Abstract

We present a method for tuning a photonic crystal microcavity by modulating the index of refraction of the lattice sites within and surrounding the microcavity. The index of refraction can be actively modulated after infiltrating anisotropic liquid crystals into a two-dimensional photonic crystal lattice of air cylinders in silicon. We analyze the Q-factors and resonance frequencies of a tunable photonic crystal microcavity by considering various methods of index modulation. These tunable cavities are incorporated in a channel drop filter to demonstrate their enhancement of wavelength division multiplexing photonic crystal applications.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  1. A Sharkawy, S. Shi, D. W. Prather, “Multichannel wavelength division multiplexing using photonic crystals,” Appl. Opt. 40, 2247–2252 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. Hunsperger, Integrated Optics: Theory and Technology, 4th ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1995).
  3. A. Chutinan, M. Mochizuki, M. Imada, S. Noda, “Surface-emitting channel drop filters using single defects in two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2690–2692 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. O. Painter, A. Husain, A. Scherer, P. T. Lee, I. Kim, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, “Lithographic tuning of a two-dimensional photonic crystal laser array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1126–1128 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Busch, S. John, “Liquid-crystal photonic-band-gap materials: the tunable electromagnetic vacuum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 967–970 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. John, K. Busch, “Photonic bandgap formation and tunability in certain self-organizing systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1931–1943 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. W. Leonard, J. P. Mondia, H. M. van Driel, O. Toader, S. John, “Tunable two-dimensional photonic crystals using liquid-crystal infiltration,” Rapid Communications: Phys. Rev. B 61, R2398–R2392 (2000).
  8. K. Yoshino, Y. Shimoda, Y. Kawagishi, K. Nakayama, M. Ozaki, “Temperature tuning of the stop band in transmission spectra of liquid-crystal infiltrated synthetic opal as tunable photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 932–934 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. Yoshino, K. Nakayama, Y. Kawagishi, S. Tatsuhara, M. Ozaki, A. Zakhidov, “Properties of liquid crystals in photonic crystal, synthetic opal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Sci. Technol. Sect. A 329, 433–441 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. Kang, J. E. Maclennan, N. A. Clark, A. A. Zakhidov, R. H. Baughman, “Electro-optic behavior of liquid-crystal-filled silica opal photonic crystals: effect of liquid-crystal alignment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4052–4055 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. N. Susa, “Transmittance for a two-dimensional photonic-crystal structure consisting of cylinders and liquid crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3466–3467 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Fan, R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, H. A. Haus, “Channel drop tunneling through localized states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 960–963 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. A. Haus, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, “Channel drop filters in photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 3, 4–11 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, “Theoretical analysis of channel drop tunneling process,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 15882–15892 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  15. F. Jian, H. Sai-Ling, “Analysis of higher order channel dropping tunneling processes in photonic crystals,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 17, 737–739 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. Taflove, S. C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method, 2nd ed. (Artech House, Boston, 2000).
  17. A. Adibi, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, A. Yariv, A. Scherer, “Properties of the slab modes in photonic crystal optical waveguides.” J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 1554–1564 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. Yariv, P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals: Propagation and Control of Laser Radiation (WileyNew York, 1983).
  19. P. R. Villeneuve, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, “Microcavities in photonic crystals: mode symmetry, tunability, and coupling efficiency,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 7837–7852 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  20. A. Yariv, Optical Electronics in Modern Communications (Oxford University, New York, 1997).
  21. J. P. Berenger, “A perfectly matched layer for the absorption of electromagnetic waves,” J. Compnt. Phys. 114, 185–200 (1994).
    [CrossRef]

2001 (3)

A. Chutinan, M. Mochizuki, M. Imada, S. Noda, “Surface-emitting channel drop filters using single defects in two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2690–2692 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Kang, J. E. Maclennan, N. A. Clark, A. A. Zakhidov, R. H. Baughman, “Electro-optic behavior of liquid-crystal-filled silica opal photonic crystals: effect of liquid-crystal alignment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4052–4055 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A Sharkawy, S. Shi, D. W. Prather, “Multichannel wavelength division multiplexing using photonic crystals,” Appl. Opt. 40, 2247–2252 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (5)

A. Adibi, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, A. Yariv, A. Scherer, “Properties of the slab modes in photonic crystal optical waveguides.” J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 1554–1564 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. Susa, “Transmittance for a two-dimensional photonic-crystal structure consisting of cylinders and liquid crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3466–3467 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Jian, H. Sai-Ling, “Analysis of higher order channel dropping tunneling processes in photonic crystals,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 17, 737–739 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O. Painter, A. Husain, A. Scherer, P. T. Lee, I. Kim, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, “Lithographic tuning of a two-dimensional photonic crystal laser array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1126–1128 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Leonard, J. P. Mondia, H. M. van Driel, O. Toader, S. John, “Tunable two-dimensional photonic crystals using liquid-crystal infiltration,” Rapid Communications: Phys. Rev. B 61, R2398–R2392 (2000).

1999 (5)

K. Yoshino, Y. Shimoda, Y. Kawagishi, K. Nakayama, M. Ozaki, “Temperature tuning of the stop band in transmission spectra of liquid-crystal infiltrated synthetic opal as tunable photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 932–934 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Yoshino, K. Nakayama, Y. Kawagishi, S. Tatsuhara, M. Ozaki, A. Zakhidov, “Properties of liquid crystals in photonic crystal, synthetic opal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Sci. Technol. Sect. A 329, 433–441 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Busch, S. John, “Liquid-crystal photonic-band-gap materials: the tunable electromagnetic vacuum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 967–970 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. John, K. Busch, “Photonic bandgap formation and tunability in certain self-organizing systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1931–1943 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, “Theoretical analysis of channel drop tunneling process,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 15882–15892 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

H. A. Haus, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, “Channel drop filters in photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 3, 4–11 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Fan, R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, H. A. Haus, “Channel drop tunneling through localized states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 960–963 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

P. R. Villeneuve, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, “Microcavities in photonic crystals: mode symmetry, tunability, and coupling efficiency,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 7837–7852 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

J. P. Berenger, “A perfectly matched layer for the absorption of electromagnetic waves,” J. Compnt. Phys. 114, 185–200 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Adibi, A.

Baughman, R. H.

D. Kang, J. E. Maclennan, N. A. Clark, A. A. Zakhidov, R. H. Baughman, “Electro-optic behavior of liquid-crystal-filled silica opal photonic crystals: effect of liquid-crystal alignment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4052–4055 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berenger, J. P.

J. P. Berenger, “A perfectly matched layer for the absorption of electromagnetic waves,” J. Compnt. Phys. 114, 185–200 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Busch, K.

S. John, K. Busch, “Photonic bandgap formation and tunability in certain self-organizing systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1931–1943 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Busch, S. John, “Liquid-crystal photonic-band-gap materials: the tunable electromagnetic vacuum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 967–970 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chutinan, A.

A. Chutinan, M. Mochizuki, M. Imada, S. Noda, “Surface-emitting channel drop filters using single defects in two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2690–2692 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Clark, N. A.

D. Kang, J. E. Maclennan, N. A. Clark, A. A. Zakhidov, R. H. Baughman, “Electro-optic behavior of liquid-crystal-filled silica opal photonic crystals: effect of liquid-crystal alignment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4052–4055 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dapkus, P. D.

O. Painter, A. Husain, A. Scherer, P. T. Lee, I. Kim, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, “Lithographic tuning of a two-dimensional photonic crystal laser array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1126–1128 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, “Theoretical analysis of channel drop tunneling process,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 15882–15892 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Haus, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, “Channel drop filters in photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 3, 4–11 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Fan, R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, H. A. Haus, “Channel drop tunneling through localized states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 960–963 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Villeneuve, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, “Microcavities in photonic crystals: mode symmetry, tunability, and coupling efficiency,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 7837–7852 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hagness, S. C.

A. Taflove, S. C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method, 2nd ed. (Artech House, Boston, 2000).

Haus, H. A.

S. Fan, R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, H. A. Haus, “Channel drop tunneling through localized states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 960–963 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Haus, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, “Channel drop filters in photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 3, 4–11 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hunsperger, R.

R. Hunsperger, Integrated Optics: Theory and Technology, 4th ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1995).

Husain, A.

O. Painter, A. Husain, A. Scherer, P. T. Lee, I. Kim, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, “Lithographic tuning of a two-dimensional photonic crystal laser array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1126–1128 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Imada, M.

A. Chutinan, M. Mochizuki, M. Imada, S. Noda, “Surface-emitting channel drop filters using single defects in two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2690–2692 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jian, F.

F. Jian, H. Sai-Ling, “Analysis of higher order channel dropping tunneling processes in photonic crystals,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 17, 737–739 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, “Theoretical analysis of channel drop tunneling process,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 15882–15892 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Haus, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, “Channel drop filters in photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 3, 4–11 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Fan, R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, H. A. Haus, “Channel drop tunneling through localized states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 960–963 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Villeneuve, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, “Microcavities in photonic crystals: mode symmetry, tunability, and coupling efficiency,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 7837–7852 (1996).
[CrossRef]

John, S.

S. W. Leonard, J. P. Mondia, H. M. van Driel, O. Toader, S. John, “Tunable two-dimensional photonic crystals using liquid-crystal infiltration,” Rapid Communications: Phys. Rev. B 61, R2398–R2392 (2000).

K. Busch, S. John, “Liquid-crystal photonic-band-gap materials: the tunable electromagnetic vacuum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 967–970 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. John, K. Busch, “Photonic bandgap formation and tunability in certain self-organizing systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1931–1943 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kang, D.

D. Kang, J. E. Maclennan, N. A. Clark, A. A. Zakhidov, R. H. Baughman, “Electro-optic behavior of liquid-crystal-filled silica opal photonic crystals: effect of liquid-crystal alignment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4052–4055 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kawagishi, Y.

K. Yoshino, K. Nakayama, Y. Kawagishi, S. Tatsuhara, M. Ozaki, A. Zakhidov, “Properties of liquid crystals in photonic crystal, synthetic opal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Sci. Technol. Sect. A 329, 433–441 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Yoshino, Y. Shimoda, Y. Kawagishi, K. Nakayama, M. Ozaki, “Temperature tuning of the stop band in transmission spectra of liquid-crystal infiltrated synthetic opal as tunable photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 932–934 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kim, I.

O. Painter, A. Husain, A. Scherer, P. T. Lee, I. Kim, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, “Lithographic tuning of a two-dimensional photonic crystal laser array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1126–1128 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lee, P. T.

O. Painter, A. Husain, A. Scherer, P. T. Lee, I. Kim, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, “Lithographic tuning of a two-dimensional photonic crystal laser array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1126–1128 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lee, R. K.

Leonard, S. W.

S. W. Leonard, J. P. Mondia, H. M. van Driel, O. Toader, S. John, “Tunable two-dimensional photonic crystals using liquid-crystal infiltration,” Rapid Communications: Phys. Rev. B 61, R2398–R2392 (2000).

Maclennan, J. E.

D. Kang, J. E. Maclennan, N. A. Clark, A. A. Zakhidov, R. H. Baughman, “Electro-optic behavior of liquid-crystal-filled silica opal photonic crystals: effect of liquid-crystal alignment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4052–4055 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mochizuki, M.

A. Chutinan, M. Mochizuki, M. Imada, S. Noda, “Surface-emitting channel drop filters using single defects in two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2690–2692 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mondia, J. P.

S. W. Leonard, J. P. Mondia, H. M. van Driel, O. Toader, S. John, “Tunable two-dimensional photonic crystals using liquid-crystal infiltration,” Rapid Communications: Phys. Rev. B 61, R2398–R2392 (2000).

Nakayama, K.

K. Yoshino, K. Nakayama, Y. Kawagishi, S. Tatsuhara, M. Ozaki, A. Zakhidov, “Properties of liquid crystals in photonic crystal, synthetic opal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Sci. Technol. Sect. A 329, 433–441 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Yoshino, Y. Shimoda, Y. Kawagishi, K. Nakayama, M. Ozaki, “Temperature tuning of the stop band in transmission spectra of liquid-crystal infiltrated synthetic opal as tunable photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 932–934 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Noda, S.

A. Chutinan, M. Mochizuki, M. Imada, S. Noda, “Surface-emitting channel drop filters using single defects in two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2690–2692 (2001).
[CrossRef]

O’Brien, J. D.

O. Painter, A. Husain, A. Scherer, P. T. Lee, I. Kim, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, “Lithographic tuning of a two-dimensional photonic crystal laser array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1126–1128 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ozaki, M.

K. Yoshino, K. Nakayama, Y. Kawagishi, S. Tatsuhara, M. Ozaki, A. Zakhidov, “Properties of liquid crystals in photonic crystal, synthetic opal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Sci. Technol. Sect. A 329, 433–441 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Yoshino, Y. Shimoda, Y. Kawagishi, K. Nakayama, M. Ozaki, “Temperature tuning of the stop band in transmission spectra of liquid-crystal infiltrated synthetic opal as tunable photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 932–934 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Painter, O.

O. Painter, A. Husain, A. Scherer, P. T. Lee, I. Kim, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, “Lithographic tuning of a two-dimensional photonic crystal laser array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1126–1128 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Prather, D. W.

Sai-Ling, H.

F. Jian, H. Sai-Ling, “Analysis of higher order channel dropping tunneling processes in photonic crystals,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 17, 737–739 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

O. Painter, A. Husain, A. Scherer, P. T. Lee, I. Kim, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, “Lithographic tuning of a two-dimensional photonic crystal laser array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1126–1128 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Adibi, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, A. Yariv, A. Scherer, “Properties of the slab modes in photonic crystal optical waveguides.” J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 1554–1564 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sharkawy, A

Shi, S.

Shimoda, Y.

K. Yoshino, Y. Shimoda, Y. Kawagishi, K. Nakayama, M. Ozaki, “Temperature tuning of the stop band in transmission spectra of liquid-crystal infiltrated synthetic opal as tunable photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 932–934 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Susa, N.

N. Susa, “Transmittance for a two-dimensional photonic-crystal structure consisting of cylinders and liquid crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3466–3467 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Taflove, A.

A. Taflove, S. C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method, 2nd ed. (Artech House, Boston, 2000).

Tatsuhara, S.

K. Yoshino, K. Nakayama, Y. Kawagishi, S. Tatsuhara, M. Ozaki, A. Zakhidov, “Properties of liquid crystals in photonic crystal, synthetic opal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Sci. Technol. Sect. A 329, 433–441 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Toader, O.

S. W. Leonard, J. P. Mondia, H. M. van Driel, O. Toader, S. John, “Tunable two-dimensional photonic crystals using liquid-crystal infiltration,” Rapid Communications: Phys. Rev. B 61, R2398–R2392 (2000).

van Driel, H. M.

S. W. Leonard, J. P. Mondia, H. M. van Driel, O. Toader, S. John, “Tunable two-dimensional photonic crystals using liquid-crystal infiltration,” Rapid Communications: Phys. Rev. B 61, R2398–R2392 (2000).

Villeneuve, P. R.

S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, “Theoretical analysis of channel drop tunneling process,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 15882–15892 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Haus, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, “Channel drop filters in photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 3, 4–11 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. R. Villeneuve, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, “Microcavities in photonic crystals: mode symmetry, tunability, and coupling efficiency,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 7837–7852 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Villeneuve, R.

S. Fan, R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, H. A. Haus, “Channel drop tunneling through localized states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 960–963 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Y.

Yariv, A.

A. Adibi, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, A. Yariv, A. Scherer, “Properties of the slab modes in photonic crystal optical waveguides.” J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 1554–1564 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Yariv, P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals: Propagation and Control of Laser Radiation (WileyNew York, 1983).

A. Yariv, Optical Electronics in Modern Communications (Oxford University, New York, 1997).

Yeh, P.

A. Yariv, P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals: Propagation and Control of Laser Radiation (WileyNew York, 1983).

Yoshino, K.

K. Yoshino, K. Nakayama, Y. Kawagishi, S. Tatsuhara, M. Ozaki, A. Zakhidov, “Properties of liquid crystals in photonic crystal, synthetic opal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Sci. Technol. Sect. A 329, 433–441 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Yoshino, Y. Shimoda, Y. Kawagishi, K. Nakayama, M. Ozaki, “Temperature tuning of the stop band in transmission spectra of liquid-crystal infiltrated synthetic opal as tunable photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 932–934 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zakhidov, A.

K. Yoshino, K. Nakayama, Y. Kawagishi, S. Tatsuhara, M. Ozaki, A. Zakhidov, “Properties of liquid crystals in photonic crystal, synthetic opal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Sci. Technol. Sect. A 329, 433–441 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zakhidov, A. A.

D. Kang, J. E. Maclennan, N. A. Clark, A. A. Zakhidov, R. H. Baughman, “Electro-optic behavior of liquid-crystal-filled silica opal photonic crystals: effect of liquid-crystal alignment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4052–4055 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

A. Chutinan, M. Mochizuki, M. Imada, S. Noda, “Surface-emitting channel drop filters using single defects in two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2690–2692 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Yoshino, Y. Shimoda, Y. Kawagishi, K. Nakayama, M. Ozaki, “Temperature tuning of the stop band in transmission spectra of liquid-crystal infiltrated synthetic opal as tunable photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 932–934 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chin. Phys. Lett. (1)

F. Jian, H. Sai-Ling, “Analysis of higher order channel dropping tunneling processes in photonic crystals,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 17, 737–739 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

O. Painter, A. Husain, A. Scherer, P. T. Lee, I. Kim, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, “Lithographic tuning of a two-dimensional photonic crystal laser array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1126–1128 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Compnt. Phys. (1)

J. P. Berenger, “A perfectly matched layer for the absorption of electromagnetic waves,” J. Compnt. Phys. 114, 185–200 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

N. Susa, “Transmittance for a two-dimensional photonic-crystal structure consisting of cylinders and liquid crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3466–3467 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Sci. Technol. Sect. A (1)

K. Yoshino, K. Nakayama, Y. Kawagishi, S. Tatsuhara, M. Ozaki, A. Zakhidov, “Properties of liquid crystals in photonic crystal, synthetic opal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Sci. Technol. Sect. A 329, 433–441 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. B (2)

P. R. Villeneuve, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, “Microcavities in photonic crystals: mode symmetry, tunability, and coupling efficiency,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 7837–7852 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, “Theoretical analysis of channel drop tunneling process,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 15882–15892 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

D. Kang, J. E. Maclennan, N. A. Clark, A. A. Zakhidov, R. H. Baughman, “Electro-optic behavior of liquid-crystal-filled silica opal photonic crystals: effect of liquid-crystal alignment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4052–4055 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Fan, R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, H. A. Haus, “Channel drop tunneling through localized states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 960–963 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Busch, S. John, “Liquid-crystal photonic-band-gap materials: the tunable electromagnetic vacuum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 967–970 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rapid Communications: Phys. Rev. B (1)

S. W. Leonard, J. P. Mondia, H. M. van Driel, O. Toader, S. John, “Tunable two-dimensional photonic crystals using liquid-crystal infiltration,” Rapid Communications: Phys. Rev. B 61, R2398–R2392 (2000).

Other (4)

R. Hunsperger, Integrated Optics: Theory and Technology, 4th ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1995).

A. Taflove, S. C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method, 2nd ed. (Artech House, Boston, 2000).

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