13 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Eppeldauer, G. P.

S. W. Brown, G. P. Eppeldauer, K. R. Lykke, “NIST facility for spectral irradiance and radiance responsivity calibrations with uniform sources,” Metrologia 37, 579–582 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fowler, J. B.

J. B. Fowler, R. Durvasula, A. C. Parr, “High-accuracy aperture-area measurement facilities at the National Institute of Standards and Technology,” Metrologia 35, 497–500 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gentile, T. R.

Gibson, C. E.

H. W. Yoon, C. E. Gibson, “Determination of radiance temperatures using detectors calibrated for absolute spectral power response,” in Proceeding of the Seventh International Symposium on Temperature and Thermal Measurements in Industry and Science, J. Dubbeldam, M. J. de Groot, eds. (Edauw and Johannisen, The Netherlands, 1999), pp. 737–742.

Hardis, J. E.

Harrison, L.

Houston, J. M.

Hsia, J. J.

K. D. Mielenz, R. D. Saunders, A. C. Parr, J. J. Hsia, “The 1990 NIST scales of thermal radiometry,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 95, 621–629 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, J. K.

J. H. Walker, R. D. Sauncers, J. K. Jackson, D. A. McSparron, “Spectral irradiance calibrations,” NBS Measurement Services SP 250-20 (National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, Md., 1987).

Johnson, B. C.

B. K. Tsai, B. C. Johnson, R. D. Saunders, C. L. Cromer, “Comparison of the filter radiometer spectral responsivity with the NIST spectral irradiance and illuminance scales,” Metrologia 32, 473–477 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kiedron, P. W.

Larason, T. C.

T. C. Larason, S. S. Bruce, C. L. Cromer, “The NIST high-accuracy scale for absolute spectral response from 406 nm to 920 nm,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 101, 133–140 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lykke, K. R.

S. W. Brown, G. P. Eppeldauer, K. R. Lykke, “NIST facility for spectral irradiance and radiance responsivity calibrations with uniform sources,” Metrologia 37, 579–582 (2000).
[CrossRef]

McSparron, D. A.

J. H. Walker, R. D. Sauncers, J. K. Jackson, D. A. McSparron, “Spectral irradiance calibrations,” NBS Measurement Services SP 250-20 (National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, Md., 1987).

Metzdorf, J.

J. Metzdorf, A. Sperling, S. Winter, K.-H. Raatz, W. Möller, “A new FEL-type quartz-halogen lamp as an improved standard of spectral irradiance,” Metrologia 35, 423–426 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Michalsky, J. J.

Mielenz, K. D.

K. D. Mielenz, R. D. Saunders, A. C. Parr, J. J. Hsia, “The 1990 NIST scales of thermal radiometry,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 95, 621–629 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Möller, W.

J. Metzdorf, A. Sperling, S. Winter, K.-H. Raatz, W. Möller, “A new FEL-type quartz-halogen lamp as an improved standard of spectral irradiance,” Metrologia 35, 423–426 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nicodemus, F. E.

F. E. Nicodemus, “Self-study manual on optical radiation measurements: Part I—Concepts,” NBS Technical Note 910-2 (National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, Md., 1978), Chaps. 4 and 5.

O’Brian, T. R.

A. Thompson, E. A. Early, T. R. O’Brian, “Ultraviolet spectral irradiance scale comparison: 210 nm to 300 nm,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 103, 1–13 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ohno, Y.

Y. Ohno, “Improved photometric standards and calibration procedures at NIST,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 102, 323–331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Parr, A. C.

J. B. Fowler, R. Durvasula, A. C. Parr, “High-accuracy aperture-area measurement facilities at the National Institute of Standards and Technology,” Metrologia 35, 497–500 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Gentile, J. M. Houston, J. E. Hardis, C. L. Cromer, A. C. Parr, “National Institute of Standards and Technology high-accuracy cryogenic radiometer,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1056–1068 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. D. Mielenz, R. D. Saunders, A. C. Parr, J. J. Hsia, “The 1990 NIST scales of thermal radiometry,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 95, 621–629 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Raatz, K.-H.

J. Metzdorf, A. Sperling, S. Winter, K.-H. Raatz, W. Möller, “A new FEL-type quartz-halogen lamp as an improved standard of spectral irradiance,” Metrologia 35, 423–426 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sauncers, R. D.

J. H. Walker, R. D. Sauncers, J. K. Jackson, D. A. McSparron, “Spectral irradiance calibrations,” NBS Measurement Services SP 250-20 (National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, Md., 1987).

Saunders, R. D.

B. K. Tsai, B. C. Johnson, R. D. Saunders, C. L. Cromer, “Comparison of the filter radiometer spectral responsivity with the NIST spectral irradiance and illuminance scales,” Metrologia 32, 473–477 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Mielenz, R. D. Saunders, A. C. Parr, J. J. Hsia, “The 1990 NIST scales of thermal radiometry,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 95, 621–629 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sperling, A.

J. Metzdorf, A. Sperling, S. Winter, K.-H. Raatz, W. Möller, “A new FEL-type quartz-halogen lamp as an improved standard of spectral irradiance,” Metrologia 35, 423–426 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, A.

A. Thompson, E. A. Early, T. R. O’Brian, “Ultraviolet spectral irradiance scale comparison: 210 nm to 300 nm,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 103, 1–13 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, B. K.

B. K. Tsai, B. C. Johnson, R. D. Saunders, C. L. Cromer, “Comparison of the filter radiometer spectral responsivity with the NIST spectral irradiance and illuminance scales,” Metrologia 32, 473–477 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Walker, J. H.

J. H. Walker, R. D. Sauncers, J. K. Jackson, D. A. McSparron, “Spectral irradiance calibrations,” NBS Measurement Services SP 250-20 (National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, Md., 1987).

Winter, S.

J. Metzdorf, A. Sperling, S. Winter, K.-H. Raatz, W. Möller, “A new FEL-type quartz-halogen lamp as an improved standard of spectral irradiance,” Metrologia 35, 423–426 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, H. W.

H. W. Yoon, C. E. Gibson, “Determination of radiance temperatures using detectors calibrated for absolute spectral power response,” in Proceeding of the Seventh International Symposium on Temperature and Thermal Measurements in Industry and Science, J. Dubbeldam, M. J. de Groot, eds. (Edauw and Johannisen, The Netherlands, 1999), pp. 737–742.

Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. (4)

Y. Ohno, “Improved photometric standards and calibration procedures at NIST,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 102, 323–331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Mielenz, R. D. Saunders, A. C. Parr, J. J. Hsia, “The 1990 NIST scales of thermal radiometry,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 95, 621–629 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. Thompson, E. A. Early, T. R. O’Brian, “Ultraviolet spectral irradiance scale comparison: 210 nm to 300 nm,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 103, 1–13 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Larason, S. S. Bruce, C. L. Cromer, “The NIST high-accuracy scale for absolute spectral response from 406 nm to 920 nm,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 101, 133–140 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Metrologia (4)

S. W. Brown, G. P. Eppeldauer, K. R. Lykke, “NIST facility for spectral irradiance and radiance responsivity calibrations with uniform sources,” Metrologia 37, 579–582 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Fowler, R. Durvasula, A. C. Parr, “High-accuracy aperture-area measurement facilities at the National Institute of Standards and Technology,” Metrologia 35, 497–500 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Metzdorf, A. Sperling, S. Winter, K.-H. Raatz, W. Möller, “A new FEL-type quartz-halogen lamp as an improved standard of spectral irradiance,” Metrologia 35, 423–426 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. K. Tsai, B. C. Johnson, R. D. Saunders, C. L. Cromer, “Comparison of the filter radiometer spectral responsivity with the NIST spectral irradiance and illuminance scales,” Metrologia 32, 473–477 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

J. H. Walker, R. D. Sauncers, J. K. Jackson, D. A. McSparron, “Spectral irradiance calibrations,” NBS Measurement Services SP 250-20 (National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, Md., 1987).

H. W. Yoon, C. E. Gibson, “Determination of radiance temperatures using detectors calibrated for absolute spectral power response,” in Proceeding of the Seventh International Symposium on Temperature and Thermal Measurements in Industry and Science, J. Dubbeldam, M. J. de Groot, eds. (Edauw and Johannisen, The Netherlands, 1999), pp. 737–742.

F. E. Nicodemus, “Self-study manual on optical radiation measurements: Part I—Concepts,” NBS Technical Note 910-2 (National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, Md., 1978), Chaps. 4 and 5.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Absolute spectral power responsivities of the UV2 and the FAD radiometers as denoted by the solid curve and the dotted-dashed curve, respectively. The normalized spectral irradiance of a 1000-W FEL lamp is denoted by the dotted curve. The two radiometers provide broadband coverage over the ultraviolet and visible wavelengths.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Percent differences of the 1998 and 1999 calibrations of the FAD radiometer absolute spectral responsivities from the 1990 calibrations.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) The spectral irradiance responsivities of the UV2 radiometer measured in 1993, 1994, and 1999. The measurements in 1993 and 1994 were performed in the SCF, and the measurements in 1999 were performed in the SCF and at the SIRCUS facility. The SIRCUS measurement was performed only at 325 nm. (b) The percent differences from the 1993 measurements.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Percent difference between the measured and the calculated band-weighted spectral irradiance responses of working standard lamps F210, F234, and F302 with the FAD detector from 1993 to 1999. The calculated responses are found with the 1998 measurements of the absolute spectral responsivity. (b) The percent difference between the measured and the calculated band-weighted spectral irradiance responses of the check standard lamps F315, F300, and F34 with the FAD detector.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Percent difference between the measured and the calculated band-weighted spectral irradiance responses of working standard lamps F210, F234, and F302 with the UV2 detector from 1993 to 1999. The calculated responses are found by use of the 1990 measurements of the absolute spectral responsivity. (b) The percent difference between the measured and the calculated band-weighted spectral irradiance responses of the check standard lamps F315, F300, and F34 with the UV2 detector.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Absolute spectral power responsivities of six filter radiometers (FRs) used to verify the spectral irradiance of a FEL lamp on the NIST photometry bench.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Percent difference between the measured and the calculated band-weighted spectral irradiance responses by use of the six filter radiometers (FRs) plotted versus their respective centroid wavelengths. The solid curve denotes the expanded uncertainties of the NIST spectral irradiance scale, and the dashed curve denotes the combined expanded uncertainties including the uncertainties in the spectral power responsivity scales.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Average and Standard Deviations of the Percentage Difference in the Signal Between the Measured and the Calculated Band-Weighted Spectral Irradiance of the Working Standard and Check Standard FEL Lamps with the FAD and UV2 Radiometersa

Tables Icon

Table 2 Measured and Calculated Band-Weighted Spectral Irradiance Responses as Defined in Eq. (1) and the Respective Ratios for the Six Filter Radiometersa

Tables Icon

Table 3 Expanded Uncertainties of the Spectral Power Responsivity from the NIST SCF Are Shown Along with the Corresponding Uncertainties in the Spectral Irradiance Scale, the Spectral Irradiance Distance Correction, and the Total Expanded Uncertainty

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

rC=G  REλEλ, ddλ,
Δr=100rMrC-1.
Ed=E50 cm50 cm+δ2d+δ2,
dEdEd=2dδ150 cm+δ-1d+δ.
λρ= λREλdλ REλdλ.
Δλ= REλdλREλρ.

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