Abstract

For open ocean and coastal waters, a multiband quasi-analytical algorithm is developed to retrieve absorption and backscattering coefficients, as well as absorption coefficients of phytoplankton pigments and gelbstoff. This algorithm is based on remote-sensing reflectance models derived from the radiative transfer equation, and values of total absorption and backscattering coefficients are analytically calculated from values of remote-sensing reflectance. In the calculation of total absorption coefficient, no spectral models for pigment and gelbstoff absorption coefficients are used. Actually those absorption coefficients are spectrally decomposed from the derived total absorption coefficient in a separate calculation. The algorithm is easy to understand and simple to implement. It can be applied to data from past and current satellite sensors, as well as to data from hyperspectral sensors. There are only limited empirical relationships involved in the algorithm, and they are for less important properties, which implies that the concept and details of the algorithm could be applied to many data for oceanic observations. The algorithm is applied to simulated data and field data, both non-case1, to test its performance, and the results are quite promising. More independent tests with field-measured data are desired to validate and improve this algorithm.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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2001

R. W. Gould, R. A. Arnone, M. Sydor, “Absorption, scattering, and remote-sensing reflectance relationships in coastal waters: testing a new inversion algorithm,” J. Coastal Res. 17, 328–341 (2001).

S. Sathyendranath, G. Cota, V. Stuart, M. Maass, T. Platt, “Remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments: a comparison of empirical and theoretical approaches,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 22, 249–273 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, S. Maritorena, “Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: a reappraisal,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7163–7180 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. F. Chen, T. G. Peacock, “Properties of the water column and bottom derived from AVIRIS data,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 11639–11652 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Loisel, D. Stramski, B. G. Mitchell, F. Fell, V. Fournier-Sicre, B. Lemasle, M. Babin, “Comparison of the ocean inherent optical properties obtained from measurements and inverse modeling,” Appl. Opt. 40, 2384–2397 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

1999

A. H. Barnard, J. R. Zaneveld, W. S. Pegau, “In situ determination of the remotely sensed reflectance and the absorption coefficient: closure and inversion,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5108–5117 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, C. D. Mobley, R. G. Steward, J. S. Patch, “Hyperspectral remote sensing for shallow waters. 2. Deriving bottom depths and water properties by optimization,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3831–3843 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Kahru, B. G. Mitchell, “Empirical chlorophyll algorithm and preliminary SeaWiFS validation for the California Current,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 3423–3429 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, Z. P. Lee, S. K. Hawes, D. Kamykowski, “Semianalytic Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer algorithms for chlorophyll-a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitrate-depletion temperatures,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 5403–5421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

1997

R. Pope, E. Fry, “Absorption spectrum (380–700 nm) of pure waters: II. Integrating cavity measurements,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8710–8723 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Garver, D. Siegel, “Inherent optical property inversion of ocean color spectra and its biogeochemical interpretation. 1. Time series from the Sargasso Sea,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 18607–18625 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

J. H. Jerome, R. P. Bukata, J. R. Miller, “Remote sensing reflectance and its relationship to optical properties of natural waters,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 17, 3135–3155 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, P. E. Lyon, “Satellite retrieval of inherent optical properties by linear matrix inversion of oceanic radiance models: an analysis of model and radiance measurement errors,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 16631–16648 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, J. L. Mueller, “Method to derive ocean absorption coefficients from remote-sensing reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 35, 453–462 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, J. Marra, R. G. Steward, M. J. Perry, “Estimating primary production at depth from remote sensing,” Appl. Opt. 35, 463–474 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters. III. Implications of bidirectionality for the remote-sensing problem,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4850–4862 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

W. S. Pegau, J. S. Cleveland, W. Doss, C. D. Kennedy, R. A. Maffione, J. L. Mueller, R. Stone, C. C. Trees, A. D. Weidemann, W. H. Wells, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A comparison of methods for the measurement of the absorption coefficient in natural waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13201–13220 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, H. Claustre, “Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: analysis and parameterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13321–13332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, “In situ phytoplankton absorption, fluorescence emission, and particulate backscattering spectra determined from reflectance,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13279–13294 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

1993

K. L. Carder, P. Reinersman, R. F. Chen, F. Mueller-Karger, C. O. Davis, M. Hamilton, “AVIRIS calibration and application in coastal oceanic environments,” Remote Sens. Environ. 44, 205–216 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters. II. Bidirectional aspects,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6864–6879 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

1991

R. P. Stumpf, J. R. Pennock, “Remote estimation of the diffuse attenuation coefficient in a moderately turbid estuary,” Remote Sens. Environ. 38, 183–191 (1991).
[CrossRef]

N. Hoepffner, S. Sathyendranath, “Effect of pigment composition on absorption properties of phytoplankton,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 73, 11–23 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, K. A. Baker, R. C. Smith, R. G. Steward, B. G. Mitchell, “Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll a in the presence of productivity degradation products,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20599–20611 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989

R. H. Stavn, A. D. Weidemann, “Shape factors, two-flow models, and the problem of irradiance inversion in estimating optical parameters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1426–1441 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, G. R. Harvey, P. B. Ortner, “Marine humic and fulvic acids: their effects on remote sensing of ocean chlorophyll,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 68–81 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. Sathyendranath, L. Prieur, A. Morel, “A three-component model of ocean color and its application to remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments in coastal waters,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 10, 1373–1394 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semi-analytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, “Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogenous matter content (Case I waters),” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10749–10768 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986

1985

K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, “A remote-sensing reflectance model of a red tide dinoflagellate off West Florida,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 30, 286–298 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1983

1982

1981

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “Optical properties of the clearest natural waters,” Appl. Opt. 20, 177–184 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Absorption by dissolved organic matter of the sea (yellow substance) in the UV and visible domains,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 43–53 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1977

A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Analysis of variations in ocean color,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709–722 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1975

Arnone, R.

Arnone, R. A.

R. W. Gould, R. A. Arnone, M. Sydor, “Absorption, scattering, and remote-sensing reflectance relationships in coastal waters: testing a new inversion algorithm,” J. Coastal Res. 17, 328–341 (2001).

Austin, R. W.

R. W. Austin, T. J. Petzold, “The determination of the diffuse attenuation coefficient of sea water using the coastal zone color scanner,” in Oceanography from Space, J. F. R. Gower, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1981), pp. 239–256.
[CrossRef]

Babin, M.

H. Loisel, D. Stramski, B. G. Mitchell, F. Fell, V. Fournier-Sicre, B. Lemasle, M. Babin, “Comparison of the ocean inherent optical properties obtained from measurements and inverse modeling,” Appl. Opt. 40, 2384–2397 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, H. Claustre, “Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: analysis and parameterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13321–13332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Baker, K. A.

K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, K. A. Baker, R. C. Smith, R. G. Steward, B. G. Mitchell, “Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll a in the presence of productivity degradation products,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20599–20611 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Baker, K. S.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semi-analytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “Optical properties of the clearest natural waters,” Appl. Opt. 20, 177–184 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnard, A. H.

Bricaud, A.

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, H. Claustre, “Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: analysis and parameterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13321–13332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Absorption by dissolved organic matter of the sea (yellow substance) in the UV and visible domains,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 43–53 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Broenkow, W. W.

Brown, J. W.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semi-analytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. W. Brown, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, W. W. Broenkow, “Phytoplankton pigment concentrations in the Middle Atlantic Bight: comparison of ship determinations and CZCS estimates,” Appl. Opt. 22, 20–36 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, O. B.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semi-analytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. W. Brown, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, W. W. Broenkow, “Phytoplankton pigment concentrations in the Middle Atlantic Bight: comparison of ship determinations and CZCS estimates,” Appl. Opt. 22, 20–36 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bukata, R. P.

J. H. Jerome, R. P. Bukata, J. R. Miller, “Remote sensing reflectance and its relationship to optical properties of natural waters,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 17, 3135–3155 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Bukata, J. H. Jerome, K. Y. Kondratyev, D. V. Pozdnyakov, Optical Properties and Remote Sensing of Inland and Coastal Waters (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1995).

Carder, K. L.

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. F. Chen, T. G. Peacock, “Properties of the water column and bottom derived from AVIRIS data,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 11639–11652 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. X. He, Z. S. Liu, K. P. Du, L. P. Li, R. Chen, K. L. Carder, Z. P. Lee, “Retrieval of chlorophyll from remote-sensing reflectance in the China Seas,” Appl. Opt. 39, 2467–2474 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, Z. P. Lee, S. K. Hawes, D. Kamykowski, “Semianalytic Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer algorithms for chlorophyll-a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitrate-depletion temperatures,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 5403–5421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, C. D. Mobley, R. G. Steward, J. S. Patch, “Hyperspectral remote sensing for shallow waters. 2. Deriving bottom depths and water properties by optimization,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3831–3843 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, C. D. Mobley, R. G. Steward, J. S. Patch, “Hyperspectral remote sensing for shallow waters. 1. A semianalytical model,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6329–6338 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, J. S. Patch, “An empirical algorithm for light absorption by ocean water based on color,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 27967–27978 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, J. L. Mueller, “Method to derive ocean absorption coefficients from remote-sensing reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 35, 453–462 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, J. Marra, R. G. Steward, M. J. Perry, “Estimating primary production at depth from remote sensing,” Appl. Opt. 35, 463–474 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, “Model for interpretation of hyperspectral remote sensing reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5721–5732 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. L. Carder, P. Reinersman, R. F. Chen, F. Mueller-Karger, C. O. Davis, M. Hamilton, “AVIRIS calibration and application in coastal oceanic environments,” Remote Sens. Environ. 44, 205–216 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, K. A. Baker, R. C. Smith, R. G. Steward, B. G. Mitchell, “Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll a in the presence of productivity degradation products,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20599–20611 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, G. R. Harvey, P. B. Ortner, “Marine humic and fulvic acids: their effects on remote sensing of ocean chlorophyll,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 68–81 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, “A remote-sensing reflectance model of a red tide dinoflagellate off West Florida,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 30, 286–298 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, J. L. Mueller, “Remote-sensing reflectance and inherent optical properties of oceanic waters derived from above-water measurements,” in Ocean Optics XIII, S. G. Ackleson, ed., Proc. SPIE2963, 160–166 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, “Particle phase function and remote-sensing reflectance model: a revisit,” presented at the Ocean Color Research Team Meeting, San Diego, Calif., 21–24 May 2001.

Chen, F. R.

K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, Z. P. Lee, S. K. Hawes, D. Kamykowski, “Semianalytic Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer algorithms for chlorophyll-a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitrate-depletion temperatures,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 5403–5421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, R.

Chen, R. F.

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. F. Chen, T. G. Peacock, “Properties of the water column and bottom derived from AVIRIS data,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 11639–11652 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, P. Reinersman, R. F. Chen, F. Mueller-Karger, C. O. Davis, M. Hamilton, “AVIRIS calibration and application in coastal oceanic environments,” Remote Sens. Environ. 44, 205–216 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Clark, D. K.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semi-analytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. W. Brown, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, W. W. Broenkow, “Phytoplankton pigment concentrations in the Middle Atlantic Bight: comparison of ship determinations and CZCS estimates,” Appl. Opt. 22, 20–36 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Claustre, H.

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, H. Claustre, “Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: analysis and parameterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13321–13332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cleveland, J. S.

W. S. Pegau, J. S. Cleveland, W. Doss, C. D. Kennedy, R. A. Maffione, J. L. Mueller, R. Stone, C. C. Trees, A. D. Weidemann, W. H. Wells, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A comparison of methods for the measurement of the absorption coefficient in natural waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13201–13220 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cota, G.

S. Sathyendranath, G. Cota, V. Stuart, M. Maass, T. Platt, “Remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments: a comparison of empirical and theoretical approaches,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 22, 249–273 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Davis, C. O.

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, J. S. Patch, “An empirical algorithm for light absorption by ocean water based on color,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 27967–27978 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, J. L. Mueller, “Method to derive ocean absorption coefficients from remote-sensing reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 35, 453–462 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, “Model for interpretation of hyperspectral remote sensing reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5721–5732 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. L. Carder, P. Reinersman, R. F. Chen, F. Mueller-Karger, C. O. Davis, M. Hamilton, “AVIRIS calibration and application in coastal oceanic environments,” Remote Sens. Environ. 44, 205–216 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, J. L. Mueller, “Remote-sensing reflectance and inherent optical properties of oceanic waters derived from above-water measurements,” in Ocean Optics XIII, S. G. Ackleson, ed., Proc. SPIE2963, 160–166 (1996).
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R. Doerffer, J. Fisher, “Concentrations of chlorophyll, suspended matter, and gelbstoff in case II waters derived from satellite coastal zone color scanner data with inverse modeling methods,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 7475–7466 (1994).
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Doss, W.

W. S. Pegau, J. S. Cleveland, W. Doss, C. D. Kennedy, R. A. Maffione, J. L. Mueller, R. Stone, C. C. Trees, A. D. Weidemann, W. H. Wells, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A comparison of methods for the measurement of the absorption coefficient in natural waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13201–13220 (1995).
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Du, K. P.

Evans, R. H.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semi-analytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. W. Brown, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, W. W. Broenkow, “Phytoplankton pigment concentrations in the Middle Atlantic Bight: comparison of ship determinations and CZCS estimates,” Appl. Opt. 22, 20–36 (1983).
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Fargion, G. S.

J. L. MuellerSan Diego State University Center for Hydro-Optics and Remote Sensing, and SIMBIOS Science Team, Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Rev. 3, NASA Tech. Memo 210004J. L. Mueller, G. S. Fargion, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2002), Vols. 1 and 2.

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Fisher, J.

R. Doerffer, J. Fisher, “Concentrations of chlorophyll, suspended matter, and gelbstoff in case II waters derived from satellite coastal zone color scanner data with inverse modeling methods,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 7475–7466 (1994).
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Fry, E.

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J. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
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H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. W. Brown, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, W. W. Broenkow, “Phytoplankton pigment concentrations in the Middle Atlantic Bight: comparison of ship determinations and CZCS estimates,” Appl. Opt. 22, 20–36 (1983).
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H. R. Gordon, W. R. McCluney, “Estimation of the depth of sunlight penetration in the sea for remote sensing,” Appl. Opt. 14, 413–416 (1975).
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M. Sydor, R. Arnone, R. W. Gould, G. E. Terrie, S. D. Ladner, C. G. Wood, “Remote-sensing technique for determination of the volume absorption coefficient of turbid water,” Appl. Opt. 37, 4944–4950 (1998).
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Hamilton, M.

K. L. Carder, P. Reinersman, R. F. Chen, F. Mueller-Karger, C. O. Davis, M. Hamilton, “AVIRIS calibration and application in coastal oceanic environments,” Remote Sens. Environ. 44, 205–216 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Harvey, G. R.

K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, G. R. Harvey, P. B. Ortner, “Marine humic and fulvic acids: their effects on remote sensing of ocean chlorophyll,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 68–81 (1989).
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Hawes, S. K.

K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, Z. P. Lee, S. K. Hawes, D. Kamykowski, “Semianalytic Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer algorithms for chlorophyll-a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitrate-depletion temperatures,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 5403–5421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, “Model for interpretation of hyperspectral remote sensing reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5721–5732 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, K. A. Baker, R. C. Smith, R. G. Steward, B. G. Mitchell, “Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll a in the presence of productivity degradation products,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20599–20611 (1991).
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S. K. Hawes, “Quantum fluorescence efficiencies of marine fulvic and humic acids,” M.S. thesis (Department of Marine Science, University of South Florida, St. Petersburg, Fla., 1992).

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R. P. Bukata, J. H. Jerome, K. Y. Kondratyev, D. V. Pozdnyakov, Optical Properties and Remote Sensing of Inland and Coastal Waters (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1995).

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Kahru, M.

M. Kahru, B. G. Mitchell, “Empirical chlorophyll algorithm and preliminary SeaWiFS validation for the California Current,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 3423–3429 (1999).
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J. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
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Kamykowski, D.

K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, Z. P. Lee, S. K. Hawes, D. Kamykowski, “Semianalytic Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer algorithms for chlorophyll-a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitrate-depletion temperatures,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 5403–5421 (1999).
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Kennedy, C. D.

W. S. Pegau, J. S. Cleveland, W. Doss, C. D. Kennedy, R. A. Maffione, J. L. Mueller, R. Stone, C. C. Trees, A. D. Weidemann, W. H. Wells, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A comparison of methods for the measurement of the absorption coefficient in natural waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13201–13220 (1995).
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Kiefer, D. A.

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Kondratyev, K. Y.

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Ladner, S. D.

Lee, Z. P.

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. F. Chen, T. G. Peacock, “Properties of the water column and bottom derived from AVIRIS data,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 11639–11652 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. X. He, Z. S. Liu, K. P. Du, L. P. Li, R. Chen, K. L. Carder, Z. P. Lee, “Retrieval of chlorophyll from remote-sensing reflectance in the China Seas,” Appl. Opt. 39, 2467–2474 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, Z. P. Lee, S. K. Hawes, D. Kamykowski, “Semianalytic Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer algorithms for chlorophyll-a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitrate-depletion temperatures,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 5403–5421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, C. D. Mobley, R. G. Steward, J. S. Patch, “Hyperspectral remote sensing for shallow waters. 2. Deriving bottom depths and water properties by optimization,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3831–3843 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, C. D. Mobley, R. G. Steward, J. S. Patch, “Hyperspectral remote sensing for shallow waters. 1. A semianalytical model,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6329–6338 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, J. S. Patch, “An empirical algorithm for light absorption by ocean water based on color,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 27967–27978 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, J. L. Mueller, “Method to derive ocean absorption coefficients from remote-sensing reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 35, 453–462 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, J. Marra, R. G. Steward, M. J. Perry, “Estimating primary production at depth from remote sensing,” Appl. Opt. 35, 463–474 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, “Model for interpretation of hyperspectral remote sensing reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5721–5732 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, J. L. Mueller, “Remote-sensing reflectance and inherent optical properties of oceanic waters derived from above-water measurements,” in Ocean Optics XIII, S. G. Ackleson, ed., Proc. SPIE2963, 160–166 (1996).
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Z. P. Lee, “Visible-infrared remote-sensing model and applications for ocean waters,” Ph.D. dissertation (Department of Marine Science, University of South Florida, St. Petersburg, Fla., 1994).

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, “Particle phase function and remote-sensing reflectance model: a revisit,” presented at the Ocean Color Research Team Meeting, San Diego, Calif., 21–24 May 2001.

Lemasle, B.

Lewis, M.

Li, L. P.

Liu, Z. S.

Loisel, H.

Lyon, P. E.

F. E. Hoge, P. E. Lyon, “Satellite retrieval of inherent optical properties by linear matrix inversion of oceanic radiance models: an analysis of model and radiance measurement errors,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 16631–16648 (1996).
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Maffione, R. A.

W. S. Pegau, J. S. Cleveland, W. Doss, C. D. Kennedy, R. A. Maffione, J. L. Mueller, R. Stone, C. C. Trees, A. D. Weidemann, W. H. Wells, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A comparison of methods for the measurement of the absorption coefficient in natural waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13201–13220 (1995).
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Maritorena, S.

A. Morel, S. Maritorena, “Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: a reappraisal,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7163–7180 (2001).
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J. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
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Marra, J.

McClain, C.

J. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
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McCluney, W. R.

Miller, J. R.

J. H. Jerome, R. P. Bukata, J. R. Miller, “Remote sensing reflectance and its relationship to optical properties of natural waters,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 17, 3135–3155 (1996).
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M. Kahru, B. G. Mitchell, “Empirical chlorophyll algorithm and preliminary SeaWiFS validation for the California Current,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 3423–3429 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, K. A. Baker, R. C. Smith, R. G. Steward, B. G. Mitchell, “Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll a in the presence of productivity degradation products,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20599–20611 (1991).
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Morel, A.

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Mueller, J. L.

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, J. L. Mueller, “Method to derive ocean absorption coefficients from remote-sensing reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 35, 453–462 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. S. Pegau, J. S. Cleveland, W. Doss, C. D. Kennedy, R. A. Maffione, J. L. Mueller, R. Stone, C. C. Trees, A. D. Weidemann, W. H. Wells, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A comparison of methods for the measurement of the absorption coefficient in natural waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13201–13220 (1995).
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J. L. MuellerSan Diego State University Center for Hydro-Optics and Remote Sensing, and SIMBIOS Science Team, Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Rev. 3, NASA Tech. Memo 210004J. L. Mueller, G. S. Fargion, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2002), Vols. 1 and 2.

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, J. L. Mueller, “Remote-sensing reflectance and inherent optical properties of oceanic waters derived from above-water measurements,” in Ocean Optics XIII, S. G. Ackleson, ed., Proc. SPIE2963, 160–166 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Mueller, C. C. Trees, “Revised SeaWIFS prelaunch algorithm for diffuse attenuation coefficient K(490),” in Case Studies for SeaWiFS Calibration and Validation, NASA Tech Memo. 104566, Vol. 41, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1997), pp. 18–21.

Mueller-Karger, F.

K. L. Carder, P. Reinersman, R. F. Chen, F. Mueller-Karger, C. O. Davis, M. Hamilton, “AVIRIS calibration and application in coastal oceanic environments,” Remote Sens. Environ. 44, 205–216 (1993).
[CrossRef]

O’Reilly, J.

J. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ortner, P. B.

K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, G. R. Harvey, P. B. Ortner, “Marine humic and fulvic acids: their effects on remote sensing of ocean chlorophyll,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 68–81 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Patch, J. S.

Peacock, T. G.

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. F. Chen, T. G. Peacock, “Properties of the water column and bottom derived from AVIRIS data,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 11639–11652 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, J. S. Patch, “An empirical algorithm for light absorption by ocean water based on color,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 27967–27978 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, J. L. Mueller, “Method to derive ocean absorption coefficients from remote-sensing reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 35, 453–462 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, “Model for interpretation of hyperspectral remote sensing reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5721–5732 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, J. L. Mueller, “Remote-sensing reflectance and inherent optical properties of oceanic waters derived from above-water measurements,” in Ocean Optics XIII, S. G. Ackleson, ed., Proc. SPIE2963, 160–166 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pegau, W. S.

A. H. Barnard, J. R. Zaneveld, W. S. Pegau, “In situ determination of the remotely sensed reflectance and the absorption coefficient: closure and inversion,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5108–5117 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Pegau, J. S. Cleveland, W. Doss, C. D. Kennedy, R. A. Maffione, J. L. Mueller, R. Stone, C. C. Trees, A. D. Weidemann, W. H. Wells, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A comparison of methods for the measurement of the absorption coefficient in natural waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13201–13220 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pennock, J. R.

R. P. Stumpf, J. R. Pennock, “Remote estimation of the diffuse attenuation coefficient in a moderately turbid estuary,” Remote Sens. Environ. 38, 183–191 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Perry, M. J.

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, J. Marra, R. G. Steward, M. J. Perry, “Estimating primary production at depth from remote sensing,” Appl. Opt. 35, 463–474 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, “In situ phytoplankton absorption, fluorescence emission, and particulate backscattering spectra determined from reflectance,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13279–13294 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Petzold, T. J.

R. W. Austin, T. J. Petzold, “The determination of the diffuse attenuation coefficient of sea water using the coastal zone color scanner,” in Oceanography from Space, J. F. R. Gower, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1981), pp. 239–256.
[CrossRef]

Platt, T.

Pope, R.

Pozdnyakov, D. V.

R. P. Bukata, J. H. Jerome, K. Y. Kondratyev, D. V. Pozdnyakov, Optical Properties and Remote Sensing of Inland and Coastal Waters (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1995).

Preisendorfer, R. W.

R. W. Preisendorfer, Introduction, Vol. 1 of Hydrologic Optics, NTIS PB-259 793/8ST (National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Ill., 1976).

Prieur, L.

S. Sathyendranath, L. Prieur, A. Morel, “A three-component model of ocean color and its application to remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments in coastal waters,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 10, 1373–1394 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Absorption by dissolved organic matter of the sea (yellow substance) in the UV and visible domains,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 43–53 (1981).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Analysis of variations in ocean color,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709–722 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Reinersman, P.

K. L. Carder, P. Reinersman, R. F. Chen, F. Mueller-Karger, C. O. Davis, M. Hamilton, “AVIRIS calibration and application in coastal oceanic environments,” Remote Sens. Environ. 44, 205–216 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Roesler, C. S.

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, “In situ phytoplankton absorption, fluorescence emission, and particulate backscattering spectra determined from reflectance,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13279–13294 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sathyendranath, S.

S. Sathyendranath, G. Cota, V. Stuart, M. Maass, T. Platt, “Remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments: a comparison of empirical and theoretical approaches,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 22, 249–273 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Sathyendranath, T. Platt, “Ocean-color model incorporating transpectral processes,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2216–2227 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Sathyendranath, F. E. Hoge, T. Platt, R. N. Swift, “Detection of phytoplankton pigments from ocean color: improved algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1081–1089 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Hoepffner, S. Sathyendranath, “Effect of pigment composition on absorption properties of phytoplankton,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 73, 11–23 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. Sathyendranath, L. Prieur, A. Morel, “A three-component model of ocean color and its application to remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments in coastal waters,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 10, 1373–1394 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Schiller, H.

R. Doerffer, H. Schiller, “Determination of Case 2 water constituents using radiative transfer simulation and its inversion by neural networks,” in Proceedings of Ocean Optics XIV, S. G. Ackleson, J. Campbell, eds. (U.S. Office of Naval Research, Washington, D.C., 1998).

Siegel, D.

J. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Garver, D. Siegel, “Inherent optical property inversion of ocean color spectra and its biogeochemical interpretation. 1. Time series from the Sargasso Sea,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 18607–18625 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. C.

K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, K. A. Baker, R. C. Smith, R. G. Steward, B. G. Mitchell, “Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll a in the presence of productivity degradation products,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20599–20611 (1991).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semi-analytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “Optical properties of the clearest natural waters,” Appl. Opt. 20, 177–184 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, R. C. Smith, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Introduction to ocean optics,” in Ocean Optics VI, S. Q. Duntley, ed., Proc. SPIE208, 1–43 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Stavn, R. H.

R. H. Stavn, A. D. Weidemann, “Shape factors, two-flow models, and the problem of irradiance inversion in estimating optical parameters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1426–1441 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Steward, R. G.

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, C. D. Mobley, R. G. Steward, J. S. Patch, “Hyperspectral remote sensing for shallow waters. 2. Deriving bottom depths and water properties by optimization,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3831–3843 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, C. D. Mobley, R. G. Steward, J. S. Patch, “Hyperspectral remote sensing for shallow waters. 1. A semianalytical model,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6329–6338 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, J. S. Patch, “An empirical algorithm for light absorption by ocean water based on color,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 27967–27978 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, J. Marra, R. G. Steward, M. J. Perry, “Estimating primary production at depth from remote sensing,” Appl. Opt. 35, 463–474 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, “Model for interpretation of hyperspectral remote sensing reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5721–5732 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, K. A. Baker, R. C. Smith, R. G. Steward, B. G. Mitchell, “Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll a in the presence of productivity degradation products,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20599–20611 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, G. R. Harvey, P. B. Ortner, “Marine humic and fulvic acids: their effects on remote sensing of ocean chlorophyll,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 68–81 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, “A remote-sensing reflectance model of a red tide dinoflagellate off West Florida,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 30, 286–298 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, J. L. Mueller, “Remote-sensing reflectance and inherent optical properties of oceanic waters derived from above-water measurements,” in Ocean Optics XIII, S. G. Ackleson, ed., Proc. SPIE2963, 160–166 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Stone, R.

W. S. Pegau, J. S. Cleveland, W. Doss, C. D. Kennedy, R. A. Maffione, J. L. Mueller, R. Stone, C. C. Trees, A. D. Weidemann, W. H. Wells, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A comparison of methods for the measurement of the absorption coefficient in natural waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13201–13220 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Stramski, D.

Stuart, V.

S. Sathyendranath, G. Cota, V. Stuart, M. Maass, T. Platt, “Remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments: a comparison of empirical and theoretical approaches,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 22, 249–273 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Stumpf, R. P.

R. P. Stumpf, J. R. Pennock, “Remote estimation of the diffuse attenuation coefficient in a moderately turbid estuary,” Remote Sens. Environ. 38, 183–191 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Swift, R. N.

Sydor, M.

R. W. Gould, R. A. Arnone, M. Sydor, “Absorption, scattering, and remote-sensing reflectance relationships in coastal waters: testing a new inversion algorithm,” J. Coastal Res. 17, 328–341 (2001).

M. Sydor, R. Arnone, R. W. Gould, G. E. Terrie, S. D. Ladner, C. G. Wood, “Remote-sensing technique for determination of the volume absorption coefficient of turbid water,” Appl. Opt. 37, 4944–4950 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Terrie, G. E.

Trees, C. C.

W. S. Pegau, J. S. Cleveland, W. Doss, C. D. Kennedy, R. A. Maffione, J. L. Mueller, R. Stone, C. C. Trees, A. D. Weidemann, W. H. Wells, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A comparison of methods for the measurement of the absorption coefficient in natural waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13201–13220 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Mueller, C. C. Trees, “Revised SeaWIFS prelaunch algorithm for diffuse attenuation coefficient K(490),” in Case Studies for SeaWiFS Calibration and Validation, NASA Tech Memo. 104566, Vol. 41, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1997), pp. 18–21.

Weidemann, A. D.

W. S. Pegau, J. S. Cleveland, W. Doss, C. D. Kennedy, R. A. Maffione, J. L. Mueller, R. Stone, C. C. Trees, A. D. Weidemann, W. H. Wells, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A comparison of methods for the measurement of the absorption coefficient in natural waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13201–13220 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Stavn, A. D. Weidemann, “Shape factors, two-flow models, and the problem of irradiance inversion in estimating optical parameters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1426–1441 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Wells, W. H.

W. S. Pegau, J. S. Cleveland, W. Doss, C. D. Kennedy, R. A. Maffione, J. L. Mueller, R. Stone, C. C. Trees, A. D. Weidemann, W. H. Wells, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A comparison of methods for the measurement of the absorption coefficient in natural waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13201–13220 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wood, C. G.

Zaneveld, J. R.

Zaneveld, J. R. V.

W. S. Pegau, J. S. Cleveland, W. Doss, C. D. Kennedy, R. A. Maffione, J. L. Mueller, R. Stone, C. C. Trees, A. D. Weidemann, W. H. Wells, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A comparison of methods for the measurement of the absorption coefficient in natural waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13201–13220 (1995).
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J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Remotely sensed reflectance and its dependence on vertical structure: a theoretical derivation,” Appl. Opt. 21, 4146–4150 (1982).
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H. R. Gordon, R. C. Smith, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Introduction to ocean optics,” in Ocean Optics VI, S. Q. Duntley, ed., Proc. SPIE208, 1–43 (1980).
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Zhang, X. D.

Appl. Opt.

H. R. Gordon, W. R. McCluney, “Estimation of the depth of sunlight penetration in the sea for remote sensing,” Appl. Opt. 14, 413–416 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “Optical properties of the clearest natural waters,” Appl. Opt. 20, 177–184 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Remotely sensed reflectance and its dependence on vertical structure: a theoretical derivation,” Appl. Opt. 21, 4146–4150 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. W. Brown, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, W. W. Broenkow, “Phytoplankton pigment concentrations in the Middle Atlantic Bight: comparison of ship determinations and CZCS estimates,” Appl. Opt. 22, 20–36 (1983).
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F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Chlorophyll pigment concentration using spectral curvature algorithms: an evaluation of present and proposed satellite ocean color sensor bands,” Appl. Opt. 25, 3677–3682 (1986).
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S. Sathyendranath, F. E. Hoge, T. Platt, R. N. Swift, “Detection of phytoplankton pigments from ocean color: improved algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1081–1089 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, “Model for interpretation of hyperspectral remote sensing reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5721–5732 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Sathyendranath, T. Platt, “Ocean-color model incorporating transpectral processes,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2216–2227 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, C. D. Mobley, R. G. Steward, J. S. Patch, “Hyperspectral remote sensing for shallow waters. 1. A semianalytical model,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6329–6338 (1998).
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X. D. Zhang, M. Lewis, B. Johnson, “Influence of bubbles on scattering of light in the ocean,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6525–6536 (1998).
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A. H. Barnard, J. R. Zaneveld, W. S. Pegau, “In situ determination of the remotely sensed reflectance and the absorption coefficient: closure and inversion,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5108–5117 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, J. L. Mueller, “Method to derive ocean absorption coefficients from remote-sensing reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 35, 453–462 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, J. Marra, R. G. Steward, M. J. Perry, “Estimating primary production at depth from remote sensing,” Appl. Opt. 35, 463–474 (1996).
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A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters. III. Implications of bidirectionality for the remote-sensing problem,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4850–4862 (1996).
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A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters. II. Bidirectional aspects,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6864–6879 (1993).
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M. Sydor, R. Arnone, R. W. Gould, G. E. Terrie, S. D. Ladner, C. G. Wood, “Remote-sensing technique for determination of the volume absorption coefficient of turbid water,” Appl. Opt. 37, 4944–4950 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, C. D. Mobley, R. G. Steward, J. S. Patch, “Hyperspectral remote sensing for shallow waters. 2. Deriving bottom depths and water properties by optimization,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3831–3843 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. X. He, Z. S. Liu, K. P. Du, L. P. Li, R. Chen, K. L. Carder, Z. P. Lee, “Retrieval of chlorophyll from remote-sensing reflectance in the China Seas,” Appl. Opt. 39, 2467–2474 (2000).
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R. Pope, E. Fry, “Absorption spectrum (380–700 nm) of pure waters: II. Integrating cavity measurements,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8710–8723 (1997).
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H. Loisel, D. Stramski, B. G. Mitchell, F. Fell, V. Fournier-Sicre, B. Lemasle, M. Babin, “Comparison of the ocean inherent optical properties obtained from measurements and inverse modeling,” Appl. Opt. 40, 2384–2397 (2001).
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Int. J. Remote Sens.

S. Sathyendranath, L. Prieur, A. Morel, “A three-component model of ocean color and its application to remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments in coastal waters,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 10, 1373–1394 (1989).
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M. Kahru, B. G. Mitchell, “Empirical chlorophyll algorithm and preliminary SeaWiFS validation for the California Current,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 3423–3429 (1999).
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S. Sathyendranath, G. Cota, V. Stuart, M. Maass, T. Platt, “Remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments: a comparison of empirical and theoretical approaches,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 22, 249–273 (2001).
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J. H. Jerome, R. P. Bukata, J. R. Miller, “Remote sensing reflectance and its relationship to optical properties of natural waters,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 17, 3135–3155 (1996).
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J. Coastal Res.

R. W. Gould, R. A. Arnone, M. Sydor, “Absorption, scattering, and remote-sensing reflectance relationships in coastal waters: testing a new inversion algorithm,” J. Coastal Res. 17, 328–341 (2001).

J. Geophys. Res.

J. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
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R. Doerffer, J. Fisher, “Concentrations of chlorophyll, suspended matter, and gelbstoff in case II waters derived from satellite coastal zone color scanner data with inverse modeling methods,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 7475–7466 (1994).
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F. E. Hoge, P. E. Lyon, “Satellite retrieval of inherent optical properties by linear matrix inversion of oceanic radiance models: an analysis of model and radiance measurement errors,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 16631–16648 (1996).
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K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, Z. P. Lee, S. K. Hawes, D. Kamykowski, “Semianalytic Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer algorithms for chlorophyll-a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitrate-depletion temperatures,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 5403–5421 (1999).
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C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, “In situ phytoplankton absorption, fluorescence emission, and particulate backscattering spectra determined from reflectance,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13279–13294 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Garver, D. Siegel, “Inherent optical property inversion of ocean color spectra and its biogeochemical interpretation. 1. Time series from the Sargasso Sea,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 18607–18625 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, J. S. Patch, “An empirical algorithm for light absorption by ocean water based on color,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 27967–27978 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, “Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogenous matter content (Case I waters),” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10749–10768 (1988).
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A. Morel, S. Maritorena, “Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: a reappraisal,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7163–7180 (2001).
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A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, H. Claustre, “Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: analysis and parameterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13321–13332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semi-analytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, K. A. Baker, R. C. Smith, R. G. Steward, B. G. Mitchell, “Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll a in the presence of productivity degradation products,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20599–20611 (1991).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Pegau, J. S. Cleveland, W. Doss, C. D. Kennedy, R. A. Maffione, J. L. Mueller, R. Stone, C. C. Trees, A. D. Weidemann, W. H. Wells, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A comparison of methods for the measurement of the absorption coefficient in natural waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13201–13220 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. F. Chen, T. G. Peacock, “Properties of the water column and bottom derived from AVIRIS data,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 11639–11652 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceanogr.

R. H. Stavn, A. D. Weidemann, “Shape factors, two-flow models, and the problem of irradiance inversion in estimating optical parameters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1426–1441 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, G. R. Harvey, P. B. Ortner, “Marine humic and fulvic acids: their effects on remote sensing of ocean chlorophyll,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 68–81 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Absorption by dissolved organic matter of the sea (yellow substance) in the UV and visible domains,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 43–53 (1981).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, “A remote-sensing reflectance model of a red tide dinoflagellate off West Florida,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 30, 286–298 (1985).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Analysis of variations in ocean color,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709–722 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser.

N. Hoepffner, S. Sathyendranath, “Effect of pigment composition on absorption properties of phytoplankton,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 73, 11–23 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Remote Sens. Environ.

K. L. Carder, P. Reinersman, R. F. Chen, F. Mueller-Karger, C. O. Davis, M. Hamilton, “AVIRIS calibration and application in coastal oceanic environments,” Remote Sens. Environ. 44, 205–216 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Stumpf, J. R. Pennock, “Remote estimation of the diffuse attenuation coefficient in a moderately turbid estuary,” Remote Sens. Environ. 38, 183–191 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other

IOCCG, Status and Plans for Satellite Ocean-Color Missions: Considerations for Complementary Missions, J. Yoder, ed., Reports of the International Ocean-Colour Coordinating Group, No. 2 (IOCCG, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, Canada, 1998).

R. W. Preisendorfer, Introduction, Vol. 1 of Hydrologic Optics, NTIS PB-259 793/8ST (National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Ill., 1976).

H. R. Gordon, A. Morel, Remote Assessment of Ocean Color for Interpretation of Satellite Visible Imagery: A Review, R. T. Barber, C. N. K. Mooers, M. J. Bowman, B. Zeitzschel, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1983).
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N. G. Jerlov, Marine Optics, Vol. 14 of Elsevier Oceanography Series (Elsevier, New York, 1976).

R. W. Austin, T. J. Petzold, “The determination of the diffuse attenuation coefficient of sea water using the coastal zone color scanner,” in Oceanography from Space, J. F. R. Gower, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1981), pp. 239–256.
[CrossRef]

J. L. Mueller, C. C. Trees, “Revised SeaWIFS prelaunch algorithm for diffuse attenuation coefficient K(490),” in Case Studies for SeaWiFS Calibration and Validation, NASA Tech Memo. 104566, Vol. 41, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1997), pp. 18–21.

R. Doerffer, H. Schiller, “Determination of Case 2 water constituents using radiative transfer simulation and its inversion by neural networks,” in Proceedings of Ocean Optics XIV, S. G. Ackleson, J. Campbell, eds. (U.S. Office of Naval Research, Washington, D.C., 1998).

IOCCG, Remote Sensing of Ocean Colour in Coastal, and Other Optically Complex, Waters, S. Sathyendranath, ed., Reports of the International Ocean-Colour Coordinating Group, No. 3 (IOCCG, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia Canada, 2000).

R. P. Bukata, J. H. Jerome, K. Y. Kondratyev, D. V. Pozdnyakov, Optical Properties and Remote Sensing of Inland and Coastal Waters (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1995).

C. D. Mobley, Light and Water: Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters (Academic, New York, 1994).

C. D. Mobley, Hydrolight 3.0 Users’ Guide, Final Report (SRI International, Menlo Park, Calif., 1995).

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, J. L. Mueller, “Remote-sensing reflectance and inherent optical properties of oceanic waters derived from above-water measurements,” in Ocean Optics XIII, S. G. Ackleson, ed., Proc. SPIE2963, 160–166 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, “Visible-infrared remote-sensing model and applications for ocean waters,” Ph.D. dissertation (Department of Marine Science, University of South Florida, St. Petersburg, Fla., 1994).

J. L. MuellerSan Diego State University Center for Hydro-Optics and Remote Sensing, and SIMBIOS Science Team, Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Rev. 3, NASA Tech. Memo 210004J. L. Mueller, G. S. Fargion, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2002), Vols. 1 and 2.

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, “Particle phase function and remote-sensing reflectance model: a revisit,” presented at the Ocean Color Research Team Meeting, San Diego, Calif., 21–24 May 2001.

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[CrossRef]

For more details on the AC9, see http://www.wetlabs.com/publac9 .

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Concept and schematic flow chart of the level-by-level ocean-color remote sensing and the QAA.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Examples of a(λ) variations at different wavelengths.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Characteristics of the simulated data. (a) Possible r rs(λ) curves for [C] = 1.0 mg/m3. (b) Values of a(440) and b bp (555) versus pigment concentrations. (c) Values of a g (440)/a ϕ(440) versus values of a ϕ(440). (d) Pigment concentration and a(440) versus the spectral ratio of remote-sensing reflectance at 490 and 555 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Empirically estimated a(555) values versus true a(555) values (x axis). (b) Empirically estimated Y values versus true Y values (x axis).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison of the QAA-555 derived values of (a) a(λ), (b) b bp (555), (c) a ϕ(λ), and (d) a g (440) versus their true values (x axes) of the simulated data.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison of algorithm-retrieved a(440) values versus true a(440) values of the simulated data. The two-band empirical algorithm is from Lee et al.11

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Comparison of the QAA-640 derived values of (a) a(λ), (b) b bp (555), (c) a ϕ(λ), and (d) a g (440) versus their true values (x axes) of the simulated data.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Comparison of the QAA-555 derived values of (a) a(λ), (b) b bp (555), (c) a ϕ(λ), and (d) a g (440) versus their true values (x axes) of the simulated data, after improved a(555) estimation.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Comparison of the QAA-555 derived values of (a) a(λ), (b) b bp (555), (c) a ϕ(λ), and (d) a g (440) versus their true values of the simulated data after ±10% random noise was added to the r rs values at each band.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Comparison of the QAA-555 derived values of (a) a(λ), (b) b bp (555), (c) a ϕ(λ), and (d) a g (440) versus their true values of the simulated data after a 20% increase to the r rs values at each band.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(a) Comparison of the QAA-derived a(λ) versus AC9-measured a(λ) for field data. (b) For the same field data, comparison of the QAA-derived a(490) versus AC9-measured a(490), along with SeaWiFS algorithm-derived a(490).

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

(a) Comparison of the QAA-derived a(440) versus optimization-derived a(440) for earlier collected field data (see text for details). (b) Comparison of the QAA-derived a(λ) versus optimization-derived a(λ) (x axes). QAA-a(λ) is a combination of the results from QAA-555 and QAA-640.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Symbols and Definitions

Tables Icon

Table 2 Steps of the QAA to Derive Absorption and Backscattering Coefficients from Remote-Sensing Reflectance with 555 nm as the Reference Wavelength

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Table 3 Steps to Decompose the Total Absorption to Phytoplankton and Gelbstoff Components, with Bands at 410 and 440 nm

Tables Icon

Table 4 Percentage Error ε between Derived and True Values of the Simulated Data

Equations (20)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

rrsλ=g0uλ+g1uλ2,
u=bba+bb.
uλ=-g0+g02+4g1rrsλ1/22g1.
bb=ua1-u,
a=1-ubbu.
aλ=awλ+Δaλ,
bbpλ=bbpλ0λ0λY.
rrs=RrsT+γQRrs,
a410=aw410+ζaϕ440+ξag440,a440=aw440+aϕ440+ag440.
ag440=a410-ζa440-aw410-ζaw440ξ-ζ,aϕ440=a440-aw440-ag440.
aλ=awλ+aϕλ+agλ, bbλ=bbwλ+bbpλ.
aϕ440=AC-BC, ag440=p1aϕ440, bbp555=0.002+0.020.5-0.25 logCp2C0.62.
aϕλ=a0λ+a1λlnaϕ440aϕ440, agλ=ag440exp-Sλ-440, bbpλ=bbp555555λY,
A=0.03+0.031, p1=0.3+3.72aϕ4400.02+aϕ440, p2=0.1+0.83, Y=0.1+1.5+41+C, S=0.013+0.0045,
g0=0.084+0.0116, g1=0.0794+0.09067.
RMSElog10=n=1Nlog10qnder-log10qntrue2N1/2.
ε=10RMSElog10-1.
a640=0.31+0.07rrs640rrs4401.1,
a5550.0596+0.56rrs640rrs5551.7-0.03.
aλ=aλ555,for a440640<0.2,aλ=0.3-a4406400.1aλ555+1-0.3-a4406400.1aλ640,for 0.2a4406400.3,aλ=aλ640,for a440640>0.3.

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