Abstract

A hard-x-ray telescope is successfully produced for balloon observations by making use of depth-graded multilayers, or so-called supermirrors, with platinum–carbon (Pt/C) layer pairs. It consists of four quadrant units assembled in an optical configuration with a diameter of 40 cm and a focal length of 8 m. Each quadrant is made of 510 pieces of coaxially and confocally aligned supermirrors that significantly enhance the sensitivity in an energy range of 20–40 keV. The configuration of the telescope is similar to the x-ray telescope onboard Astro-E, but with a longer focal length. The reflectivity of supermirrors is of the order of 40% in the energy range concerned at a grazing angle of 0.2 deg. The effective area of a fully assembled telescope is 50 cm2 at 30 keV. The angular resolution is 2.37 arc min at half-power diameter 8.0 keV. The field of view is 12.6 arc min in the hard-x-ray region, depending somewhat on x-ray energies. We discuss these characteristics, taking into account the figure errors of reflectors and their optical alignment in the telescope assembly. This hard-x-ray telescope is unanimously afforded in the International Focusing Optics Collaboration for µCrab Sensitivity balloon experiment.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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2001

1998

1996

P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, “Foil x-ray mirrors,” Astrophys. Space Sci. 239, 177–196 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope onboard ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

1993

H. Kunieda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Ogasaka, H. Awaki, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, T. Yamazaki, M. Itoh, T. Kii, F. Makino, Y. Ogawara, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, I. Hatsukade, “Thirty-meter x-ray pencil beam line at the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 4805–4813 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1986

B. Aschenbach, “X-ray telescopes,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 48, 579–628 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1979

R. Giacconi, G. Branduardi, U. Briel, A. Epstein, D. Fabricant, E. Feigelson, W. Forman, P. Gorenstein, J. Grindlay, H. Gursky, F. R. Harnden, J. P. Henry, C. Jones, E. Kellogg, D. Koch, S. Murray, E. Schreier, F. Seward, H. Tananbaum, K. Topka, L. Van Speybroeck, S. S. Holt, R. H. Becker, E. A. Boldt, P. J. Serlemitsos, G. Clark, C. Canizares, T. Markert, R. Novick, D. Helfand, K. Long, “The Einstein (HEAO-2) X-ray Observatory,” Astrophys. J. 230, 540–550 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Akiyama, K.

K. Yamashita, K. Akiyama, K. Haga, H. Kunieda, G. S. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, T. Okajima, K. Tamura, Y. Tawara, “Fabrication and characterization of multilayer supermirrors for hard-x-ray optics,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 5, 711–713 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, K. Haga, K. Akiyama, A. Furuzawa, Y. Terashima, P. J. Serlemitsos, “Multilayer supermirror coating for hard-x-ray telescope,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics III, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2805, 236–243 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Altieri, B.

F. Jansen, D. Lumb, B. Altieri, J. Clavel, M. Ehle, C. Erd, C. Gabriel, M. Guainazzi, P. Gondoin, R. Much, R. Munoz, M. Santos, N. Schartel, D. Texier, G. Vacanti, “XMM-Newton Observatory. I. The spacecraft and operations,” Astron. Astrophys. 365, L1–L6 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Aschenbach, B.

B. Aschenbach, “X-ray telescopes,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 48, 579–628 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Awaki, H.

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope onboard ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

H. Kunieda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Ogasaka, H. Awaki, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, T. Yamazaki, M. Itoh, T. Kii, F. Makino, Y. Ogawara, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, I. Hatsukade, “Thirty-meter x-ray pencil beam line at the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 4805–4813 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Barthelmy, S.

W. H. Baumgartner, J. Tueller, S. Barthelmy, H. Krimm, F. Birsa, L. Ryan, “The CZT pixellated detectors on the InFOCµS hard-x-ray telescope,” in New Century of X-ray Astronomy, H. Kunieda, H. Inoue, eds., ASP Conf. Ser.251, 520–521 (2001).

Barthelmy, S. D.

Bartlett, L. M.

Baumgartner, W. H.

W. H. Baumgartner, J. Tueller, S. Barthelmy, H. Krimm, F. Birsa, L. Ryan, “The CZT pixellated detectors on the InFOCµS hard-x-ray telescope,” in New Century of X-ray Astronomy, H. Kunieda, H. Inoue, eds., ASP Conf. Ser.251, 520–521 (2001).

F. Berendse, S. M. Owens, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, K.-W. Chan, Y. Soong, H. Krimm, W. H. Baumgartner, Y. Ogasaka, K. Tamura, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, K. Misaki, H. Kunieda, “Production and performance of the InFOCµS 20–40-keV graded multilayer mirror,” submitted to Appl. Opt.

Becker, R. H.

R. Giacconi, G. Branduardi, U. Briel, A. Epstein, D. Fabricant, E. Feigelson, W. Forman, P. Gorenstein, J. Grindlay, H. Gursky, F. R. Harnden, J. P. Henry, C. Jones, E. Kellogg, D. Koch, S. Murray, E. Schreier, F. Seward, H. Tananbaum, K. Topka, L. Van Speybroeck, S. S. Holt, R. H. Becker, E. A. Boldt, P. J. Serlemitsos, G. Clark, C. Canizares, T. Markert, R. Novick, D. Helfand, K. Long, “The Einstein (HEAO-2) X-ray Observatory,” Astrophys. J. 230, 540–550 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Berendse, F.

S. M. Owens, T. Okajima, Y. Ogasaka, F. Berendse, P. J. Serlemitsos, “Multilayer coated thin foil mirrors for InFOCµS,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions III, J. E. Truemper, B. Aschenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE4012, 619–625 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Berendse, S. M. Owens, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, K.-W. Chan, Y. Soong, H. Krimm, W. H. Baumgartner, Y. Ogasaka, K. Tamura, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, K. Misaki, H. Kunieda, “Production and performance of the InFOCµS 20–40-keV graded multilayer mirror,” submitted to Appl. Opt.

Birsa, F.

W. H. Baumgartner, J. Tueller, S. Barthelmy, H. Krimm, F. Birsa, L. Ryan, “The CZT pixellated detectors on the InFOCµS hard-x-ray telescope,” in New Century of X-ray Astronomy, H. Kunieda, H. Inoue, eds., ASP Conf. Ser.251, 520–521 (2001).

Boldt, E. A.

R. Giacconi, G. Branduardi, U. Briel, A. Epstein, D. Fabricant, E. Feigelson, W. Forman, P. Gorenstein, J. Grindlay, H. Gursky, F. R. Harnden, J. P. Henry, C. Jones, E. Kellogg, D. Koch, S. Murray, E. Schreier, F. Seward, H. Tananbaum, K. Topka, L. Van Speybroeck, S. S. Holt, R. H. Becker, E. A. Boldt, P. J. Serlemitsos, G. Clark, C. Canizares, T. Markert, R. Novick, D. Helfand, K. Long, “The Einstein (HEAO-2) X-ray Observatory,” Astrophys. J. 230, 540–550 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Branduardi, G.

R. Giacconi, G. Branduardi, U. Briel, A. Epstein, D. Fabricant, E. Feigelson, W. Forman, P. Gorenstein, J. Grindlay, H. Gursky, F. R. Harnden, J. P. Henry, C. Jones, E. Kellogg, D. Koch, S. Murray, E. Schreier, F. Seward, H. Tananbaum, K. Topka, L. Van Speybroeck, S. S. Holt, R. H. Becker, E. A. Boldt, P. J. Serlemitsos, G. Clark, C. Canizares, T. Markert, R. Novick, D. Helfand, K. Long, “The Einstein (HEAO-2) X-ray Observatory,” Astrophys. J. 230, 540–550 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Briel, U.

R. Giacconi, G. Branduardi, U. Briel, A. Epstein, D. Fabricant, E. Feigelson, W. Forman, P. Gorenstein, J. Grindlay, H. Gursky, F. R. Harnden, J. P. Henry, C. Jones, E. Kellogg, D. Koch, S. Murray, E. Schreier, F. Seward, H. Tananbaum, K. Topka, L. Van Speybroeck, S. S. Holt, R. H. Becker, E. A. Boldt, P. J. Serlemitsos, G. Clark, C. Canizares, T. Markert, R. Novick, D. Helfand, K. Long, “The Einstein (HEAO-2) X-ray Observatory,” Astrophys. J. 230, 540–550 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Canizares, C.

R. Giacconi, G. Branduardi, U. Briel, A. Epstein, D. Fabricant, E. Feigelson, W. Forman, P. Gorenstein, J. Grindlay, H. Gursky, F. R. Harnden, J. P. Henry, C. Jones, E. Kellogg, D. Koch, S. Murray, E. Schreier, F. Seward, H. Tananbaum, K. Topka, L. Van Speybroeck, S. S. Holt, R. H. Becker, E. A. Boldt, P. J. Serlemitsos, G. Clark, C. Canizares, T. Markert, R. Novick, D. Helfand, K. Long, “The Einstein (HEAO-2) X-ray Observatory,” Astrophys. J. 230, 540–550 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Chan, K.-W.

H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, K. Misaki, R. Shibata, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, Y. Terashima, M. Watanabe, K. Yamashita, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E: optical design and fabrication of thin foil mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 40, 553–564 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Shibata, M. Ishida, H. Kunieda, T. Endo, H. Honda, K. Misaki, J. Ishida, K. Imamura, Y. Hidaka, M. Maeda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, A. Furuzawa, M. Watanabe, Y. Terashima, T. Yoshioka, T. Okajima, K. Yamashita, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E. II. Ground-based x-ray characterization,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3762–3783 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamashita, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, S. D. Barthelmy, L. M. Bartlett, K.-W. Chan, A. Furuzawa, N. Gehrels, K. Haga, H. Kunieda, P. Kurczynski, G. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, Y. Namba, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, D. Palmer, A. Parsons, Y. Soong, C. M. Stahl, H. Takata, K. Tamura, Y. Tawara, B. J. Teegarden, “Supermirror hard-x-ray telescope,” Appl. Opt. 37, 8067–8073 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Tamura, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, G. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, T. Okajima, O. Tsuda, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, R. Petre, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “Development of balloon-borne hard-x-ray telescopes using a multilayer supermirror,” in Grazing Incidence and Multilayer X-Ray Optical Systems, R. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3113, 285–292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Misaki, H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, R. Shibata, H. Mori, K. Itoh, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, Y. Terashima, M. Watanabe, K. Yamashita, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E. III. Guideline to performance improvements and optimization of ray-tracing program,” to be submitted to Appl. Opt.

F. Berendse, S. M. Owens, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, K.-W. Chan, Y. Soong, H. Krimm, W. H. Baumgartner, Y. Ogasaka, K. Tamura, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, K. Misaki, H. Kunieda, “Production and performance of the InFOCµS 20–40-keV graded multilayer mirror,” submitted to Appl. Opt.

Christensen, F. E.

K. D. Joensen, P. Hoghoj, F. E. Christensen, P. Gorenstein, J. Susini, E. Ziegler, A. K. Freund, J. L. Wood, “Multilayered supermirror structures for hard-x-ray synchrotron and astrophysics instrumentation,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics II, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2011, 360–372 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Clark, G.

R. Giacconi, G. Branduardi, U. Briel, A. Epstein, D. Fabricant, E. Feigelson, W. Forman, P. Gorenstein, J. Grindlay, H. Gursky, F. R. Harnden, J. P. Henry, C. Jones, E. Kellogg, D. Koch, S. Murray, E. Schreier, F. Seward, H. Tananbaum, K. Topka, L. Van Speybroeck, S. S. Holt, R. H. Becker, E. A. Boldt, P. J. Serlemitsos, G. Clark, C. Canizares, T. Markert, R. Novick, D. Helfand, K. Long, “The Einstein (HEAO-2) X-ray Observatory,” Astrophys. J. 230, 540–550 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Clavel, J.

F. Jansen, D. Lumb, B. Altieri, J. Clavel, M. Ehle, C. Erd, C. Gabriel, M. Guainazzi, P. Gondoin, R. Much, R. Munoz, M. Santos, N. Schartel, D. Texier, G. Vacanti, “XMM-Newton Observatory. I. The spacecraft and operations,” Astron. Astrophys. 365, L1–L6 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ehle, M.

F. Jansen, D. Lumb, B. Altieri, J. Clavel, M. Ehle, C. Erd, C. Gabriel, M. Guainazzi, P. Gondoin, R. Much, R. Munoz, M. Santos, N. Schartel, D. Texier, G. Vacanti, “XMM-Newton Observatory. I. The spacecraft and operations,” Astron. Astrophys. 365, L1–L6 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Endo, T.

Epstein, A.

R. Giacconi, G. Branduardi, U. Briel, A. Epstein, D. Fabricant, E. Feigelson, W. Forman, P. Gorenstein, J. Grindlay, H. Gursky, F. R. Harnden, J. P. Henry, C. Jones, E. Kellogg, D. Koch, S. Murray, E. Schreier, F. Seward, H. Tananbaum, K. Topka, L. Van Speybroeck, S. S. Holt, R. H. Becker, E. A. Boldt, P. J. Serlemitsos, G. Clark, C. Canizares, T. Markert, R. Novick, D. Helfand, K. Long, “The Einstein (HEAO-2) X-ray Observatory,” Astrophys. J. 230, 540–550 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Erd, C.

F. Jansen, D. Lumb, B. Altieri, J. Clavel, M. Ehle, C. Erd, C. Gabriel, M. Guainazzi, P. Gondoin, R. Much, R. Munoz, M. Santos, N. Schartel, D. Texier, G. Vacanti, “XMM-Newton Observatory. I. The spacecraft and operations,” Astron. Astrophys. 365, L1–L6 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fabricant, D.

R. Giacconi, G. Branduardi, U. Briel, A. Epstein, D. Fabricant, E. Feigelson, W. Forman, P. Gorenstein, J. Grindlay, H. Gursky, F. R. Harnden, J. P. Henry, C. Jones, E. Kellogg, D. Koch, S. Murray, E. Schreier, F. Seward, H. Tananbaum, K. Topka, L. Van Speybroeck, S. S. Holt, R. H. Becker, E. A. Boldt, P. J. Serlemitsos, G. Clark, C. Canizares, T. Markert, R. Novick, D. Helfand, K. Long, “The Einstein (HEAO-2) X-ray Observatory,” Astrophys. J. 230, 540–550 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Feigelson, E.

R. Giacconi, G. Branduardi, U. Briel, A. Epstein, D. Fabricant, E. Feigelson, W. Forman, P. Gorenstein, J. Grindlay, H. Gursky, F. R. Harnden, J. P. Henry, C. Jones, E. Kellogg, D. Koch, S. Murray, E. Schreier, F. Seward, H. Tananbaum, K. Topka, L. Van Speybroeck, S. S. Holt, R. H. Becker, E. A. Boldt, P. J. Serlemitsos, G. Clark, C. Canizares, T. Markert, R. Novick, D. Helfand, K. Long, “The Einstein (HEAO-2) X-ray Observatory,” Astrophys. J. 230, 540–550 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Forman, W.

R. Giacconi, G. Branduardi, U. Briel, A. Epstein, D. Fabricant, E. Feigelson, W. Forman, P. Gorenstein, J. Grindlay, H. Gursky, F. R. Harnden, J. P. Henry, C. Jones, E. Kellogg, D. Koch, S. Murray, E. Schreier, F. Seward, H. Tananbaum, K. Topka, L. Van Speybroeck, S. S. Holt, R. H. Becker, E. A. Boldt, P. J. Serlemitsos, G. Clark, C. Canizares, T. Markert, R. Novick, D. Helfand, K. Long, “The Einstein (HEAO-2) X-ray Observatory,” Astrophys. J. 230, 540–550 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Freund, A. K.

K. D. Joensen, P. Hoghoj, F. E. Christensen, P. Gorenstein, J. Susini, E. Ziegler, A. K. Freund, J. L. Wood, “Multilayered supermirror structures for hard-x-ray synchrotron and astrophysics instrumentation,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics II, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2011, 360–372 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fukuda, S.

T. Okajima, S. Ichimaru, K. Tamura, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, S. Takahashi, S. Fukuda, H. Kitou, A. Gotou, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, Y. Tsusaka, S. Takeda, H. Kunida, “The X-ray measurement of the supermirror using synchrotron radiation,” in Advances in X-Ray Optics, A. K. Freund, T. Ishikawa, A. M. Khounsary, D. C. Mancini, A. G. Michette, S. Oestreich, eds., Proc. SPIE4145, 53–60 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Furuzawa, A.

H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, K. Misaki, R. Shibata, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, Y. Terashima, M. Watanabe, K. Yamashita, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E: optical design and fabrication of thin foil mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 40, 553–564 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Shibata, M. Ishida, H. Kunieda, T. Endo, H. Honda, K. Misaki, J. Ishida, K. Imamura, Y. Hidaka, M. Maeda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, A. Furuzawa, M. Watanabe, Y. Terashima, T. Yoshioka, T. Okajima, K. Yamashita, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E. II. Ground-based x-ray characterization,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3762–3783 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamashita, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, S. D. Barthelmy, L. M. Bartlett, K.-W. Chan, A. Furuzawa, N. Gehrels, K. Haga, H. Kunieda, P. Kurczynski, G. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, Y. Namba, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, D. Palmer, A. Parsons, Y. Soong, C. M. Stahl, H. Takata, K. Tamura, Y. Tawara, B. J. Teegarden, “Supermirror hard-x-ray telescope,” Appl. Opt. 37, 8067–8073 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope onboard ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, K. Haga, K. Akiyama, A. Furuzawa, Y. Terashima, P. J. Serlemitsos, “Multilayer supermirror coating for hard-x-ray telescope,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics III, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2805, 236–243 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Tamura, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, G. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, T. Okajima, O. Tsuda, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, R. Petre, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “Development of balloon-borne hard-x-ray telescopes using a multilayer supermirror,” in Grazing Incidence and Multilayer X-Ray Optical Systems, R. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3113, 285–292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, K. Tamura, K. Haga, N. Nakamura, N. Nakajo, H. Takata, T. Okajima, Y. Ogasaka, G. S. Lodha, Y. Namba, “Replication of a multilayer supermirror,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3444, 569–575 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Misaki, H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, R. Shibata, H. Mori, K. Itoh, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, Y. Terashima, M. Watanabe, K. Yamashita, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E. III. Guideline to performance improvements and optimization of ray-tracing program,” to be submitted to Appl. Opt.

Gabriel, C.

F. Jansen, D. Lumb, B. Altieri, J. Clavel, M. Ehle, C. Erd, C. Gabriel, M. Guainazzi, P. Gondoin, R. Much, R. Munoz, M. Santos, N. Schartel, D. Texier, G. Vacanti, “XMM-Newton Observatory. I. The spacecraft and operations,” Astron. Astrophys. 365, L1–L6 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gehrels, N.

Giacconi, R.

R. Giacconi, G. Branduardi, U. Briel, A. Epstein, D. Fabricant, E. Feigelson, W. Forman, P. Gorenstein, J. Grindlay, H. Gursky, F. R. Harnden, J. P. Henry, C. Jones, E. Kellogg, D. Koch, S. Murray, E. Schreier, F. Seward, H. Tananbaum, K. Topka, L. Van Speybroeck, S. S. Holt, R. H. Becker, E. A. Boldt, P. J. Serlemitsos, G. Clark, C. Canizares, T. Markert, R. Novick, D. Helfand, K. Long, “The Einstein (HEAO-2) X-ray Observatory,” Astrophys. J. 230, 540–550 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Gondoin, P.

F. Jansen, D. Lumb, B. Altieri, J. Clavel, M. Ehle, C. Erd, C. Gabriel, M. Guainazzi, P. Gondoin, R. Much, R. Munoz, M. Santos, N. Schartel, D. Texier, G. Vacanti, “XMM-Newton Observatory. I. The spacecraft and operations,” Astron. Astrophys. 365, L1–L6 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gorenstein, P.

R. Giacconi, G. Branduardi, U. Briel, A. Epstein, D. Fabricant, E. Feigelson, W. Forman, P. Gorenstein, J. Grindlay, H. Gursky, F. R. Harnden, J. P. Henry, C. Jones, E. Kellogg, D. Koch, S. Murray, E. Schreier, F. Seward, H. Tananbaum, K. Topka, L. Van Speybroeck, S. S. Holt, R. H. Becker, E. A. Boldt, P. J. Serlemitsos, G. Clark, C. Canizares, T. Markert, R. Novick, D. Helfand, K. Long, “The Einstein (HEAO-2) X-ray Observatory,” Astrophys. J. 230, 540–550 (1979).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Joensen, P. Hoghoj, F. E. Christensen, P. Gorenstein, J. Susini, E. Ziegler, A. K. Freund, J. L. Wood, “Multilayered supermirror structures for hard-x-ray synchrotron and astrophysics instrumentation,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics II, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2011, 360–372 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gotou, A.

T. Okajima, S. Ichimaru, K. Tamura, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, S. Takahashi, S. Fukuda, H. Kitou, A. Gotou, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, Y. Tsusaka, S. Takeda, H. Kunida, “The X-ray measurement of the supermirror using synchrotron radiation,” in Advances in X-Ray Optics, A. K. Freund, T. Ishikawa, A. M. Khounsary, D. C. Mancini, A. G. Michette, S. Oestreich, eds., Proc. SPIE4145, 53–60 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Grindlay, J.

R. Giacconi, G. Branduardi, U. Briel, A. Epstein, D. Fabricant, E. Feigelson, W. Forman, P. Gorenstein, J. Grindlay, H. Gursky, F. R. Harnden, J. P. Henry, C. Jones, E. Kellogg, D. Koch, S. Murray, E. Schreier, F. Seward, H. Tananbaum, K. Topka, L. Van Speybroeck, S. S. Holt, R. H. Becker, E. A. Boldt, P. J. Serlemitsos, G. Clark, C. Canizares, T. Markert, R. Novick, D. Helfand, K. Long, “The Einstein (HEAO-2) X-ray Observatory,” Astrophys. J. 230, 540–550 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Guainazzi, M.

F. Jansen, D. Lumb, B. Altieri, J. Clavel, M. Ehle, C. Erd, C. Gabriel, M. Guainazzi, P. Gondoin, R. Much, R. Munoz, M. Santos, N. Schartel, D. Texier, G. Vacanti, “XMM-Newton Observatory. I. The spacecraft and operations,” Astron. Astrophys. 365, L1–L6 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gursky, H.

R. Giacconi, G. Branduardi, U. Briel, A. Epstein, D. Fabricant, E. Feigelson, W. Forman, P. Gorenstein, J. Grindlay, H. Gursky, F. R. Harnden, J. P. Henry, C. Jones, E. Kellogg, D. Koch, S. Murray, E. Schreier, F. Seward, H. Tananbaum, K. Topka, L. Van Speybroeck, S. S. Holt, R. H. Becker, E. A. Boldt, P. J. Serlemitsos, G. Clark, C. Canizares, T. Markert, R. Novick, D. Helfand, K. Long, “The Einstein (HEAO-2) X-ray Observatory,” Astrophys. J. 230, 540–550 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Haga, K.

H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, K. Misaki, R. Shibata, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, Y. Terashima, M. Watanabe, K. Yamashita, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E: optical design and fabrication of thin foil mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 40, 553–564 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamashita, K. Akiyama, K. Haga, H. Kunieda, G. S. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, T. Okajima, K. Tamura, Y. Tawara, “Fabrication and characterization of multilayer supermirrors for hard-x-ray optics,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 5, 711–713 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamashita, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, S. D. Barthelmy, L. M. Bartlett, K.-W. Chan, A. Furuzawa, N. Gehrels, K. Haga, H. Kunieda, P. Kurczynski, G. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, Y. Namba, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, D. Palmer, A. Parsons, Y. Soong, C. M. Stahl, H. Takata, K. Tamura, Y. Tawara, B. J. Teegarden, “Supermirror hard-x-ray telescope,” Appl. Opt. 37, 8067–8073 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, K. Tamura, K. Haga, N. Nakamura, N. Nakajo, H. Takata, T. Okajima, Y. Ogasaka, G. S. Lodha, Y. Namba, “Replication of a multilayer supermirror,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3444, 569–575 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Tamura, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, G. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, T. Okajima, O. Tsuda, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, R. Petre, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “Development of balloon-borne hard-x-ray telescopes using a multilayer supermirror,” in Grazing Incidence and Multilayer X-Ray Optical Systems, R. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3113, 285–292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, K. Haga, K. Akiyama, A. Furuzawa, Y. Terashima, P. J. Serlemitsos, “Multilayer supermirror coating for hard-x-ray telescope,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics III, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2805, 236–243 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Okajima, S. Ichimaru, K. Tamura, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, S. Takahashi, S. Fukuda, H. Kitou, A. Gotou, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, Y. Tsusaka, S. Takeda, H. Kunida, “The X-ray measurement of the supermirror using synchrotron radiation,” in Advances in X-Ray Optics, A. K. Freund, T. Ishikawa, A. M. Khounsary, D. C. Mancini, A. G. Michette, S. Oestreich, eds., Proc. SPIE4145, 53–60 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Misaki, H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, R. Shibata, H. Mori, K. Itoh, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, Y. Terashima, M. Watanabe, K. Yamashita, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E. III. Guideline to performance improvements and optimization of ray-tracing program,” to be submitted to Appl. Opt.

Harnden, F. R.

R. Giacconi, G. Branduardi, U. Briel, A. Epstein, D. Fabricant, E. Feigelson, W. Forman, P. Gorenstein, J. Grindlay, H. Gursky, F. R. Harnden, J. P. Henry, C. Jones, E. Kellogg, D. Koch, S. Murray, E. Schreier, F. Seward, H. Tananbaum, K. Topka, L. Van Speybroeck, S. S. Holt, R. H. Becker, E. A. Boldt, P. J. Serlemitsos, G. Clark, C. Canizares, T. Markert, R. Novick, D. Helfand, K. Long, “The Einstein (HEAO-2) X-ray Observatory,” Astrophys. J. 230, 540–550 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Hatsukade, I.

H. Kunieda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Ogasaka, H. Awaki, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, T. Yamazaki, M. Itoh, T. Kii, F. Makino, Y. Ogawara, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, I. Hatsukade, “Thirty-meter x-ray pencil beam line at the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 4805–4813 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hayashida, K.

H. Kunieda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Ogasaka, H. Awaki, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, T. Yamazaki, M. Itoh, T. Kii, F. Makino, Y. Ogawara, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, I. Hatsukade, “Thirty-meter x-ray pencil beam line at the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 4805–4813 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Helfand, D.

R. Giacconi, G. Branduardi, U. Briel, A. Epstein, D. Fabricant, E. Feigelson, W. Forman, P. Gorenstein, J. Grindlay, H. Gursky, F. R. Harnden, J. P. Henry, C. Jones, E. Kellogg, D. Koch, S. Murray, E. Schreier, F. Seward, H. Tananbaum, K. Topka, L. Van Speybroeck, S. S. Holt, R. H. Becker, E. A. Boldt, P. J. Serlemitsos, G. Clark, C. Canizares, T. Markert, R. Novick, D. Helfand, K. Long, “The Einstein (HEAO-2) X-ray Observatory,” Astrophys. J. 230, 540–550 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Henry, J. P.

R. Giacconi, G. Branduardi, U. Briel, A. Epstein, D. Fabricant, E. Feigelson, W. Forman, P. Gorenstein, J. Grindlay, H. Gursky, F. R. Harnden, J. P. Henry, C. Jones, E. Kellogg, D. Koch, S. Murray, E. Schreier, F. Seward, H. Tananbaum, K. Topka, L. Van Speybroeck, S. S. Holt, R. H. Becker, E. A. Boldt, P. J. Serlemitsos, G. Clark, C. Canizares, T. Markert, R. Novick, D. Helfand, K. Long, “The Einstein (HEAO-2) X-ray Observatory,” Astrophys. J. 230, 540–550 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Hidaka, Y.

Hoghoj, P.

K. D. Joensen, P. Hoghoj, F. E. Christensen, P. Gorenstein, J. Susini, E. Ziegler, A. K. Freund, J. L. Wood, “Multilayered supermirror structures for hard-x-ray synchrotron and astrophysics instrumentation,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics II, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2011, 360–372 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Holt, S. S.

R. Giacconi, G. Branduardi, U. Briel, A. Epstein, D. Fabricant, E. Feigelson, W. Forman, P. Gorenstein, J. Grindlay, H. Gursky, F. R. Harnden, J. P. Henry, C. Jones, E. Kellogg, D. Koch, S. Murray, E. Schreier, F. Seward, H. Tananbaum, K. Topka, L. Van Speybroeck, S. S. Holt, R. H. Becker, E. A. Boldt, P. J. Serlemitsos, G. Clark, C. Canizares, T. Markert, R. Novick, D. Helfand, K. Long, “The Einstein (HEAO-2) X-ray Observatory,” Astrophys. J. 230, 540–550 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Honda, H.

R. Shibata, M. Ishida, H. Kunieda, T. Endo, H. Honda, K. Misaki, J. Ishida, K. Imamura, Y. Hidaka, M. Maeda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, A. Furuzawa, M. Watanabe, Y. Terashima, T. Yoshioka, T. Okajima, K. Yamashita, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E. II. Ground-based x-ray characterization,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3762–3783 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, K. Misaki, R. Shibata, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, Y. Terashima, M. Watanabe, K. Yamashita, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E: optical design and fabrication of thin foil mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 40, 553–564 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope onboard ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

K. Misaki, H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, R. Shibata, H. Mori, K. Itoh, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, Y. Terashima, M. Watanabe, K. Yamashita, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E. III. Guideline to performance improvements and optimization of ray-tracing program,” to be submitted to Appl. Opt.

Ichimaru, S.

T. Okajima, S. Ichimaru, K. Tamura, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, S. Takahashi, S. Fukuda, H. Kitou, A. Gotou, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, Y. Tsusaka, S. Takeda, H. Kunida, “The X-ray measurement of the supermirror using synchrotron radiation,” in Advances in X-Ray Optics, A. K. Freund, T. Ishikawa, A. M. Khounsary, D. C. Mancini, A. G. Michette, S. Oestreich, eds., Proc. SPIE4145, 53–60 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Imamura, K.

Ishida, J.

Ishida, M.

Itoh, K.

K. Misaki, H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, R. Shibata, H. Mori, K. Itoh, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, Y. Terashima, M. Watanabe, K. Yamashita, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E. III. Guideline to performance improvements and optimization of ray-tracing program,” to be submitted to Appl. Opt.

Itoh, M.

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope onboard ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

H. Kunieda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Ogasaka, H. Awaki, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, T. Yamazaki, M. Itoh, T. Kii, F. Makino, Y. Ogawara, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, I. Hatsukade, “Thirty-meter x-ray pencil beam line at the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 4805–4813 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jalota, L.

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope onboard ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

Y. Soong, L. Jalota, P. J. Serlemitsos, “Conical thin foil x-ray mirror fabrication via surface replication,” in X-Ray and Extreme Ultraviolet Optics, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds, Proc. SPIE2515, 64–69 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jansen, F.

F. Jansen, D. Lumb, B. Altieri, J. Clavel, M. Ehle, C. Erd, C. Gabriel, M. Guainazzi, P. Gondoin, R. Much, R. Munoz, M. Santos, N. Schartel, D. Texier, G. Vacanti, “XMM-Newton Observatory. I. The spacecraft and operations,” Astron. Astrophys. 365, L1–L6 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Joensen, K. D.

K. D. Joensen, P. Hoghoj, F. E. Christensen, P. Gorenstein, J. Susini, E. Ziegler, A. K. Freund, J. L. Wood, “Multilayered supermirror structures for hard-x-ray synchrotron and astrophysics instrumentation,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics II, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2011, 360–372 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jones, C.

R. Giacconi, G. Branduardi, U. Briel, A. Epstein, D. Fabricant, E. Feigelson, W. Forman, P. Gorenstein, J. Grindlay, H. Gursky, F. R. Harnden, J. P. Henry, C. Jones, E. Kellogg, D. Koch, S. Murray, E. Schreier, F. Seward, H. Tananbaum, K. Topka, L. Van Speybroeck, S. S. Holt, R. H. Becker, E. A. Boldt, P. J. Serlemitsos, G. Clark, C. Canizares, T. Markert, R. Novick, D. Helfand, K. Long, “The Einstein (HEAO-2) X-ray Observatory,” Astrophys. J. 230, 540–550 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Kellogg, E.

R. Giacconi, G. Branduardi, U. Briel, A. Epstein, D. Fabricant, E. Feigelson, W. Forman, P. Gorenstein, J. Grindlay, H. Gursky, F. R. Harnden, J. P. Henry, C. Jones, E. Kellogg, D. Koch, S. Murray, E. Schreier, F. Seward, H. Tananbaum, K. Topka, L. Van Speybroeck, S. S. Holt, R. H. Becker, E. A. Boldt, P. J. Serlemitsos, G. Clark, C. Canizares, T. Markert, R. Novick, D. Helfand, K. Long, “The Einstein (HEAO-2) X-ray Observatory,” Astrophys. J. 230, 540–550 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Kii, T.

H. Kunieda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Ogasaka, H. Awaki, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, T. Yamazaki, M. Itoh, T. Kii, F. Makino, Y. Ogawara, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, I. Hatsukade, “Thirty-meter x-ray pencil beam line at the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 4805–4813 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kitou, H.

T. Okajima, S. Ichimaru, K. Tamura, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, S. Takahashi, S. Fukuda, H. Kitou, A. Gotou, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, Y. Tsusaka, S. Takeda, H. Kunida, “The X-ray measurement of the supermirror using synchrotron radiation,” in Advances in X-Ray Optics, A. K. Freund, T. Ishikawa, A. M. Khounsary, D. C. Mancini, A. G. Michette, S. Oestreich, eds., Proc. SPIE4145, 53–60 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Koch, D.

R. Giacconi, G. Branduardi, U. Briel, A. Epstein, D. Fabricant, E. Feigelson, W. Forman, P. Gorenstein, J. Grindlay, H. Gursky, F. R. Harnden, J. P. Henry, C. Jones, E. Kellogg, D. Koch, S. Murray, E. Schreier, F. Seward, H. Tananbaum, K. Topka, L. Van Speybroeck, S. S. Holt, R. H. Becker, E. A. Boldt, P. J. Serlemitsos, G. Clark, C. Canizares, T. Markert, R. Novick, D. Helfand, K. Long, “The Einstein (HEAO-2) X-ray Observatory,” Astrophys. J. 230, 540–550 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Krimm, H.

W. H. Baumgartner, J. Tueller, S. Barthelmy, H. Krimm, F. Birsa, L. Ryan, “The CZT pixellated detectors on the InFOCµS hard-x-ray telescope,” in New Century of X-ray Astronomy, H. Kunieda, H. Inoue, eds., ASP Conf. Ser.251, 520–521 (2001).

F. Berendse, S. M. Owens, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, K.-W. Chan, Y. Soong, H. Krimm, W. H. Baumgartner, Y. Ogasaka, K. Tamura, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, K. Misaki, H. Kunieda, “Production and performance of the InFOCµS 20–40-keV graded multilayer mirror,” submitted to Appl. Opt.

Kunida, H.

T. Okajima, S. Ichimaru, K. Tamura, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, S. Takahashi, S. Fukuda, H. Kitou, A. Gotou, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, Y. Tsusaka, S. Takeda, H. Kunida, “The X-ray measurement of the supermirror using synchrotron radiation,” in Advances in X-Ray Optics, A. K. Freund, T. Ishikawa, A. M. Khounsary, D. C. Mancini, A. G. Michette, S. Oestreich, eds., Proc. SPIE4145, 53–60 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kunieda, H.

H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, K. Misaki, R. Shibata, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, Y. Terashima, M. Watanabe, K. Yamashita, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E: optical design and fabrication of thin foil mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 40, 553–564 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Shibata, M. Ishida, H. Kunieda, T. Endo, H. Honda, K. Misaki, J. Ishida, K. Imamura, Y. Hidaka, M. Maeda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, A. Furuzawa, M. Watanabe, Y. Terashima, T. Yoshioka, T. Okajima, K. Yamashita, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E. II. Ground-based x-ray characterization,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3762–3783 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamashita, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, S. D. Barthelmy, L. M. Bartlett, K.-W. Chan, A. Furuzawa, N. Gehrels, K. Haga, H. Kunieda, P. Kurczynski, G. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, Y. Namba, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, D. Palmer, A. Parsons, Y. Soong, C. M. Stahl, H. Takata, K. Tamura, Y. Tawara, B. J. Teegarden, “Supermirror hard-x-ray telescope,” Appl. Opt. 37, 8067–8073 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamashita, K. Akiyama, K. Haga, H. Kunieda, G. S. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, T. Okajima, K. Tamura, Y. Tawara, “Fabrication and characterization of multilayer supermirrors for hard-x-ray optics,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 5, 711–713 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope onboard ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

H. Kunieda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Ogasaka, H. Awaki, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, T. Yamazaki, M. Itoh, T. Kii, F. Makino, Y. Ogawara, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, I. Hatsukade, “Thirty-meter x-ray pencil beam line at the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 4805–4813 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. Berendse, S. M. Owens, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, K.-W. Chan, Y. Soong, H. Krimm, W. H. Baumgartner, Y. Ogasaka, K. Tamura, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, K. Misaki, H. Kunieda, “Production and performance of the InFOCµS 20–40-keV graded multilayer mirror,” submitted to Appl. Opt.

K. Misaki, H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, R. Shibata, H. Mori, K. Itoh, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, Y. Terashima, M. Watanabe, K. Yamashita, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E. III. Guideline to performance improvements and optimization of ray-tracing program,” to be submitted to Appl. Opt.

Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, K. Haga, K. Akiyama, A. Furuzawa, Y. Terashima, P. J. Serlemitsos, “Multilayer supermirror coating for hard-x-ray telescope,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics III, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2805, 236–243 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, K. Tamura, K. Haga, N. Nakamura, N. Nakajo, H. Takata, T. Okajima, Y. Ogasaka, G. S. Lodha, Y. Namba, “Replication of a multilayer supermirror,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3444, 569–575 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Tamura, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, G. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, T. Okajima, O. Tsuda, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, R. Petre, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “Development of balloon-borne hard-x-ray telescopes using a multilayer supermirror,” in Grazing Incidence and Multilayer X-Ray Optical Systems, R. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3113, 285–292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kurczynski, P.

Lodha, G.

K. Yamashita, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, S. D. Barthelmy, L. M. Bartlett, K.-W. Chan, A. Furuzawa, N. Gehrels, K. Haga, H. Kunieda, P. Kurczynski, G. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, Y. Namba, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, D. Palmer, A. Parsons, Y. Soong, C. M. Stahl, H. Takata, K. Tamura, Y. Tawara, B. J. Teegarden, “Supermirror hard-x-ray telescope,” Appl. Opt. 37, 8067–8073 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Tamura, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, G. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, T. Okajima, O. Tsuda, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, R. Petre, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “Development of balloon-borne hard-x-ray telescopes using a multilayer supermirror,” in Grazing Incidence and Multilayer X-Ray Optical Systems, R. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3113, 285–292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lodha, G. S.

K. Yamashita, K. Akiyama, K. Haga, H. Kunieda, G. S. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, T. Okajima, K. Tamura, Y. Tawara, “Fabrication and characterization of multilayer supermirrors for hard-x-ray optics,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 5, 711–713 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, K. Tamura, K. Haga, N. Nakamura, N. Nakajo, H. Takata, T. Okajima, Y. Ogasaka, G. S. Lodha, Y. Namba, “Replication of a multilayer supermirror,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3444, 569–575 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Long, K.

R. Giacconi, G. Branduardi, U. Briel, A. Epstein, D. Fabricant, E. Feigelson, W. Forman, P. Gorenstein, J. Grindlay, H. Gursky, F. R. Harnden, J. P. Henry, C. Jones, E. Kellogg, D. Koch, S. Murray, E. Schreier, F. Seward, H. Tananbaum, K. Topka, L. Van Speybroeck, S. S. Holt, R. H. Becker, E. A. Boldt, P. J. Serlemitsos, G. Clark, C. Canizares, T. Markert, R. Novick, D. Helfand, K. Long, “The Einstein (HEAO-2) X-ray Observatory,” Astrophys. J. 230, 540–550 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Lumb, D.

F. Jansen, D. Lumb, B. Altieri, J. Clavel, M. Ehle, C. Erd, C. Gabriel, M. Guainazzi, P. Gondoin, R. Much, R. Munoz, M. Santos, N. Schartel, D. Texier, G. Vacanti, “XMM-Newton Observatory. I. The spacecraft and operations,” Astron. Astrophys. 365, L1–L6 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Maeda, M.

Makino, F.

H. Kunieda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Ogasaka, H. Awaki, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, T. Yamazaki, M. Itoh, T. Kii, F. Makino, Y. Ogawara, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, I. Hatsukade, “Thirty-meter x-ray pencil beam line at the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 4805–4813 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Markert, T.

R. Giacconi, G. Branduardi, U. Briel, A. Epstein, D. Fabricant, E. Feigelson, W. Forman, P. Gorenstein, J. Grindlay, H. Gursky, F. R. Harnden, J. P. Henry, C. Jones, E. Kellogg, D. Koch, S. Murray, E. Schreier, F. Seward, H. Tananbaum, K. Topka, L. Van Speybroeck, S. S. Holt, R. H. Becker, E. A. Boldt, P. J. Serlemitsos, G. Clark, C. Canizares, T. Markert, R. Novick, D. Helfand, K. Long, “The Einstein (HEAO-2) X-ray Observatory,” Astrophys. J. 230, 540–550 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Misaki, K.

H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, K. Misaki, R. Shibata, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, Y. Terashima, M. Watanabe, K. Yamashita, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E: optical design and fabrication of thin foil mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 40, 553–564 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Shibata, M. Ishida, H. Kunieda, T. Endo, H. Honda, K. Misaki, J. Ishida, K. Imamura, Y. Hidaka, M. Maeda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, A. Furuzawa, M. Watanabe, Y. Terashima, T. Yoshioka, T. Okajima, K. Yamashita, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E. II. Ground-based x-ray characterization,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3762–3783 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Misaki, H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, R. Shibata, H. Mori, K. Itoh, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, Y. Terashima, M. Watanabe, K. Yamashita, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E. III. Guideline to performance improvements and optimization of ray-tracing program,” to be submitted to Appl. Opt.

F. Berendse, S. M. Owens, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, K.-W. Chan, Y. Soong, H. Krimm, W. H. Baumgartner, Y. Ogasaka, K. Tamura, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, K. Misaki, H. Kunieda, “Production and performance of the InFOCµS 20–40-keV graded multilayer mirror,” submitted to Appl. Opt.

Miyata, E.

H. Kunieda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Ogasaka, H. Awaki, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, T. Yamazaki, M. Itoh, T. Kii, F. Makino, Y. Ogawara, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, I. Hatsukade, “Thirty-meter x-ray pencil beam line at the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 4805–4813 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mori, H.

K. Misaki, H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, R. Shibata, H. Mori, K. Itoh, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, Y. Terashima, M. Watanabe, K. Yamashita, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E. III. Guideline to performance improvements and optimization of ray-tracing program,” to be submitted to Appl. Opt.

Much, R.

F. Jansen, D. Lumb, B. Altieri, J. Clavel, M. Ehle, C. Erd, C. Gabriel, M. Guainazzi, P. Gondoin, R. Much, R. Munoz, M. Santos, N. Schartel, D. Texier, G. Vacanti, “XMM-Newton Observatory. I. The spacecraft and operations,” Astron. Astrophys. 365, L1–L6 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Munoz, R.

F. Jansen, D. Lumb, B. Altieri, J. Clavel, M. Ehle, C. Erd, C. Gabriel, M. Guainazzi, P. Gondoin, R. Much, R. Munoz, M. Santos, N. Schartel, D. Texier, G. Vacanti, “XMM-Newton Observatory. I. The spacecraft and operations,” Astron. Astrophys. 365, L1–L6 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Murray, S.

R. Giacconi, G. Branduardi, U. Briel, A. Epstein, D. Fabricant, E. Feigelson, W. Forman, P. Gorenstein, J. Grindlay, H. Gursky, F. R. Harnden, J. P. Henry, C. Jones, E. Kellogg, D. Koch, S. Murray, E. Schreier, F. Seward, H. Tananbaum, K. Topka, L. Van Speybroeck, S. S. Holt, R. H. Becker, E. A. Boldt, P. J. Serlemitsos, G. Clark, C. Canizares, T. Markert, R. Novick, D. Helfand, K. Long, “The Einstein (HEAO-2) X-ray Observatory,” Astrophys. J. 230, 540–550 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Nakajo, N.

K. Yamashita, K. Akiyama, K. Haga, H. Kunieda, G. S. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, T. Okajima, K. Tamura, Y. Tawara, “Fabrication and characterization of multilayer supermirrors for hard-x-ray optics,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 5, 711–713 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamashita, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, S. D. Barthelmy, L. M. Bartlett, K.-W. Chan, A. Furuzawa, N. Gehrels, K. Haga, H. Kunieda, P. Kurczynski, G. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, Y. Namba, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, D. Palmer, A. Parsons, Y. Soong, C. M. Stahl, H. Takata, K. Tamura, Y. Tawara, B. J. Teegarden, “Supermirror hard-x-ray telescope,” Appl. Opt. 37, 8067–8073 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, K. Tamura, K. Haga, N. Nakamura, N. Nakajo, H. Takata, T. Okajima, Y. Ogasaka, G. S. Lodha, Y. Namba, “Replication of a multilayer supermirror,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3444, 569–575 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Tamura, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, G. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, T. Okajima, O. Tsuda, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, R. Petre, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “Development of balloon-borne hard-x-ray telescopes using a multilayer supermirror,” in Grazing Incidence and Multilayer X-Ray Optical Systems, R. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3113, 285–292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, N.

K. Yamashita, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, S. D. Barthelmy, L. M. Bartlett, K.-W. Chan, A. Furuzawa, N. Gehrels, K. Haga, H. Kunieda, P. Kurczynski, G. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, Y. Namba, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, D. Palmer, A. Parsons, Y. Soong, C. M. Stahl, H. Takata, K. Tamura, Y. Tawara, B. J. Teegarden, “Supermirror hard-x-ray telescope,” Appl. Opt. 37, 8067–8073 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamashita, K. Akiyama, K. Haga, H. Kunieda, G. S. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, T. Okajima, K. Tamura, Y. Tawara, “Fabrication and characterization of multilayer supermirrors for hard-x-ray optics,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 5, 711–713 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Tamura, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, G. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, T. Okajima, O. Tsuda, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, R. Petre, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “Development of balloon-borne hard-x-ray telescopes using a multilayer supermirror,” in Grazing Incidence and Multilayer X-Ray Optical Systems, R. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3113, 285–292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, K. Tamura, K. Haga, N. Nakamura, N. Nakajo, H. Takata, T. Okajima, Y. Ogasaka, G. S. Lodha, Y. Namba, “Replication of a multilayer supermirror,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3444, 569–575 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Namba, Y.

K. Yamashita, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, S. D. Barthelmy, L. M. Bartlett, K.-W. Chan, A. Furuzawa, N. Gehrels, K. Haga, H. Kunieda, P. Kurczynski, G. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, Y. Namba, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, D. Palmer, A. Parsons, Y. Soong, C. M. Stahl, H. Takata, K. Tamura, Y. Tawara, B. J. Teegarden, “Supermirror hard-x-ray telescope,” Appl. Opt. 37, 8067–8073 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, K. Tamura, K. Haga, N. Nakamura, N. Nakajo, H. Takata, T. Okajima, Y. Ogasaka, G. S. Lodha, Y. Namba, “Replication of a multilayer supermirror,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3444, 569–575 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nomoto, S.

H. Kunieda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Ogasaka, H. Awaki, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, T. Yamazaki, M. Itoh, T. Kii, F. Makino, Y. Ogawara, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, I. Hatsukade, “Thirty-meter x-ray pencil beam line at the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 4805–4813 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Novick, R.

R. Giacconi, G. Branduardi, U. Briel, A. Epstein, D. Fabricant, E. Feigelson, W. Forman, P. Gorenstein, J. Grindlay, H. Gursky, F. R. Harnden, J. P. Henry, C. Jones, E. Kellogg, D. Koch, S. Murray, E. Schreier, F. Seward, H. Tananbaum, K. Topka, L. Van Speybroeck, S. S. Holt, R. H. Becker, E. A. Boldt, P. J. Serlemitsos, G. Clark, C. Canizares, T. Markert, R. Novick, D. Helfand, K. Long, “The Einstein (HEAO-2) X-ray Observatory,” Astrophys. J. 230, 540–550 (1979).
[CrossRef]

O’dell, S. L.

M. C. Weisskopf, S. L. O’dell, “Calibration of the AXAF observatory: overview,” in Grazing Incidence and Multilayer X-Ray Optical Systems, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3113, 2–17 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ogasaka, Y.

H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, K. Misaki, R. Shibata, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, Y. Terashima, M. Watanabe, K. Yamashita, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E: optical design and fabrication of thin foil mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 40, 553–564 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Shibata, M. Ishida, H. Kunieda, T. Endo, H. Honda, K. Misaki, J. Ishida, K. Imamura, Y. Hidaka, M. Maeda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, A. Furuzawa, M. Watanabe, Y. Terashima, T. Yoshioka, T. Okajima, K. Yamashita, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E. II. Ground-based x-ray characterization,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3762–3783 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamashita, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, S. D. Barthelmy, L. M. Bartlett, K.-W. Chan, A. Furuzawa, N. Gehrels, K. Haga, H. Kunieda, P. Kurczynski, G. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, Y. Namba, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, D. Palmer, A. Parsons, Y. Soong, C. M. Stahl, H. Takata, K. Tamura, Y. Tawara, B. J. Teegarden, “Supermirror hard-x-ray telescope,” Appl. Opt. 37, 8067–8073 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope onboard ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

H. Kunieda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Ogasaka, H. Awaki, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, T. Yamazaki, M. Itoh, T. Kii, F. Makino, Y. Ogawara, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, I. Hatsukade, “Thirty-meter x-ray pencil beam line at the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 4805–4813 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Okajima, S. Ichimaru, K. Tamura, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, S. Takahashi, S. Fukuda, H. Kitou, A. Gotou, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, Y. Tsusaka, S. Takeda, H. Kunida, “The X-ray measurement of the supermirror using synchrotron radiation,” in Advances in X-Ray Optics, A. K. Freund, T. Ishikawa, A. M. Khounsary, D. C. Mancini, A. G. Michette, S. Oestreich, eds., Proc. SPIE4145, 53–60 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Owens, T. Okajima, Y. Ogasaka, F. Berendse, P. J. Serlemitsos, “Multilayer coated thin foil mirrors for InFOCµS,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions III, J. E. Truemper, B. Aschenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE4012, 619–625 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Berendse, S. M. Owens, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, K.-W. Chan, Y. Soong, H. Krimm, W. H. Baumgartner, Y. Ogasaka, K. Tamura, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, K. Misaki, H. Kunieda, “Production and performance of the InFOCµS 20–40-keV graded multilayer mirror,” submitted to Appl. Opt.

A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, K. Tamura, K. Haga, N. Nakamura, N. Nakajo, H. Takata, T. Okajima, Y. Ogasaka, G. S. Lodha, Y. Namba, “Replication of a multilayer supermirror,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3444, 569–575 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Misaki, H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, R. Shibata, H. Mori, K. Itoh, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, Y. Terashima, M. Watanabe, K. Yamashita, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E. III. Guideline to performance improvements and optimization of ray-tracing program,” to be submitted to Appl. Opt.

K. Tamura, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, G. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, T. Okajima, O. Tsuda, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, R. Petre, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “Development of balloon-borne hard-x-ray telescopes using a multilayer supermirror,” in Grazing Incidence and Multilayer X-Ray Optical Systems, R. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3113, 285–292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ogawara, Y.

H. Kunieda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Ogasaka, H. Awaki, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, T. Yamazaki, M. Itoh, T. Kii, F. Makino, Y. Ogawara, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, I. Hatsukade, “Thirty-meter x-ray pencil beam line at the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 4805–4813 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Okajima, T.

H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, K. Misaki, R. Shibata, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, Y. Terashima, M. Watanabe, K. Yamashita, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E: optical design and fabrication of thin foil mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 40, 553–564 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Shibata, M. Ishida, H. Kunieda, T. Endo, H. Honda, K. Misaki, J. Ishida, K. Imamura, Y. Hidaka, M. Maeda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, A. Furuzawa, M. Watanabe, Y. Terashima, T. Yoshioka, T. Okajima, K. Yamashita, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E. II. Ground-based x-ray characterization,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3762–3783 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamashita, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, S. D. Barthelmy, L. M. Bartlett, K.-W. Chan, A. Furuzawa, N. Gehrels, K. Haga, H. Kunieda, P. Kurczynski, G. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, Y. Namba, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, D. Palmer, A. Parsons, Y. Soong, C. M. Stahl, H. Takata, K. Tamura, Y. Tawara, B. J. Teegarden, “Supermirror hard-x-ray telescope,” Appl. Opt. 37, 8067–8073 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamashita, K. Akiyama, K. Haga, H. Kunieda, G. S. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, T. Okajima, K. Tamura, Y. Tawara, “Fabrication and characterization of multilayer supermirrors for hard-x-ray optics,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 5, 711–713 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Tamura, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, G. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, T. Okajima, O. Tsuda, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, R. Petre, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “Development of balloon-borne hard-x-ray telescopes using a multilayer supermirror,” in Grazing Incidence and Multilayer X-Ray Optical Systems, R. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3113, 285–292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, K. Tamura, K. Haga, N. Nakamura, N. Nakajo, H. Takata, T. Okajima, Y. Ogasaka, G. S. Lodha, Y. Namba, “Replication of a multilayer supermirror,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3444, 569–575 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Misaki, H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, R. Shibata, H. Mori, K. Itoh, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, Y. Terashima, M. Watanabe, K. Yamashita, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E. III. Guideline to performance improvements and optimization of ray-tracing program,” to be submitted to Appl. Opt.

S. M. Owens, T. Okajima, Y. Ogasaka, F. Berendse, P. J. Serlemitsos, “Multilayer coated thin foil mirrors for InFOCµS,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions III, J. E. Truemper, B. Aschenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE4012, 619–625 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Berendse, S. M. Owens, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, K.-W. Chan, Y. Soong, H. Krimm, W. H. Baumgartner, Y. Ogasaka, K. Tamura, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, K. Misaki, H. Kunieda, “Production and performance of the InFOCµS 20–40-keV graded multilayer mirror,” submitted to Appl. Opt.

T. Okajima, S. Ichimaru, K. Tamura, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, S. Takahashi, S. Fukuda, H. Kitou, A. Gotou, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, Y. Tsusaka, S. Takeda, H. Kunida, “The X-ray measurement of the supermirror using synchrotron radiation,” in Advances in X-Ray Optics, A. K. Freund, T. Ishikawa, A. M. Khounsary, D. C. Mancini, A. G. Michette, S. Oestreich, eds., Proc. SPIE4145, 53–60 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Owens, S. M.

F. Berendse, S. M. Owens, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, K.-W. Chan, Y. Soong, H. Krimm, W. H. Baumgartner, Y. Ogasaka, K. Tamura, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, K. Misaki, H. Kunieda, “Production and performance of the InFOCµS 20–40-keV graded multilayer mirror,” submitted to Appl. Opt.

S. M. Owens, T. Okajima, Y. Ogasaka, F. Berendse, P. J. Serlemitsos, “Multilayer coated thin foil mirrors for InFOCµS,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions III, J. E. Truemper, B. Aschenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE4012, 619–625 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Palmer, D.

Parsons, A.

Petre, R.

K. Tamura, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, G. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, T. Okajima, O. Tsuda, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, R. Petre, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “Development of balloon-borne hard-x-ray telescopes using a multilayer supermirror,” in Grazing Incidence and Multilayer X-Ray Optical Systems, R. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3113, 285–292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ryan, L.

W. H. Baumgartner, J. Tueller, S. Barthelmy, H. Krimm, F. Birsa, L. Ryan, “The CZT pixellated detectors on the InFOCµS hard-x-ray telescope,” in New Century of X-ray Astronomy, H. Kunieda, H. Inoue, eds., ASP Conf. Ser.251, 520–521 (2001).

Sakima, Y.

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope onboard ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

Santos, M.

F. Jansen, D. Lumb, B. Altieri, J. Clavel, M. Ehle, C. Erd, C. Gabriel, M. Guainazzi, P. Gondoin, R. Much, R. Munoz, M. Santos, N. Schartel, D. Texier, G. Vacanti, “XMM-Newton Observatory. I. The spacecraft and operations,” Astron. Astrophys. 365, L1–L6 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schartel, N.

F. Jansen, D. Lumb, B. Altieri, J. Clavel, M. Ehle, C. Erd, C. Gabriel, M. Guainazzi, P. Gondoin, R. Much, R. Munoz, M. Santos, N. Schartel, D. Texier, G. Vacanti, “XMM-Newton Observatory. I. The spacecraft and operations,” Astron. Astrophys. 365, L1–L6 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schreier, E.

R. Giacconi, G. Branduardi, U. Briel, A. Epstein, D. Fabricant, E. Feigelson, W. Forman, P. Gorenstein, J. Grindlay, H. Gursky, F. R. Harnden, J. P. Henry, C. Jones, E. Kellogg, D. Koch, S. Murray, E. Schreier, F. Seward, H. Tananbaum, K. Topka, L. Van Speybroeck, S. S. Holt, R. H. Becker, E. A. Boldt, P. J. Serlemitsos, G. Clark, C. Canizares, T. Markert, R. Novick, D. Helfand, K. Long, “The Einstein (HEAO-2) X-ray Observatory,” Astrophys. J. 230, 540–550 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Serlemitsos, P. J.

H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, K. Misaki, R. Shibata, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, Y. Terashima, M. Watanabe, K. Yamashita, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E: optical design and fabrication of thin foil mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 40, 553–564 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Shibata, M. Ishida, H. Kunieda, T. Endo, H. Honda, K. Misaki, J. Ishida, K. Imamura, Y. Hidaka, M. Maeda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, A. Furuzawa, M. Watanabe, Y. Terashima, T. Yoshioka, T. Okajima, K. Yamashita, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E. II. Ground-based x-ray characterization,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3762–3783 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamashita, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, S. D. Barthelmy, L. M. Bartlett, K.-W. Chan, A. Furuzawa, N. Gehrels, K. Haga, H. Kunieda, P. Kurczynski, G. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, Y. Namba, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, D. Palmer, A. Parsons, Y. Soong, C. M. Stahl, H. Takata, K. Tamura, Y. Tawara, B. J. Teegarden, “Supermirror hard-x-ray telescope,” Appl. Opt. 37, 8067–8073 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, “Foil x-ray mirrors,” Astrophys. Space Sci. 239, 177–196 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope onboard ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

R. Giacconi, G. Branduardi, U. Briel, A. Epstein, D. Fabricant, E. Feigelson, W. Forman, P. Gorenstein, J. Grindlay, H. Gursky, F. R. Harnden, J. P. Henry, C. Jones, E. Kellogg, D. Koch, S. Murray, E. Schreier, F. Seward, H. Tananbaum, K. Topka, L. Van Speybroeck, S. S. Holt, R. H. Becker, E. A. Boldt, P. J. Serlemitsos, G. Clark, C. Canizares, T. Markert, R. Novick, D. Helfand, K. Long, “The Einstein (HEAO-2) X-ray Observatory,” Astrophys. J. 230, 540–550 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Y. Soong, L. Jalota, P. J. Serlemitsos, “Conical thin foil x-ray mirror fabrication via surface replication,” in X-Ray and Extreme Ultraviolet Optics, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds, Proc. SPIE2515, 64–69 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Tamura, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, G. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, T. Okajima, O. Tsuda, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, R. Petre, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “Development of balloon-borne hard-x-ray telescopes using a multilayer supermirror,” in Grazing Incidence and Multilayer X-Ray Optical Systems, R. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3113, 285–292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, K. Haga, K. Akiyama, A. Furuzawa, Y. Terashima, P. J. Serlemitsos, “Multilayer supermirror coating for hard-x-ray telescope,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics III, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2805, 236–243 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Misaki, H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, R. Shibata, H. Mori, K. Itoh, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, Y. Terashima, M. Watanabe, K. Yamashita, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E. III. Guideline to performance improvements and optimization of ray-tracing program,” to be submitted to Appl. Opt.

F. Berendse, S. M. Owens, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, K.-W. Chan, Y. Soong, H. Krimm, W. H. Baumgartner, Y. Ogasaka, K. Tamura, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, K. Misaki, H. Kunieda, “Production and performance of the InFOCµS 20–40-keV graded multilayer mirror,” submitted to Appl. Opt.

S. M. Owens, T. Okajima, Y. Ogasaka, F. Berendse, P. J. Serlemitsos, “Multilayer coated thin foil mirrors for InFOCµS,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions III, J. E. Truemper, B. Aschenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE4012, 619–625 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Seward, F.

R. Giacconi, G. Branduardi, U. Briel, A. Epstein, D. Fabricant, E. Feigelson, W. Forman, P. Gorenstein, J. Grindlay, H. Gursky, F. R. Harnden, J. P. Henry, C. Jones, E. Kellogg, D. Koch, S. Murray, E. Schreier, F. Seward, H. Tananbaum, K. Topka, L. Van Speybroeck, S. S. Holt, R. H. Becker, E. A. Boldt, P. J. Serlemitsos, G. Clark, C. Canizares, T. Markert, R. Novick, D. Helfand, K. Long, “The Einstein (HEAO-2) X-ray Observatory,” Astrophys. J. 230, 540–550 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Shibata, R.

Soong, Y.

R. Shibata, M. Ishida, H. Kunieda, T. Endo, H. Honda, K. Misaki, J. Ishida, K. Imamura, Y. Hidaka, M. Maeda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, A. Furuzawa, M. Watanabe, Y. Terashima, T. Yoshioka, T. Okajima, K. Yamashita, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E. II. Ground-based x-ray characterization,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3762–3783 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, K. Misaki, R. Shibata, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, Y. Terashima, M. Watanabe, K. Yamashita, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E: optical design and fabrication of thin foil mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 40, 553–564 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamashita, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, S. D. Barthelmy, L. M. Bartlett, K.-W. Chan, A. Furuzawa, N. Gehrels, K. Haga, H. Kunieda, P. Kurczynski, G. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, Y. Namba, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, D. Palmer, A. Parsons, Y. Soong, C. M. Stahl, H. Takata, K. Tamura, Y. Tawara, B. J. Teegarden, “Supermirror hard-x-ray telescope,” Appl. Opt. 37, 8067–8073 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, “Foil x-ray mirrors,” Astrophys. Space Sci. 239, 177–196 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope onboard ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

K. Tamura, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, G. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, T. Okajima, O. Tsuda, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, R. Petre, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “Development of balloon-borne hard-x-ray telescopes using a multilayer supermirror,” in Grazing Incidence and Multilayer X-Ray Optical Systems, R. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3113, 285–292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Soong, L. Jalota, P. J. Serlemitsos, “Conical thin foil x-ray mirror fabrication via surface replication,” in X-Ray and Extreme Ultraviolet Optics, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds, Proc. SPIE2515, 64–69 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. Berendse, S. M. Owens, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, K.-W. Chan, Y. Soong, H. Krimm, W. H. Baumgartner, Y. Ogasaka, K. Tamura, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, K. Misaki, H. Kunieda, “Production and performance of the InFOCµS 20–40-keV graded multilayer mirror,” submitted to Appl. Opt.

K. Misaki, H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, R. Shibata, H. Mori, K. Itoh, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, Y. Terashima, M. Watanabe, K. Yamashita, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E. III. Guideline to performance improvements and optimization of ray-tracing program,” to be submitted to Appl. Opt.

Stahl, C. M.

Susini, J.

K. D. Joensen, P. Hoghoj, F. E. Christensen, P. Gorenstein, J. Susini, E. Ziegler, A. K. Freund, J. L. Wood, “Multilayered supermirror structures for hard-x-ray synchrotron and astrophysics instrumentation,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics II, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2011, 360–372 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, H.

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope onboard ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

H. Kunieda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Ogasaka, H. Awaki, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, T. Yamazaki, M. Itoh, T. Kii, F. Makino, Y. Ogawara, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, I. Hatsukade, “Thirty-meter x-ray pencil beam line at the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 4805–4813 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, S.

T. Okajima, S. Ichimaru, K. Tamura, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, S. Takahashi, S. Fukuda, H. Kitou, A. Gotou, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, Y. Tsusaka, S. Takeda, H. Kunida, “The X-ray measurement of the supermirror using synchrotron radiation,” in Advances in X-Ray Optics, A. K. Freund, T. Ishikawa, A. M. Khounsary, D. C. Mancini, A. G. Michette, S. Oestreich, eds., Proc. SPIE4145, 53–60 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Takata, H.

K. Yamashita, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, S. D. Barthelmy, L. M. Bartlett, K.-W. Chan, A. Furuzawa, N. Gehrels, K. Haga, H. Kunieda, P. Kurczynski, G. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, Y. Namba, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, D. Palmer, A. Parsons, Y. Soong, C. M. Stahl, H. Takata, K. Tamura, Y. Tawara, B. J. Teegarden, “Supermirror hard-x-ray telescope,” Appl. Opt. 37, 8067–8073 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, K. Tamura, K. Haga, N. Nakamura, N. Nakajo, H. Takata, T. Okajima, Y. Ogasaka, G. S. Lodha, Y. Namba, “Replication of a multilayer supermirror,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3444, 569–575 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Takeda, S.

T. Okajima, S. Ichimaru, K. Tamura, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, S. Takahashi, S. Fukuda, H. Kitou, A. Gotou, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, Y. Tsusaka, S. Takeda, H. Kunida, “The X-ray measurement of the supermirror using synchrotron radiation,” in Advances in X-Ray Optics, A. K. Freund, T. Ishikawa, A. M. Khounsary, D. C. Mancini, A. G. Michette, S. Oestreich, eds., Proc. SPIE4145, 53–60 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tamura, K.

K. Yamashita, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, S. D. Barthelmy, L. M. Bartlett, K.-W. Chan, A. Furuzawa, N. Gehrels, K. Haga, H. Kunieda, P. Kurczynski, G. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, Y. Namba, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, D. Palmer, A. Parsons, Y. Soong, C. M. Stahl, H. Takata, K. Tamura, Y. Tawara, B. J. Teegarden, “Supermirror hard-x-ray telescope,” Appl. Opt. 37, 8067–8073 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamashita, K. Akiyama, K. Haga, H. Kunieda, G. S. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, T. Okajima, K. Tamura, Y. Tawara, “Fabrication and characterization of multilayer supermirrors for hard-x-ray optics,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 5, 711–713 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, K. Tamura, K. Haga, N. Nakamura, N. Nakajo, H. Takata, T. Okajima, Y. Ogasaka, G. S. Lodha, Y. Namba, “Replication of a multilayer supermirror,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3444, 569–575 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Tamura, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, G. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, T. Okajima, O. Tsuda, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, R. Petre, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “Development of balloon-borne hard-x-ray telescopes using a multilayer supermirror,” in Grazing Incidence and Multilayer X-Ray Optical Systems, R. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3113, 285–292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Okajima, S. Ichimaru, K. Tamura, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, S. Takahashi, S. Fukuda, H. Kitou, A. Gotou, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, Y. Tsusaka, S. Takeda, H. Kunida, “The X-ray measurement of the supermirror using synchrotron radiation,” in Advances in X-Ray Optics, A. K. Freund, T. Ishikawa, A. M. Khounsary, D. C. Mancini, A. G. Michette, S. Oestreich, eds., Proc. SPIE4145, 53–60 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Berendse, S. M. Owens, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, K.-W. Chan, Y. Soong, H. Krimm, W. H. Baumgartner, Y. Ogasaka, K. Tamura, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, K. Misaki, H. Kunieda, “Production and performance of the InFOCµS 20–40-keV graded multilayer mirror,” submitted to Appl. Opt.

Tananbaum, H.

R. Giacconi, G. Branduardi, U. Briel, A. Epstein, D. Fabricant, E. Feigelson, W. Forman, P. Gorenstein, J. Grindlay, H. Gursky, F. R. Harnden, J. P. Henry, C. Jones, E. Kellogg, D. Koch, S. Murray, E. Schreier, F. Seward, H. Tananbaum, K. Topka, L. Van Speybroeck, S. S. Holt, R. H. Becker, E. A. Boldt, P. J. Serlemitsos, G. Clark, C. Canizares, T. Markert, R. Novick, D. Helfand, K. Long, “The Einstein (HEAO-2) X-ray Observatory,” Astrophys. J. 230, 540–550 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Tawara, Y.

H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, K. Misaki, R. Shibata, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, Y. Terashima, M. Watanabe, K. Yamashita, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E: optical design and fabrication of thin foil mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 40, 553–564 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Shibata, M. Ishida, H. Kunieda, T. Endo, H. Honda, K. Misaki, J. Ishida, K. Imamura, Y. Hidaka, M. Maeda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, A. Furuzawa, M. Watanabe, Y. Terashima, T. Yoshioka, T. Okajima, K. Yamashita, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E. II. Ground-based x-ray characterization,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3762–3783 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamashita, K. Akiyama, K. Haga, H. Kunieda, G. S. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, T. Okajima, K. Tamura, Y. Tawara, “Fabrication and characterization of multilayer supermirrors for hard-x-ray optics,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 5, 711–713 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamashita, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, S. D. Barthelmy, L. M. Bartlett, K.-W. Chan, A. Furuzawa, N. Gehrels, K. Haga, H. Kunieda, P. Kurczynski, G. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, Y. Namba, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, D. Palmer, A. Parsons, Y. Soong, C. M. Stahl, H. Takata, K. Tamura, Y. Tawara, B. J. Teegarden, “Supermirror hard-x-ray telescope,” Appl. Opt. 37, 8067–8073 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope onboard ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

H. Kunieda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Ogasaka, H. Awaki, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, T. Yamazaki, M. Itoh, T. Kii, F. Makino, Y. Ogawara, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, I. Hatsukade, “Thirty-meter x-ray pencil beam line at the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 4805–4813 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. Berendse, S. M. Owens, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, K.-W. Chan, Y. Soong, H. Krimm, W. H. Baumgartner, Y. Ogasaka, K. Tamura, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, K. Misaki, H. Kunieda, “Production and performance of the InFOCµS 20–40-keV graded multilayer mirror,” submitted to Appl. Opt.

T. Okajima, S. Ichimaru, K. Tamura, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, S. Takahashi, S. Fukuda, H. Kitou, A. Gotou, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, Y. Tsusaka, S. Takeda, H. Kunida, “The X-ray measurement of the supermirror using synchrotron radiation,” in Advances in X-Ray Optics, A. K. Freund, T. Ishikawa, A. M. Khounsary, D. C. Mancini, A. G. Michette, S. Oestreich, eds., Proc. SPIE4145, 53–60 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Misaki, H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, R. Shibata, H. Mori, K. Itoh, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, Y. Terashima, M. Watanabe, K. Yamashita, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E. III. Guideline to performance improvements and optimization of ray-tracing program,” to be submitted to Appl. Opt.

Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, K. Haga, K. Akiyama, A. Furuzawa, Y. Terashima, P. J. Serlemitsos, “Multilayer supermirror coating for hard-x-ray telescope,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics III, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2805, 236–243 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Tamura, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, G. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, T. Okajima, O. Tsuda, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, R. Petre, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “Development of balloon-borne hard-x-ray telescopes using a multilayer supermirror,” in Grazing Incidence and Multilayer X-Ray Optical Systems, R. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3113, 285–292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, K. Tamura, K. Haga, N. Nakamura, N. Nakajo, H. Takata, T. Okajima, Y. Ogasaka, G. S. Lodha, Y. Namba, “Replication of a multilayer supermirror,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3444, 569–575 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Teegarden, B. J.

Terashima, Y.

R. Shibata, M. Ishida, H. Kunieda, T. Endo, H. Honda, K. Misaki, J. Ishida, K. Imamura, Y. Hidaka, M. Maeda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, A. Furuzawa, M. Watanabe, Y. Terashima, T. Yoshioka, T. Okajima, K. Yamashita, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E. II. Ground-based x-ray characterization,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3762–3783 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, K. Misaki, R. Shibata, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, Y. Terashima, M. Watanabe, K. Yamashita, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E: optical design and fabrication of thin foil mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 40, 553–564 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Misaki, H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, R. Shibata, H. Mori, K. Itoh, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, Y. Terashima, M. Watanabe, K. Yamashita, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E. III. Guideline to performance improvements and optimization of ray-tracing program,” to be submitted to Appl. Opt.

Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, K. Haga, K. Akiyama, A. Furuzawa, Y. Terashima, P. J. Serlemitsos, “Multilayer supermirror coating for hard-x-ray telescope,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics III, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2805, 236–243 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Texier, D.

F. Jansen, D. Lumb, B. Altieri, J. Clavel, M. Ehle, C. Erd, C. Gabriel, M. Guainazzi, P. Gondoin, R. Much, R. Munoz, M. Santos, N. Schartel, D. Texier, G. Vacanti, “XMM-Newton Observatory. I. The spacecraft and operations,” Astron. Astrophys. 365, L1–L6 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Topka, K.

R. Giacconi, G. Branduardi, U. Briel, A. Epstein, D. Fabricant, E. Feigelson, W. Forman, P. Gorenstein, J. Grindlay, H. Gursky, F. R. Harnden, J. P. Henry, C. Jones, E. Kellogg, D. Koch, S. Murray, E. Schreier, F. Seward, H. Tananbaum, K. Topka, L. Van Speybroeck, S. S. Holt, R. H. Becker, E. A. Boldt, P. J. Serlemitsos, G. Clark, C. Canizares, T. Markert, R. Novick, D. Helfand, K. Long, “The Einstein (HEAO-2) X-ray Observatory,” Astrophys. J. 230, 540–550 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Tsuda, O.

K. Tamura, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, G. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, T. Okajima, O. Tsuda, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, R. Petre, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “Development of balloon-borne hard-x-ray telescopes using a multilayer supermirror,” in Grazing Incidence and Multilayer X-Ray Optical Systems, R. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3113, 285–292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tsunemi, H.

H. Kunieda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Ogasaka, H. Awaki, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, T. Yamazaki, M. Itoh, T. Kii, F. Makino, Y. Ogawara, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, I. Hatsukade, “Thirty-meter x-ray pencil beam line at the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 4805–4813 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tsusaka, Y.

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope onboard ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

H. Kunieda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Ogasaka, H. Awaki, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, T. Yamazaki, M. Itoh, T. Kii, F. Makino, Y. Ogawara, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, I. Hatsukade, “Thirty-meter x-ray pencil beam line at the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 4805–4813 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Okajima, S. Ichimaru, K. Tamura, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, S. Takahashi, S. Fukuda, H. Kitou, A. Gotou, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, Y. Tsusaka, S. Takeda, H. Kunida, “The X-ray measurement of the supermirror using synchrotron radiation,” in Advances in X-Ray Optics, A. K. Freund, T. Ishikawa, A. M. Khounsary, D. C. Mancini, A. G. Michette, S. Oestreich, eds., Proc. SPIE4145, 53–60 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tueller, J.

K. Yamashita, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, S. D. Barthelmy, L. M. Bartlett, K.-W. Chan, A. Furuzawa, N. Gehrels, K. Haga, H. Kunieda, P. Kurczynski, G. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, Y. Namba, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, D. Palmer, A. Parsons, Y. Soong, C. M. Stahl, H. Takata, K. Tamura, Y. Tawara, B. J. Teegarden, “Supermirror hard-x-ray telescope,” Appl. Opt. 37, 8067–8073 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Baumgartner, J. Tueller, S. Barthelmy, H. Krimm, F. Birsa, L. Ryan, “The CZT pixellated detectors on the InFOCµS hard-x-ray telescope,” in New Century of X-ray Astronomy, H. Kunieda, H. Inoue, eds., ASP Conf. Ser.251, 520–521 (2001).

K. Tamura, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, G. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, T. Okajima, O. Tsuda, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, R. Petre, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “Development of balloon-borne hard-x-ray telescopes using a multilayer supermirror,” in Grazing Incidence and Multilayer X-Ray Optical Systems, R. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3113, 285–292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. Berendse, S. M. Owens, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, K.-W. Chan, Y. Soong, H. Krimm, W. H. Baumgartner, Y. Ogasaka, K. Tamura, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, K. Misaki, H. Kunieda, “Production and performance of the InFOCµS 20–40-keV graded multilayer mirror,” submitted to Appl. Opt.

Uchibori, Y.

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope onboard ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

Vacanti, G.

F. Jansen, D. Lumb, B. Altieri, J. Clavel, M. Ehle, C. Erd, C. Gabriel, M. Guainazzi, P. Gondoin, R. Much, R. Munoz, M. Santos, N. Schartel, D. Texier, G. Vacanti, “XMM-Newton Observatory. I. The spacecraft and operations,” Astron. Astrophys. 365, L1–L6 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Van Speybroeck, L.

R. Giacconi, G. Branduardi, U. Briel, A. Epstein, D. Fabricant, E. Feigelson, W. Forman, P. Gorenstein, J. Grindlay, H. Gursky, F. R. Harnden, J. P. Henry, C. Jones, E. Kellogg, D. Koch, S. Murray, E. Schreier, F. Seward, H. Tananbaum, K. Topka, L. Van Speybroeck, S. S. Holt, R. H. Becker, E. A. Boldt, P. J. Serlemitsos, G. Clark, C. Canizares, T. Markert, R. Novick, D. Helfand, K. Long, “The Einstein (HEAO-2) X-ray Observatory,” Astrophys. J. 230, 540–550 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Wada, M.

H. Kunieda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Ogasaka, H. Awaki, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, T. Yamazaki, M. Itoh, T. Kii, F. Makino, Y. Ogawara, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, I. Hatsukade, “Thirty-meter x-ray pencil beam line at the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 4805–4813 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, M.

Weisskopf, M. C.

M. C. Weisskopf, S. L. O’dell, “Calibration of the AXAF observatory: overview,” in Grazing Incidence and Multilayer X-Ray Optical Systems, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3113, 2–17 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wood, J. L.

K. D. Joensen, P. Hoghoj, F. E. Christensen, P. Gorenstein, J. Susini, E. Ziegler, A. K. Freund, J. L. Wood, “Multilayered supermirror structures for hard-x-ray synchrotron and astrophysics instrumentation,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics II, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2011, 360–372 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Yamashita, K.

R. Shibata, M. Ishida, H. Kunieda, T. Endo, H. Honda, K. Misaki, J. Ishida, K. Imamura, Y. Hidaka, M. Maeda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, A. Furuzawa, M. Watanabe, Y. Terashima, T. Yoshioka, T. Okajima, K. Yamashita, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E. II. Ground-based x-ray characterization,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3762–3783 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, K. Misaki, R. Shibata, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, Y. Terashima, M. Watanabe, K. Yamashita, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E: optical design and fabrication of thin foil mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 40, 553–564 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamashita, K. Akiyama, K. Haga, H. Kunieda, G. S. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, T. Okajima, K. Tamura, Y. Tawara, “Fabrication and characterization of multilayer supermirrors for hard-x-ray optics,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 5, 711–713 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamashita, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, S. D. Barthelmy, L. M. Bartlett, K.-W. Chan, A. Furuzawa, N. Gehrels, K. Haga, H. Kunieda, P. Kurczynski, G. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, Y. Namba, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, D. Palmer, A. Parsons, Y. Soong, C. M. Stahl, H. Takata, K. Tamura, Y. Tawara, B. J. Teegarden, “Supermirror hard-x-ray telescope,” Appl. Opt. 37, 8067–8073 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope onboard ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

H. Kunieda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Ogasaka, H. Awaki, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, T. Yamazaki, M. Itoh, T. Kii, F. Makino, Y. Ogawara, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, I. Hatsukade, “Thirty-meter x-ray pencil beam line at the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 4805–4813 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. Berendse, S. M. Owens, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, K.-W. Chan, Y. Soong, H. Krimm, W. H. Baumgartner, Y. Ogasaka, K. Tamura, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, K. Misaki, H. Kunieda, “Production and performance of the InFOCµS 20–40-keV graded multilayer mirror,” submitted to Appl. Opt.

T. Okajima, S. Ichimaru, K. Tamura, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, S. Takahashi, S. Fukuda, H. Kitou, A. Gotou, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, Y. Tsusaka, S. Takeda, H. Kunida, “The X-ray measurement of the supermirror using synchrotron radiation,” in Advances in X-Ray Optics, A. K. Freund, T. Ishikawa, A. M. Khounsary, D. C. Mancini, A. G. Michette, S. Oestreich, eds., Proc. SPIE4145, 53–60 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Misaki, H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, R. Shibata, H. Mori, K. Itoh, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, Y. Terashima, M. Watanabe, K. Yamashita, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E. III. Guideline to performance improvements and optimization of ray-tracing program,” to be submitted to Appl. Opt.

Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, K. Haga, K. Akiyama, A. Furuzawa, Y. Terashima, P. J. Serlemitsos, “Multilayer supermirror coating for hard-x-ray telescope,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics III, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2805, 236–243 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Tamura, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, G. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, T. Okajima, O. Tsuda, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, R. Petre, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “Development of balloon-borne hard-x-ray telescopes using a multilayer supermirror,” in Grazing Incidence and Multilayer X-Ray Optical Systems, R. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3113, 285–292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, K. Tamura, K. Haga, N. Nakamura, N. Nakajo, H. Takata, T. Okajima, Y. Ogasaka, G. S. Lodha, Y. Namba, “Replication of a multilayer supermirror,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3444, 569–575 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yamazaki, T.

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope onboard ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

H. Kunieda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Ogasaka, H. Awaki, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, T. Yamazaki, M. Itoh, T. Kii, F. Makino, Y. Ogawara, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, I. Hatsukade, “Thirty-meter x-ray pencil beam line at the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 4805–4813 (1993).
[CrossRef]

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P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope onboard ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

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K. D. Joensen, P. Hoghoj, F. E. Christensen, P. Gorenstein, J. Susini, E. Ziegler, A. K. Freund, J. L. Wood, “Multilayered supermirror structures for hard-x-ray synchrotron and astrophysics instrumentation,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics II, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2011, 360–372 (1994).
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Astrophys. Space Sci.

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K. Yamashita, K. Akiyama, K. Haga, H. Kunieda, G. S. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, T. Okajima, K. Tamura, Y. Tawara, “Fabrication and characterization of multilayer supermirrors for hard-x-ray optics,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 5, 711–713 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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H. Kunieda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Ogasaka, H. Awaki, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, T. Yamazaki, M. Itoh, T. Kii, F. Makino, Y. Ogawara, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, I. Hatsukade, “Thirty-meter x-ray pencil beam line at the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 4805–4813 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn.

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope onboard ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

W. H. Baumgartner, J. Tueller, S. Barthelmy, H. Krimm, F. Birsa, L. Ryan, “The CZT pixellated detectors on the InFOCµS hard-x-ray telescope,” in New Century of X-ray Astronomy, H. Kunieda, H. Inoue, eds., ASP Conf. Ser.251, 520–521 (2001).

Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, K. Haga, K. Akiyama, A. Furuzawa, Y. Terashima, P. J. Serlemitsos, “Multilayer supermirror coating for hard-x-ray telescope,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics III, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2805, 236–243 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Tamura, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, G. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, T. Okajima, O. Tsuda, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, R. Petre, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “Development of balloon-borne hard-x-ray telescopes using a multilayer supermirror,” in Grazing Incidence and Multilayer X-Ray Optical Systems, R. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3113, 285–292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Soong, L. Jalota, P. J. Serlemitsos, “Conical thin foil x-ray mirror fabrication via surface replication,” in X-Ray and Extreme Ultraviolet Optics, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds, Proc. SPIE2515, 64–69 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Joensen, P. Hoghoj, F. E. Christensen, P. Gorenstein, J. Susini, E. Ziegler, A. K. Freund, J. L. Wood, “Multilayered supermirror structures for hard-x-ray synchrotron and astrophysics instrumentation,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics II, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2011, 360–372 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, K. Tamura, K. Haga, N. Nakamura, N. Nakajo, H. Takata, T. Okajima, Y. Ogasaka, G. S. Lodha, Y. Namba, “Replication of a multilayer supermirror,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3444, 569–575 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Owens, T. Okajima, Y. Ogasaka, F. Berendse, P. J. Serlemitsos, “Multilayer coated thin foil mirrors for InFOCµS,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions III, J. E. Truemper, B. Aschenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE4012, 619–625 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Berendse, S. M. Owens, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, K.-W. Chan, Y. Soong, H. Krimm, W. H. Baumgartner, Y. Ogasaka, K. Tamura, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, K. Misaki, H. Kunieda, “Production and performance of the InFOCµS 20–40-keV graded multilayer mirror,” submitted to Appl. Opt.

T. Okajima, S. Ichimaru, K. Tamura, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, S. Takahashi, S. Fukuda, H. Kitou, A. Gotou, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, Y. Tsusaka, S. Takeda, H. Kunida, “The X-ray measurement of the supermirror using synchrotron radiation,” in Advances in X-Ray Optics, A. K. Freund, T. Ishikawa, A. M. Khounsary, D. C. Mancini, A. G. Michette, S. Oestreich, eds., Proc. SPIE4145, 53–60 (2000).
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K. Misaki, H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, R. Shibata, H. Mori, K. Itoh, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, Y. Terashima, M. Watanabe, K. Yamashita, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E. III. Guideline to performance improvements and optimization of ray-tracing program,” to be submitted to Appl. Opt.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Thick solid curve represents calculated reflectivity of the sixth group of supermirrors at a graying angle of 0.183 deg. Thin lines are the reflectivity of each block in the multilayer stack. On top of them a thick platinum layer is deposited to provide total external reflection to as great as 55 keV. The parameters of each block are presented in Table 1 as the sixth group supermirror.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Fabricated supermirrors and (b) a quadrant of the InFOCµS telescope prepared by the Nagoya group. The total number of supermirrors is 1020 for two quadrants. The radii of thin-foil mirrors range from 60 to 200 mm. Their height and thickness are 100 mm and 170 µm, respectively. Supermirrors are assembled into housing, following the Wolter type I configuration. The height of the housing is 230 mm and the outer radius is 220 mm. The assembled supermirrors are seen on top of the housing.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Effective areas, thin curves, of each mirror group and, thick solid curve, of a full telescope. Among the 13 groups the inner 10 groups have an outermost platinum layer as thick as the 1/e penetration depth of x rays at the designated energy for each foil, and their effective areas have a smooth continuation to lower energy. The outer three groups dip at 15 keV, since total external reflection by a single platinum layer is no longer effective. All groups show almost the same effective area in the 20–40-keV band.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic view of the dc magnetron sputtering system: Left, sputtering system with two disk-type sputtering targets facing each other. An argon plasma is created between the two targets; substrates rotate around the sputter sources during deposition. Right, another sputtering system that has a linear sputter target facing a fixed substrate.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured reflectivity of supermirrors, dots with error bars, deposited on prereplicated foil substrates. (a)–(c), Reflectivity versus energy at grazing angles of 0.138, 0.190, and 0.295 deg, respectively: Overlaid dashed curves, best-fit reflectivity with parameters of the 3rd, 7th, and 11th group in Table 1 and interfacial roughnesses of 0.35, 0.40, and 0.43 nm (DW), respectively. The calculation includes the CdZnTe detector response that has an energy resolution of 3% at 30 keV. (d) Reflectivity of a 6th group supermirror measured at 8.4 keV (W-Lα1): Overlaid curve, calculated with an interfacial roughness of 0.45 nm (DW). The parameters are summarized in Table 1.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Histogram of the distribution of the interfacial roughness of fabricated supermirrors derived from measurements of the reflectivity of 250 production supermirrors. The average value of the interfacial roughness is 0.38 ± 0.05 nm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

On-axis effective area of the full-x-ray telescope: open circles, measured effective area of one quadrant multiplied by a factor of 4; dashed and solid curves, calculated values with interfacial roughnesses of 0 and 0.38 nm, respectively. The measured effective area is lower than the calculation by ∼40%. Squares, results of ray-tracing simulation with an interfacial roughness of 0.38 nm. This model calculation method was developed for the Astro-E XRT calibration, including alignment and surface figure errors.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Schematic view of the configuration for the off-axis measurements.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Vignetting functions of a quadrant measured with hard x rays: squares, triangles, and circles, data at 20, 30, and 40 keV, respectively. (a), (b) Sensitive (1) and insensitive (2) directions, respectively: solid curves, Lorentzian functions fitted to the measured data. The FWHM of each function for the sensitive direction is 7.7, 6.5, and 5.2 arc min for 20, 30, and 40 keV, respectively. For the insensitive direction the FWHM is 25.8, 24.4, and 23.2 arc min for 20, 30, and 40 keV, respectively.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Top, on-axis look-down image; bottom, EEF of a quadrant measured at CuKα1 (8.04 keV) with a beam size of 0.5 mm × 0.5 mm. The contours in the left plot are drawn on a logarithmic scale. The large distortion of the image is primarily caused by the edge shape of mirror shells. The EEF is derived by counting the number of photons within a circle of arbitrary radius compared with the total number of photons in a 10-arc min radius.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Results of local reflectivity measurements. Abscissa, radial position of the beam; ordinate, number of reflected photons with a 3-s exposure at every stop. Data for inner, middle, and outer reflectors are shown in panels from top to bottom: solid lines with error bars are data points; dashed lines are expected number of photons for ideal foil. The loss of the effective areas is 46%, 23%, and 15% from top, middle, to bottom, respectively.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Parameters of Each Group of Supermirror

Tables Icon

Table 2 Best-Fit Parameters of Reflected X-Ray Beam Profile Model

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

θcdegrees1.651×ρƒ1A1/21Eckiloelectron volts,
R=R0 exp-2πmdσ2,
Iθs=Ngau exp- θs22σgau2+Nexp exp- |θs|σexp+Nlo1+2θ2σlo2 .

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