Abstract

A nonlinear sounding retrieval algorithm is used to produce vertical-temperature and water-vapor profiles from coincident observations taken by the airborne High-resolution Interferometer Sounder (HIS) and the ground-based Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) during the SUbsonic Contrails and Clouds Effects Special Study (SUCCESS). Also, clear sky Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) and AERI radiance measurements, achieved on a daily real-time basis at the Department of Energy’s Oklahoma CART (Cloud and Radiation Testbed) site, are used to demonstrate the current profiling capability by use of simultaneous geostationary satellite and ground-based remote sensing observations under clear-sky conditions. The discrepancy principle, a method to find the proper smoothing parameters from the minimum value between the normalized spectral residual norm and the a priori upper bound, is used to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of on-line simultaneous tuning of the multiple weighting and smoothing parameters from the combined satellite/airborne and ground-based measurements for the temperature and water-vapor retrieval in this nonlinear-retrieval process. An objective method to determine the degrees of freedom (d.f.) of the observation signal is derived. The d.f. of the radiance signal for the combined GOES and AERI measurements is larger than that for either instrument alone; while the d.f. of the observation signal for the combined GOES and AERI measurements is larger than that for either instrument alone and of the combined GOES and AERI measurements. The use of simultaneous clear-sky AERI and GOES data now provides improved vertical temperature and moisture soundings on an hourly basis for use in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program [J. Appl. Meteorol. 37, 875 (1998)].

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. J. D. Susskind, J. Rosenfield, D. Reuter, M. T. Chahine, “Remote sensing of weather and climate parameters from HIRS2/MSU on TIROS-N,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 4677–4697 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  4. W. L. Smith, H. M. Woolf, H. B. Howell, H. L. Huang, H. E. Revercomb, “The simultaneous retrieval of atmospheric temperature and water vapor profiles—applications to measurements with the High spectral resolution Interferometer Sounder (HIS),” in RSRM ’87: Advances in Remote Sensing Retrieval Methods, A. Deepak, H. E. Fleming, J. S. Theon, eds. (Deepak Publishing, Hampton, Va., 1988), pp. 189–202.
  5. W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercomb, D. D. Laporte, L. A. Sromovsky, S. Silverman, H. M. Woolf, H. B. Howell, R. O. Knuteson, H. L. Huang, “GHIS—the GOES High-Resolution Interferometer Sounder,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 29, 1189–1204 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercomb, H. B. Howell, H. M. Woolf, R. O. Knuteson, R. G. Dedecker, M. J. Lynch, E. R. Westwater, R. G. Struch, K. P. Morton, B. Stankov, M. J. Falls, J. Jordan, M. Jacobsen, W. F. Daberdt, R. McBeth, G. Albright, C. Paneitz, G. Wright, P. T. May, M. T. Decker, “GAPEX: A ground-based atmospheric profiling experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 71, 86–98 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  7. E. R. Westwater, W. B. Sweezy, L. M. McMillin, C. Dean, “Determination of atmospheric temperature profiles from a statistical combination of ground-based profiler and operational NOAA 6/7 satellite retrievals,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 23, 689–703 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  8. W. L. Smith, W. F. Feltz, R. O. Knuteson, H. R. Revercomb, H. B. Howell, “The retrieval of planetary boundary layer structure using ground-based infrared spectral radiance measurements,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Tech. 16, 323–333 (1999).
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    [CrossRef]
  10. E. R. Westwater, W. B. Sweezy, L. M. McMillin, C. Dean, “Determination of atmospheric temperature profiles from a statistical combination of ground-based profiler and operational NOAA 6/7 satellite retrievals,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 23, 689–703 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  11. E. R. Westwater, Z. Wang, N. C. Grody, L. M. McMillin, “Remote sensing of temperature profiles from a combination of observations from the satellite-based microwave sounding unit and the ground-based profiler,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Tech. 2, 97–109 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  12. E. R. Westwater, M. J. Fals, J. Schroeder, “Combined ground- and satellite-based radiometric remote sensing,” in RSRM ’87: Advances in Remote Sensing Retrieval Methods, A. Deepak, H. E. Fleming, J. S. Theon, eds. (Deepak Publishing, Hampton, Va., 1988), pp. 203–208.
  13. M. D. King, “Sensitivity of constrained linear inversions to the selection of the Lagrange multiplier,” J. Atmos. Sci. 39, 1356–1369 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. M. Hayden, “GOES-VAS simultaneous temperature-moisture retrieval algorithm,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 27, 705–733 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  15. L. Pan, J. C. Gille, D. P. Edwards, P. L. Bailey, C. D. Rodgers, “Retrieval of tropospheric carbon monoxide for the MOPITT Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 32277–32290 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  16. D. E. Flittner, B. M. Herman, K. J. Thome, J. M. Simpson, J. A. Reagan, “Total ozone and aerosol optical depths inferred from radiometric measurements in the Chappius absorption band,” J. Atmos. Sci. 50, 1113–1121 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  17. V. A. Morozov, “On the solution of functional equation by the method of regularization,” Sov. Math. Dokl. 7, 414–417 (1966).
  18. G. Wahba, “Smoothing noisy data by spline functions,” Numer. Math. 24, 383–393 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  19. P. Craven, G. Wahba, “Smoothing noisy data with spline functions: estimating the correct degree of smoothing by the method of generalized cross-validation,” Numer. Math. 31, 377–403 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. Li, H.-L. Huang, “Retrieval of atmospheric profiles from satellite sounder measurements by use of the discrepancy principle,” Appl. Opt. 38, 916–923 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  21. K. Levenberg, “A method for the solution of certain non-linear problems in least squares,” Appl. Math. 2, 2164–2168 (1944).
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  23. H. E. Revercomb, H. Buijs, H. B. Howell, R. O. Knuteson, D. D. Laporte, W. L. Smith, L. A. Sromovsky, H. W. Woolf, “Radiometric calibration of IR interferometers: experience from the High-resolution Interferometer Sounder (HIS) aircraft instrument,” in RSRM ’87: Advances in Remote Sensing Retrieval Methods, A. Deepak, H. E. Fleming, J. S. Theon, eds. (Deepak Publishing, Hampton, Va., 1988), pp. 89–101.
  24. H. H. Aumann, R. Pugnao, “The Atmospheric Sounder on EOS,” Opt. Eng. 32, 776–784 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  25. W. L. Smith, A. M. Larar, H.-L. Huang, B. Huang, H. E. Revercomb, “Hyperspectral remote sensing of atmospheric profiles from satellites and aircraft,” presented at SPIE’s second international ASIA-Pacific symposium on Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, Environment, and Space, Sendai, Japan, 9–12 Oct. (2000).
  26. W. F. Feltz, W. L. Smith, R. O. Knuteson, H. R. Revercomb, H. B. Howell, H. H. Woolf, “Meteorological Applications of Temperature and Water Vapor Retrieval from the Ground-based Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI),” J. Appl. Meteorol. 37, 857–875 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  27. W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercomb, H. L. Huang, R. O. Knuteson, “Vertical sounding capabilities with high spectral resolution atmospheric radiation measurements—a demonstration with the high resolution interferometer sounder (HIS),” in High Spectral Resolution Infrared Remote Sensing for Earth’s Weather and Climate Studies. A. Chedin, M. T. Chahine, N. A. Scott, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, New York, 1995), pp. 123–127.
  28. F. O’Sullivan, G. Wahba, “Gross validated Baysian retrieval algorithm for nonlinear remote sensing,” J. Comput. Phys. 59, 441–455 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  29. W. L. Smith, H. M. Woolf, “The use of eigenvectors of statistical covariance matrices for interpreting satellite sounding radiometer observations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 1127–1140 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  30. J. Li, “Temperature and water vapor weighting functions from radiative transfer equation with surface emissivity and solar reflectivity,” Adv. Atmos. Sci. 11, 421–426 (1995).
  31. G. Wahba, “Design criteria and eigensequence plots for satellite-computed tomography,” J. Atmo. Oceanic Tech. 2, 125–131 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  32. J. E. Hoke, N. A. Phillips, G. J. DiMego, J. J. Tuccillo, J. G. Sela, “The regional analysis and forecast system of the national meteorological center,” Wea. Forecasting 4, 323–334 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  33. T. J. Schmit, “Sounder bias correction on the east-west radiance gradient,” in Proc. SPIEGOES-8 and Beyond, E. R. Washwell, ed. 2812, 630–637 (1996).
  34. W. L. Smith, A. Larga, B. Hinton, H. B. Howell, H. E. Revercomb, D. H. DeSlover, C. A. Sisko, D. C. Tobin, D. Cousins, D. Mooney, M. Gazarik, S. Mango, “The NPOESS airborne sounder tested-Interferometer (NAST-I): The validation of results from a new and revolutionary airborne remote sensing tool,” in Proceedings, Tenth Conference on Atmosphere Radiation (1999), pp. 548–551.
  35. H. E. Revercomb, T. Walden, D. C. Tobin, J. Anderson, F. A. Best, N. C. Ciganovich, R. G. Dedecker, T. Dirkx, S. C. Ellington, R. K. Garcia, R. Herbselb, R. O. Knuteson, D. Laporte, D. McRae, M. Werner, “Recent results from two new aircraft-based Fourier-transform interferometers—The scanning high-resolution interferometer sounder and the NPOESS atmospheric sounder tested interferometer,” presented at the 8th International Workshop on Atmospheric Science from Space using Fourier Transform Spectrometry, Toulouse, France, 16–18 November (1998).

1999 (2)

W. L. Smith, W. F. Feltz, R. O. Knuteson, H. R. Revercomb, H. B. Howell, “The retrieval of planetary boundary layer structure using ground-based infrared spectral radiance measurements,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Tech. 16, 323–333 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, H.-L. Huang, “Retrieval of atmospheric profiles from satellite sounder measurements by use of the discrepancy principle,” Appl. Opt. 38, 916–923 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

W. F. Feltz, W. L. Smith, R. O. Knuteson, H. R. Revercomb, H. B. Howell, H. H. Woolf, “Meteorological Applications of Temperature and Water Vapor Retrieval from the Ground-based Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI),” J. Appl. Meteorol. 37, 857–875 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Pan, J. C. Gille, D. P. Edwards, P. L. Bailey, C. D. Rodgers, “Retrieval of tropospheric carbon monoxide for the MOPITT Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 32277–32290 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

J. Li, “Temperature and water vapor weighting functions from radiative transfer equation with surface emissivity and solar reflectivity,” Adv. Atmos. Sci. 11, 421–426 (1995).

1994 (1)

H. H. Aumann, R. Pugnao, “The Atmospheric Sounder on EOS,” Opt. Eng. 32, 776–784 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

D. E. Flittner, B. M. Herman, K. J. Thome, J. M. Simpson, J. A. Reagan, “Total ozone and aerosol optical depths inferred from radiometric measurements in the Chappius absorption band,” J. Atmos. Sci. 50, 1113–1121 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercomb, D. D. Laporte, L. A. Sromovsky, S. Silverman, H. M. Woolf, H. B. Howell, R. O. Knuteson, H. L. Huang, “GHIS—the GOES High-Resolution Interferometer Sounder,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 29, 1189–1204 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercomb, H. B. Howell, H. M. Woolf, R. O. Knuteson, R. G. Dedecker, M. J. Lynch, E. R. Westwater, R. G. Struch, K. P. Morton, B. Stankov, M. J. Falls, J. Jordan, M. Jacobsen, W. F. Daberdt, R. McBeth, G. Albright, C. Paneitz, G. Wright, P. T. May, M. T. Decker, “GAPEX: A ground-based atmospheric profiling experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 71, 86–98 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

J. E. Hoke, N. A. Phillips, G. J. DiMego, J. J. Tuccillo, J. G. Sela, “The regional analysis and forecast system of the national meteorological center,” Wea. Forecasting 4, 323–334 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

C. M. Hayden, “GOES-VAS simultaneous temperature-moisture retrieval algorithm,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 27, 705–733 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1985 (3)

E. R. Westwater, Z. Wang, N. C. Grody, L. M. McMillin, “Remote sensing of temperature profiles from a combination of observations from the satellite-based microwave sounding unit and the ground-based profiler,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Tech. 2, 97–109 (1985).
[CrossRef]

G. Wahba, “Design criteria and eigensequence plots for satellite-computed tomography,” J. Atmo. Oceanic Tech. 2, 125–131 (1985).
[CrossRef]

F. O’Sullivan, G. Wahba, “Gross validated Baysian retrieval algorithm for nonlinear remote sensing,” J. Comput. Phys. 59, 441–455 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (3)

E. R. Westwater, W. B. Sweezy, L. M. McMillin, C. Dean, “Determination of atmospheric temperature profiles from a statistical combination of ground-based profiler and operational NOAA 6/7 satellite retrievals,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 23, 689–703 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Susskind, J. Rosenfield, D. Reuter, M. T. Chahine, “Remote sensing of weather and climate parameters from HIRS2/MSU on TIROS-N,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 4677–4697 (1984).
[CrossRef]

E. R. Westwater, W. B. Sweezy, L. M. McMillin, C. Dean, “Determination of atmospheric temperature profiles from a statistical combination of ground-based profiler and operational NOAA 6/7 satellite retrievals,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 23, 689–703 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

M. D. King, “Sensitivity of constrained linear inversions to the selection of the Lagrange multiplier,” J. Atmos. Sci. 39, 1356–1369 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

E. R. Westwater, N. C. Grody, “Combined surface-based and satellite-based microwave temperature profile retrieval,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 19, 1438–1444 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

P. Craven, G. Wahba, “Smoothing noisy data with spline functions: estimating the correct degree of smoothing by the method of generalized cross-validation,” Numer. Math. 31, 377–403 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1976 (2)

C. D. Rodgers, “Retrieval of atmospheric temperature and composition from remote measurements of thermal radiation,” Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 14, 609–624 (1976).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Smith, H. M. Woolf, “The use of eigenvectors of statistical covariance matrices for interpreting satellite sounding radiometer observations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 1127–1140 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

G. Wahba, “Smoothing noisy data by spline functions,” Numer. Math. 24, 383–393 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

V. A. Morozov, “On the solution of functional equation by the method of regularization,” Sov. Math. Dokl. 7, 414–417 (1966).

1963 (1)

S. Twomey, “On the numerical solution of the Fredholm integral equations of the first kind by inversion of the linear system procedured by quadrature,” J. Assoc. Comput. Mach. 10, 79–101 (1963).
[CrossRef]

1944 (1)

K. Levenberg, “A method for the solution of certain non-linear problems in least squares,” Appl. Math. 2, 2164–2168 (1944).

Albright, G.

W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercomb, H. B. Howell, H. M. Woolf, R. O. Knuteson, R. G. Dedecker, M. J. Lynch, E. R. Westwater, R. G. Struch, K. P. Morton, B. Stankov, M. J. Falls, J. Jordan, M. Jacobsen, W. F. Daberdt, R. McBeth, G. Albright, C. Paneitz, G. Wright, P. T. May, M. T. Decker, “GAPEX: A ground-based atmospheric profiling experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 71, 86–98 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, J.

H. E. Revercomb, T. Walden, D. C. Tobin, J. Anderson, F. A. Best, N. C. Ciganovich, R. G. Dedecker, T. Dirkx, S. C. Ellington, R. K. Garcia, R. Herbselb, R. O. Knuteson, D. Laporte, D. McRae, M. Werner, “Recent results from two new aircraft-based Fourier-transform interferometers—The scanning high-resolution interferometer sounder and the NPOESS atmospheric sounder tested interferometer,” presented at the 8th International Workshop on Atmospheric Science from Space using Fourier Transform Spectrometry, Toulouse, France, 16–18 November (1998).

Aumann, H. H.

H. H. Aumann, R. Pugnao, “The Atmospheric Sounder on EOS,” Opt. Eng. 32, 776–784 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bailey, P. L.

L. Pan, J. C. Gille, D. P. Edwards, P. L. Bailey, C. D. Rodgers, “Retrieval of tropospheric carbon monoxide for the MOPITT Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 32277–32290 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Best, F. A.

H. E. Revercomb, T. Walden, D. C. Tobin, J. Anderson, F. A. Best, N. C. Ciganovich, R. G. Dedecker, T. Dirkx, S. C. Ellington, R. K. Garcia, R. Herbselb, R. O. Knuteson, D. Laporte, D. McRae, M. Werner, “Recent results from two new aircraft-based Fourier-transform interferometers—The scanning high-resolution interferometer sounder and the NPOESS atmospheric sounder tested interferometer,” presented at the 8th International Workshop on Atmospheric Science from Space using Fourier Transform Spectrometry, Toulouse, France, 16–18 November (1998).

Buijs, H.

H. E. Revercomb, H. Buijs, H. B. Howell, R. O. Knuteson, D. D. Laporte, W. L. Smith, L. A. Sromovsky, H. W. Woolf, “Radiometric calibration of IR interferometers: experience from the High-resolution Interferometer Sounder (HIS) aircraft instrument,” in RSRM ’87: Advances in Remote Sensing Retrieval Methods, A. Deepak, H. E. Fleming, J. S. Theon, eds. (Deepak Publishing, Hampton, Va., 1988), pp. 89–101.

Chahine, M. T.

J. D. Susskind, J. Rosenfield, D. Reuter, M. T. Chahine, “Remote sensing of weather and climate parameters from HIRS2/MSU on TIROS-N,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 4677–4697 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Ciganovich, N. C.

H. E. Revercomb, T. Walden, D. C. Tobin, J. Anderson, F. A. Best, N. C. Ciganovich, R. G. Dedecker, T. Dirkx, S. C. Ellington, R. K. Garcia, R. Herbselb, R. O. Knuteson, D. Laporte, D. McRae, M. Werner, “Recent results from two new aircraft-based Fourier-transform interferometers—The scanning high-resolution interferometer sounder and the NPOESS atmospheric sounder tested interferometer,” presented at the 8th International Workshop on Atmospheric Science from Space using Fourier Transform Spectrometry, Toulouse, France, 16–18 November (1998).

Cousins, D.

W. L. Smith, A. Larga, B. Hinton, H. B. Howell, H. E. Revercomb, D. H. DeSlover, C. A. Sisko, D. C. Tobin, D. Cousins, D. Mooney, M. Gazarik, S. Mango, “The NPOESS airborne sounder tested-Interferometer (NAST-I): The validation of results from a new and revolutionary airborne remote sensing tool,” in Proceedings, Tenth Conference on Atmosphere Radiation (1999), pp. 548–551.

Craven, P.

P. Craven, G. Wahba, “Smoothing noisy data with spline functions: estimating the correct degree of smoothing by the method of generalized cross-validation,” Numer. Math. 31, 377–403 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Daberdt, W. F.

W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercomb, H. B. Howell, H. M. Woolf, R. O. Knuteson, R. G. Dedecker, M. J. Lynch, E. R. Westwater, R. G. Struch, K. P. Morton, B. Stankov, M. J. Falls, J. Jordan, M. Jacobsen, W. F. Daberdt, R. McBeth, G. Albright, C. Paneitz, G. Wright, P. T. May, M. T. Decker, “GAPEX: A ground-based atmospheric profiling experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 71, 86–98 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Dean, C.

E. R. Westwater, W. B. Sweezy, L. M. McMillin, C. Dean, “Determination of atmospheric temperature profiles from a statistical combination of ground-based profiler and operational NOAA 6/7 satellite retrievals,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 23, 689–703 (1984).
[CrossRef]

E. R. Westwater, W. B. Sweezy, L. M. McMillin, C. Dean, “Determination of atmospheric temperature profiles from a statistical combination of ground-based profiler and operational NOAA 6/7 satellite retrievals,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 23, 689–703 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Decker, M. T.

W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercomb, H. B. Howell, H. M. Woolf, R. O. Knuteson, R. G. Dedecker, M. J. Lynch, E. R. Westwater, R. G. Struch, K. P. Morton, B. Stankov, M. J. Falls, J. Jordan, M. Jacobsen, W. F. Daberdt, R. McBeth, G. Albright, C. Paneitz, G. Wright, P. T. May, M. T. Decker, “GAPEX: A ground-based atmospheric profiling experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 71, 86–98 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Dedecker, R. G.

W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercomb, H. B. Howell, H. M. Woolf, R. O. Knuteson, R. G. Dedecker, M. J. Lynch, E. R. Westwater, R. G. Struch, K. P. Morton, B. Stankov, M. J. Falls, J. Jordan, M. Jacobsen, W. F. Daberdt, R. McBeth, G. Albright, C. Paneitz, G. Wright, P. T. May, M. T. Decker, “GAPEX: A ground-based atmospheric profiling experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 71, 86–98 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Revercomb, T. Walden, D. C. Tobin, J. Anderson, F. A. Best, N. C. Ciganovich, R. G. Dedecker, T. Dirkx, S. C. Ellington, R. K. Garcia, R. Herbselb, R. O. Knuteson, D. Laporte, D. McRae, M. Werner, “Recent results from two new aircraft-based Fourier-transform interferometers—The scanning high-resolution interferometer sounder and the NPOESS atmospheric sounder tested interferometer,” presented at the 8th International Workshop on Atmospheric Science from Space using Fourier Transform Spectrometry, Toulouse, France, 16–18 November (1998).

DeSlover, D. H.

W. L. Smith, A. Larga, B. Hinton, H. B. Howell, H. E. Revercomb, D. H. DeSlover, C. A. Sisko, D. C. Tobin, D. Cousins, D. Mooney, M. Gazarik, S. Mango, “The NPOESS airborne sounder tested-Interferometer (NAST-I): The validation of results from a new and revolutionary airborne remote sensing tool,” in Proceedings, Tenth Conference on Atmosphere Radiation (1999), pp. 548–551.

DiMego, G. J.

J. E. Hoke, N. A. Phillips, G. J. DiMego, J. J. Tuccillo, J. G. Sela, “The regional analysis and forecast system of the national meteorological center,” Wea. Forecasting 4, 323–334 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Dirkx, T.

H. E. Revercomb, T. Walden, D. C. Tobin, J. Anderson, F. A. Best, N. C. Ciganovich, R. G. Dedecker, T. Dirkx, S. C. Ellington, R. K. Garcia, R. Herbselb, R. O. Knuteson, D. Laporte, D. McRae, M. Werner, “Recent results from two new aircraft-based Fourier-transform interferometers—The scanning high-resolution interferometer sounder and the NPOESS atmospheric sounder tested interferometer,” presented at the 8th International Workshop on Atmospheric Science from Space using Fourier Transform Spectrometry, Toulouse, France, 16–18 November (1998).

Edwards, D. P.

L. Pan, J. C. Gille, D. P. Edwards, P. L. Bailey, C. D. Rodgers, “Retrieval of tropospheric carbon monoxide for the MOPITT Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 32277–32290 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ellington, S. C.

H. E. Revercomb, T. Walden, D. C. Tobin, J. Anderson, F. A. Best, N. C. Ciganovich, R. G. Dedecker, T. Dirkx, S. C. Ellington, R. K. Garcia, R. Herbselb, R. O. Knuteson, D. Laporte, D. McRae, M. Werner, “Recent results from two new aircraft-based Fourier-transform interferometers—The scanning high-resolution interferometer sounder and the NPOESS atmospheric sounder tested interferometer,” presented at the 8th International Workshop on Atmospheric Science from Space using Fourier Transform Spectrometry, Toulouse, France, 16–18 November (1998).

Falls, M. J.

W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercomb, H. B. Howell, H. M. Woolf, R. O. Knuteson, R. G. Dedecker, M. J. Lynch, E. R. Westwater, R. G. Struch, K. P. Morton, B. Stankov, M. J. Falls, J. Jordan, M. Jacobsen, W. F. Daberdt, R. McBeth, G. Albright, C. Paneitz, G. Wright, P. T. May, M. T. Decker, “GAPEX: A ground-based atmospheric profiling experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 71, 86–98 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Fals, M. J.

E. R. Westwater, M. J. Fals, J. Schroeder, “Combined ground- and satellite-based radiometric remote sensing,” in RSRM ’87: Advances in Remote Sensing Retrieval Methods, A. Deepak, H. E. Fleming, J. S. Theon, eds. (Deepak Publishing, Hampton, Va., 1988), pp. 203–208.

Feltz, W. F.

W. L. Smith, W. F. Feltz, R. O. Knuteson, H. R. Revercomb, H. B. Howell, “The retrieval of planetary boundary layer structure using ground-based infrared spectral radiance measurements,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Tech. 16, 323–333 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. F. Feltz, W. L. Smith, R. O. Knuteson, H. R. Revercomb, H. B. Howell, H. H. Woolf, “Meteorological Applications of Temperature and Water Vapor Retrieval from the Ground-based Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI),” J. Appl. Meteorol. 37, 857–875 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Flittner, D. E.

D. E. Flittner, B. M. Herman, K. J. Thome, J. M. Simpson, J. A. Reagan, “Total ozone and aerosol optical depths inferred from radiometric measurements in the Chappius absorption band,” J. Atmos. Sci. 50, 1113–1121 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Garcia, R. K.

H. E. Revercomb, T. Walden, D. C. Tobin, J. Anderson, F. A. Best, N. C. Ciganovich, R. G. Dedecker, T. Dirkx, S. C. Ellington, R. K. Garcia, R. Herbselb, R. O. Knuteson, D. Laporte, D. McRae, M. Werner, “Recent results from two new aircraft-based Fourier-transform interferometers—The scanning high-resolution interferometer sounder and the NPOESS atmospheric sounder tested interferometer,” presented at the 8th International Workshop on Atmospheric Science from Space using Fourier Transform Spectrometry, Toulouse, France, 16–18 November (1998).

Gazarik, M.

W. L. Smith, A. Larga, B. Hinton, H. B. Howell, H. E. Revercomb, D. H. DeSlover, C. A. Sisko, D. C. Tobin, D. Cousins, D. Mooney, M. Gazarik, S. Mango, “The NPOESS airborne sounder tested-Interferometer (NAST-I): The validation of results from a new and revolutionary airborne remote sensing tool,” in Proceedings, Tenth Conference on Atmosphere Radiation (1999), pp. 548–551.

Gille, J. C.

L. Pan, J. C. Gille, D. P. Edwards, P. L. Bailey, C. D. Rodgers, “Retrieval of tropospheric carbon monoxide for the MOPITT Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 32277–32290 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Grody, N. C.

E. R. Westwater, Z. Wang, N. C. Grody, L. M. McMillin, “Remote sensing of temperature profiles from a combination of observations from the satellite-based microwave sounding unit and the ground-based profiler,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Tech. 2, 97–109 (1985).
[CrossRef]

E. R. Westwater, N. C. Grody, “Combined surface-based and satellite-based microwave temperature profile retrieval,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 19, 1438–1444 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Hayden, C. M.

C. M. Hayden, “GOES-VAS simultaneous temperature-moisture retrieval algorithm,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 27, 705–733 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Herbselb, R.

H. E. Revercomb, T. Walden, D. C. Tobin, J. Anderson, F. A. Best, N. C. Ciganovich, R. G. Dedecker, T. Dirkx, S. C. Ellington, R. K. Garcia, R. Herbselb, R. O. Knuteson, D. Laporte, D. McRae, M. Werner, “Recent results from two new aircraft-based Fourier-transform interferometers—The scanning high-resolution interferometer sounder and the NPOESS atmospheric sounder tested interferometer,” presented at the 8th International Workshop on Atmospheric Science from Space using Fourier Transform Spectrometry, Toulouse, France, 16–18 November (1998).

Herman, B. M.

D. E. Flittner, B. M. Herman, K. J. Thome, J. M. Simpson, J. A. Reagan, “Total ozone and aerosol optical depths inferred from radiometric measurements in the Chappius absorption band,” J. Atmos. Sci. 50, 1113–1121 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hinton, B.

W. L. Smith, A. Larga, B. Hinton, H. B. Howell, H. E. Revercomb, D. H. DeSlover, C. A. Sisko, D. C. Tobin, D. Cousins, D. Mooney, M. Gazarik, S. Mango, “The NPOESS airborne sounder tested-Interferometer (NAST-I): The validation of results from a new and revolutionary airborne remote sensing tool,” in Proceedings, Tenth Conference on Atmosphere Radiation (1999), pp. 548–551.

Hoke, J. E.

J. E. Hoke, N. A. Phillips, G. J. DiMego, J. J. Tuccillo, J. G. Sela, “The regional analysis and forecast system of the national meteorological center,” Wea. Forecasting 4, 323–334 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Howell, H. B.

W. L. Smith, W. F. Feltz, R. O. Knuteson, H. R. Revercomb, H. B. Howell, “The retrieval of planetary boundary layer structure using ground-based infrared spectral radiance measurements,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Tech. 16, 323–333 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. F. Feltz, W. L. Smith, R. O. Knuteson, H. R. Revercomb, H. B. Howell, H. H. Woolf, “Meteorological Applications of Temperature and Water Vapor Retrieval from the Ground-based Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI),” J. Appl. Meteorol. 37, 857–875 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercomb, D. D. Laporte, L. A. Sromovsky, S. Silverman, H. M. Woolf, H. B. Howell, R. O. Knuteson, H. L. Huang, “GHIS—the GOES High-Resolution Interferometer Sounder,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 29, 1189–1204 (1991).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercomb, H. B. Howell, H. M. Woolf, R. O. Knuteson, R. G. Dedecker, M. J. Lynch, E. R. Westwater, R. G. Struch, K. P. Morton, B. Stankov, M. J. Falls, J. Jordan, M. Jacobsen, W. F. Daberdt, R. McBeth, G. Albright, C. Paneitz, G. Wright, P. T. May, M. T. Decker, “GAPEX: A ground-based atmospheric profiling experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 71, 86–98 (1990).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Smith, H. M. Woolf, H. B. Howell, H. L. Huang, H. E. Revercomb, “The simultaneous retrieval of atmospheric temperature and water vapor profiles—applications to measurements with the High spectral resolution Interferometer Sounder (HIS),” in RSRM ’87: Advances in Remote Sensing Retrieval Methods, A. Deepak, H. E. Fleming, J. S. Theon, eds. (Deepak Publishing, Hampton, Va., 1988), pp. 189–202.

W. L. Smith, A. Larga, B. Hinton, H. B. Howell, H. E. Revercomb, D. H. DeSlover, C. A. Sisko, D. C. Tobin, D. Cousins, D. Mooney, M. Gazarik, S. Mango, “The NPOESS airborne sounder tested-Interferometer (NAST-I): The validation of results from a new and revolutionary airborne remote sensing tool,” in Proceedings, Tenth Conference on Atmosphere Radiation (1999), pp. 548–551.

H. E. Revercomb, H. Buijs, H. B. Howell, R. O. Knuteson, D. D. Laporte, W. L. Smith, L. A. Sromovsky, H. W. Woolf, “Radiometric calibration of IR interferometers: experience from the High-resolution Interferometer Sounder (HIS) aircraft instrument,” in RSRM ’87: Advances in Remote Sensing Retrieval Methods, A. Deepak, H. E. Fleming, J. S. Theon, eds. (Deepak Publishing, Hampton, Va., 1988), pp. 89–101.

W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercomb, H. B. Howell, H. M. Woolf, “HIS—A satellite instrument to observe temperature and moisture profiles with high vertical resolution,” Presented at Fifth Conference on Atmospheric Radiation, Baltimore, MD, 31 Oct.–4 Nov. (1983).

Huang, B.

W. L. Smith, A. M. Larar, H.-L. Huang, B. Huang, H. E. Revercomb, “Hyperspectral remote sensing of atmospheric profiles from satellites and aircraft,” presented at SPIE’s second international ASIA-Pacific symposium on Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, Environment, and Space, Sendai, Japan, 9–12 Oct. (2000).

Huang, H. L.

W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercomb, D. D. Laporte, L. A. Sromovsky, S. Silverman, H. M. Woolf, H. B. Howell, R. O. Knuteson, H. L. Huang, “GHIS—the GOES High-Resolution Interferometer Sounder,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 29, 1189–1204 (1991).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercomb, H. L. Huang, R. O. Knuteson, “Vertical sounding capabilities with high spectral resolution atmospheric radiation measurements—a demonstration with the high resolution interferometer sounder (HIS),” in High Spectral Resolution Infrared Remote Sensing for Earth’s Weather and Climate Studies. A. Chedin, M. T. Chahine, N. A. Scott, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, New York, 1995), pp. 123–127.

W. L. Smith, H. M. Woolf, H. B. Howell, H. L. Huang, H. E. Revercomb, “The simultaneous retrieval of atmospheric temperature and water vapor profiles—applications to measurements with the High spectral resolution Interferometer Sounder (HIS),” in RSRM ’87: Advances in Remote Sensing Retrieval Methods, A. Deepak, H. E. Fleming, J. S. Theon, eds. (Deepak Publishing, Hampton, Va., 1988), pp. 189–202.

Huang, H.-L.

J. Li, H.-L. Huang, “Retrieval of atmospheric profiles from satellite sounder measurements by use of the discrepancy principle,” Appl. Opt. 38, 916–923 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Smith, A. M. Larar, H.-L. Huang, B. Huang, H. E. Revercomb, “Hyperspectral remote sensing of atmospheric profiles from satellites and aircraft,” presented at SPIE’s second international ASIA-Pacific symposium on Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, Environment, and Space, Sendai, Japan, 9–12 Oct. (2000).

Jacobsen, M.

W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercomb, H. B. Howell, H. M. Woolf, R. O. Knuteson, R. G. Dedecker, M. J. Lynch, E. R. Westwater, R. G. Struch, K. P. Morton, B. Stankov, M. J. Falls, J. Jordan, M. Jacobsen, W. F. Daberdt, R. McBeth, G. Albright, C. Paneitz, G. Wright, P. T. May, M. T. Decker, “GAPEX: A ground-based atmospheric profiling experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 71, 86–98 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Jordan, J.

W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercomb, H. B. Howell, H. M. Woolf, R. O. Knuteson, R. G. Dedecker, M. J. Lynch, E. R. Westwater, R. G. Struch, K. P. Morton, B. Stankov, M. J. Falls, J. Jordan, M. Jacobsen, W. F. Daberdt, R. McBeth, G. Albright, C. Paneitz, G. Wright, P. T. May, M. T. Decker, “GAPEX: A ground-based atmospheric profiling experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 71, 86–98 (1990).
[CrossRef]

King, M. D.

M. D. King, “Sensitivity of constrained linear inversions to the selection of the Lagrange multiplier,” J. Atmos. Sci. 39, 1356–1369 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Knuteson, R. O.

W. L. Smith, W. F. Feltz, R. O. Knuteson, H. R. Revercomb, H. B. Howell, “The retrieval of planetary boundary layer structure using ground-based infrared spectral radiance measurements,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Tech. 16, 323–333 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. F. Feltz, W. L. Smith, R. O. Knuteson, H. R. Revercomb, H. B. Howell, H. H. Woolf, “Meteorological Applications of Temperature and Water Vapor Retrieval from the Ground-based Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI),” J. Appl. Meteorol. 37, 857–875 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercomb, D. D. Laporte, L. A. Sromovsky, S. Silverman, H. M. Woolf, H. B. Howell, R. O. Knuteson, H. L. Huang, “GHIS—the GOES High-Resolution Interferometer Sounder,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 29, 1189–1204 (1991).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercomb, H. B. Howell, H. M. Woolf, R. O. Knuteson, R. G. Dedecker, M. J. Lynch, E. R. Westwater, R. G. Struch, K. P. Morton, B. Stankov, M. J. Falls, J. Jordan, M. Jacobsen, W. F. Daberdt, R. McBeth, G. Albright, C. Paneitz, G. Wright, P. T. May, M. T. Decker, “GAPEX: A ground-based atmospheric profiling experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 71, 86–98 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Revercomb, H. Buijs, H. B. Howell, R. O. Knuteson, D. D. Laporte, W. L. Smith, L. A. Sromovsky, H. W. Woolf, “Radiometric calibration of IR interferometers: experience from the High-resolution Interferometer Sounder (HIS) aircraft instrument,” in RSRM ’87: Advances in Remote Sensing Retrieval Methods, A. Deepak, H. E. Fleming, J. S. Theon, eds. (Deepak Publishing, Hampton, Va., 1988), pp. 89–101.

W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercomb, H. L. Huang, R. O. Knuteson, “Vertical sounding capabilities with high spectral resolution atmospheric radiation measurements—a demonstration with the high resolution interferometer sounder (HIS),” in High Spectral Resolution Infrared Remote Sensing for Earth’s Weather and Climate Studies. A. Chedin, M. T. Chahine, N. A. Scott, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, New York, 1995), pp. 123–127.

H. E. Revercomb, T. Walden, D. C. Tobin, J. Anderson, F. A. Best, N. C. Ciganovich, R. G. Dedecker, T. Dirkx, S. C. Ellington, R. K. Garcia, R. Herbselb, R. O. Knuteson, D. Laporte, D. McRae, M. Werner, “Recent results from two new aircraft-based Fourier-transform interferometers—The scanning high-resolution interferometer sounder and the NPOESS atmospheric sounder tested interferometer,” presented at the 8th International Workshop on Atmospheric Science from Space using Fourier Transform Spectrometry, Toulouse, France, 16–18 November (1998).

Laporte, D.

H. E. Revercomb, T. Walden, D. C. Tobin, J. Anderson, F. A. Best, N. C. Ciganovich, R. G. Dedecker, T. Dirkx, S. C. Ellington, R. K. Garcia, R. Herbselb, R. O. Knuteson, D. Laporte, D. McRae, M. Werner, “Recent results from two new aircraft-based Fourier-transform interferometers—The scanning high-resolution interferometer sounder and the NPOESS atmospheric sounder tested interferometer,” presented at the 8th International Workshop on Atmospheric Science from Space using Fourier Transform Spectrometry, Toulouse, France, 16–18 November (1998).

Laporte, D. D.

W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercomb, D. D. Laporte, L. A. Sromovsky, S. Silverman, H. M. Woolf, H. B. Howell, R. O. Knuteson, H. L. Huang, “GHIS—the GOES High-Resolution Interferometer Sounder,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 29, 1189–1204 (1991).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Revercomb, H. Buijs, H. B. Howell, R. O. Knuteson, D. D. Laporte, W. L. Smith, L. A. Sromovsky, H. W. Woolf, “Radiometric calibration of IR interferometers: experience from the High-resolution Interferometer Sounder (HIS) aircraft instrument,” in RSRM ’87: Advances in Remote Sensing Retrieval Methods, A. Deepak, H. E. Fleming, J. S. Theon, eds. (Deepak Publishing, Hampton, Va., 1988), pp. 89–101.

Larar, A. M.

W. L. Smith, A. M. Larar, H.-L. Huang, B. Huang, H. E. Revercomb, “Hyperspectral remote sensing of atmospheric profiles from satellites and aircraft,” presented at SPIE’s second international ASIA-Pacific symposium on Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, Environment, and Space, Sendai, Japan, 9–12 Oct. (2000).

Larga, A.

W. L. Smith, A. Larga, B. Hinton, H. B. Howell, H. E. Revercomb, D. H. DeSlover, C. A. Sisko, D. C. Tobin, D. Cousins, D. Mooney, M. Gazarik, S. Mango, “The NPOESS airborne sounder tested-Interferometer (NAST-I): The validation of results from a new and revolutionary airborne remote sensing tool,” in Proceedings, Tenth Conference on Atmosphere Radiation (1999), pp. 548–551.

Levenberg, K.

K. Levenberg, “A method for the solution of certain non-linear problems in least squares,” Appl. Math. 2, 2164–2168 (1944).

Li, J.

J. Li, H.-L. Huang, “Retrieval of atmospheric profiles from satellite sounder measurements by use of the discrepancy principle,” Appl. Opt. 38, 916–923 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, “Temperature and water vapor weighting functions from radiative transfer equation with surface emissivity and solar reflectivity,” Adv. Atmos. Sci. 11, 421–426 (1995).

Lynch, M. J.

W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercomb, H. B. Howell, H. M. Woolf, R. O. Knuteson, R. G. Dedecker, M. J. Lynch, E. R. Westwater, R. G. Struch, K. P. Morton, B. Stankov, M. J. Falls, J. Jordan, M. Jacobsen, W. F. Daberdt, R. McBeth, G. Albright, C. Paneitz, G. Wright, P. T. May, M. T. Decker, “GAPEX: A ground-based atmospheric profiling experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 71, 86–98 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Mango, S.

W. L. Smith, A. Larga, B. Hinton, H. B. Howell, H. E. Revercomb, D. H. DeSlover, C. A. Sisko, D. C. Tobin, D. Cousins, D. Mooney, M. Gazarik, S. Mango, “The NPOESS airborne sounder tested-Interferometer (NAST-I): The validation of results from a new and revolutionary airborne remote sensing tool,” in Proceedings, Tenth Conference on Atmosphere Radiation (1999), pp. 548–551.

May, P. T.

W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercomb, H. B. Howell, H. M. Woolf, R. O. Knuteson, R. G. Dedecker, M. J. Lynch, E. R. Westwater, R. G. Struch, K. P. Morton, B. Stankov, M. J. Falls, J. Jordan, M. Jacobsen, W. F. Daberdt, R. McBeth, G. Albright, C. Paneitz, G. Wright, P. T. May, M. T. Decker, “GAPEX: A ground-based atmospheric profiling experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 71, 86–98 (1990).
[CrossRef]

McBeth, R.

W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercomb, H. B. Howell, H. M. Woolf, R. O. Knuteson, R. G. Dedecker, M. J. Lynch, E. R. Westwater, R. G. Struch, K. P. Morton, B. Stankov, M. J. Falls, J. Jordan, M. Jacobsen, W. F. Daberdt, R. McBeth, G. Albright, C. Paneitz, G. Wright, P. T. May, M. T. Decker, “GAPEX: A ground-based atmospheric profiling experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 71, 86–98 (1990).
[CrossRef]

McMillin, L. M.

E. R. Westwater, Z. Wang, N. C. Grody, L. M. McMillin, “Remote sensing of temperature profiles from a combination of observations from the satellite-based microwave sounding unit and the ground-based profiler,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Tech. 2, 97–109 (1985).
[CrossRef]

E. R. Westwater, W. B. Sweezy, L. M. McMillin, C. Dean, “Determination of atmospheric temperature profiles from a statistical combination of ground-based profiler and operational NOAA 6/7 satellite retrievals,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 23, 689–703 (1984).
[CrossRef]

E. R. Westwater, W. B. Sweezy, L. M. McMillin, C. Dean, “Determination of atmospheric temperature profiles from a statistical combination of ground-based profiler and operational NOAA 6/7 satellite retrievals,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 23, 689–703 (1984).
[CrossRef]

McRae, D.

H. E. Revercomb, T. Walden, D. C. Tobin, J. Anderson, F. A. Best, N. C. Ciganovich, R. G. Dedecker, T. Dirkx, S. C. Ellington, R. K. Garcia, R. Herbselb, R. O. Knuteson, D. Laporte, D. McRae, M. Werner, “Recent results from two new aircraft-based Fourier-transform interferometers—The scanning high-resolution interferometer sounder and the NPOESS atmospheric sounder tested interferometer,” presented at the 8th International Workshop on Atmospheric Science from Space using Fourier Transform Spectrometry, Toulouse, France, 16–18 November (1998).

Mooney, D.

W. L. Smith, A. Larga, B. Hinton, H. B. Howell, H. E. Revercomb, D. H. DeSlover, C. A. Sisko, D. C. Tobin, D. Cousins, D. Mooney, M. Gazarik, S. Mango, “The NPOESS airborne sounder tested-Interferometer (NAST-I): The validation of results from a new and revolutionary airborne remote sensing tool,” in Proceedings, Tenth Conference on Atmosphere Radiation (1999), pp. 548–551.

Morozov, V. A.

V. A. Morozov, “On the solution of functional equation by the method of regularization,” Sov. Math. Dokl. 7, 414–417 (1966).

Morton, K. P.

W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercomb, H. B. Howell, H. M. Woolf, R. O. Knuteson, R. G. Dedecker, M. J. Lynch, E. R. Westwater, R. G. Struch, K. P. Morton, B. Stankov, M. J. Falls, J. Jordan, M. Jacobsen, W. F. Daberdt, R. McBeth, G. Albright, C. Paneitz, G. Wright, P. T. May, M. T. Decker, “GAPEX: A ground-based atmospheric profiling experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 71, 86–98 (1990).
[CrossRef]

O’Sullivan, F.

F. O’Sullivan, G. Wahba, “Gross validated Baysian retrieval algorithm for nonlinear remote sensing,” J. Comput. Phys. 59, 441–455 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Pan, L.

L. Pan, J. C. Gille, D. P. Edwards, P. L. Bailey, C. D. Rodgers, “Retrieval of tropospheric carbon monoxide for the MOPITT Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 32277–32290 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Paneitz, C.

W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercomb, H. B. Howell, H. M. Woolf, R. O. Knuteson, R. G. Dedecker, M. J. Lynch, E. R. Westwater, R. G. Struch, K. P. Morton, B. Stankov, M. J. Falls, J. Jordan, M. Jacobsen, W. F. Daberdt, R. McBeth, G. Albright, C. Paneitz, G. Wright, P. T. May, M. T. Decker, “GAPEX: A ground-based atmospheric profiling experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 71, 86–98 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, N. A.

J. E. Hoke, N. A. Phillips, G. J. DiMego, J. J. Tuccillo, J. G. Sela, “The regional analysis and forecast system of the national meteorological center,” Wea. Forecasting 4, 323–334 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Pugnao, R.

H. H. Aumann, R. Pugnao, “The Atmospheric Sounder on EOS,” Opt. Eng. 32, 776–784 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Reagan, J. A.

D. E. Flittner, B. M. Herman, K. J. Thome, J. M. Simpson, J. A. Reagan, “Total ozone and aerosol optical depths inferred from radiometric measurements in the Chappius absorption band,” J. Atmos. Sci. 50, 1113–1121 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Reuter, D.

J. D. Susskind, J. Rosenfield, D. Reuter, M. T. Chahine, “Remote sensing of weather and climate parameters from HIRS2/MSU on TIROS-N,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 4677–4697 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Revercomb, H. E.

W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercomb, D. D. Laporte, L. A. Sromovsky, S. Silverman, H. M. Woolf, H. B. Howell, R. O. Knuteson, H. L. Huang, “GHIS—the GOES High-Resolution Interferometer Sounder,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 29, 1189–1204 (1991).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercomb, H. B. Howell, H. M. Woolf, R. O. Knuteson, R. G. Dedecker, M. J. Lynch, E. R. Westwater, R. G. Struch, K. P. Morton, B. Stankov, M. J. Falls, J. Jordan, M. Jacobsen, W. F. Daberdt, R. McBeth, G. Albright, C. Paneitz, G. Wright, P. T. May, M. T. Decker, “GAPEX: A ground-based atmospheric profiling experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 71, 86–98 (1990).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Smith, H. M. Woolf, H. B. Howell, H. L. Huang, H. E. Revercomb, “The simultaneous retrieval of atmospheric temperature and water vapor profiles—applications to measurements with the High spectral resolution Interferometer Sounder (HIS),” in RSRM ’87: Advances in Remote Sensing Retrieval Methods, A. Deepak, H. E. Fleming, J. S. Theon, eds. (Deepak Publishing, Hampton, Va., 1988), pp. 189–202.

W. L. Smith, A. Larga, B. Hinton, H. B. Howell, H. E. Revercomb, D. H. DeSlover, C. A. Sisko, D. C. Tobin, D. Cousins, D. Mooney, M. Gazarik, S. Mango, “The NPOESS airborne sounder tested-Interferometer (NAST-I): The validation of results from a new and revolutionary airborne remote sensing tool,” in Proceedings, Tenth Conference on Atmosphere Radiation (1999), pp. 548–551.

W. L. Smith, A. M. Larar, H.-L. Huang, B. Huang, H. E. Revercomb, “Hyperspectral remote sensing of atmospheric profiles from satellites and aircraft,” presented at SPIE’s second international ASIA-Pacific symposium on Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, Environment, and Space, Sendai, Japan, 9–12 Oct. (2000).

H. E. Revercomb, H. Buijs, H. B. Howell, R. O. Knuteson, D. D. Laporte, W. L. Smith, L. A. Sromovsky, H. W. Woolf, “Radiometric calibration of IR interferometers: experience from the High-resolution Interferometer Sounder (HIS) aircraft instrument,” in RSRM ’87: Advances in Remote Sensing Retrieval Methods, A. Deepak, H. E. Fleming, J. S. Theon, eds. (Deepak Publishing, Hampton, Va., 1988), pp. 89–101.

W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercomb, H. L. Huang, R. O. Knuteson, “Vertical sounding capabilities with high spectral resolution atmospheric radiation measurements—a demonstration with the high resolution interferometer sounder (HIS),” in High Spectral Resolution Infrared Remote Sensing for Earth’s Weather and Climate Studies. A. Chedin, M. T. Chahine, N. A. Scott, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, New York, 1995), pp. 123–127.

H. E. Revercomb, T. Walden, D. C. Tobin, J. Anderson, F. A. Best, N. C. Ciganovich, R. G. Dedecker, T. Dirkx, S. C. Ellington, R. K. Garcia, R. Herbselb, R. O. Knuteson, D. Laporte, D. McRae, M. Werner, “Recent results from two new aircraft-based Fourier-transform interferometers—The scanning high-resolution interferometer sounder and the NPOESS atmospheric sounder tested interferometer,” presented at the 8th International Workshop on Atmospheric Science from Space using Fourier Transform Spectrometry, Toulouse, France, 16–18 November (1998).

W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercomb, H. B. Howell, H. M. Woolf, “HIS—A satellite instrument to observe temperature and moisture profiles with high vertical resolution,” Presented at Fifth Conference on Atmospheric Radiation, Baltimore, MD, 31 Oct.–4 Nov. (1983).

Revercomb, H. R.

W. L. Smith, W. F. Feltz, R. O. Knuteson, H. R. Revercomb, H. B. Howell, “The retrieval of planetary boundary layer structure using ground-based infrared spectral radiance measurements,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Tech. 16, 323–333 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. F. Feltz, W. L. Smith, R. O. Knuteson, H. R. Revercomb, H. B. Howell, H. H. Woolf, “Meteorological Applications of Temperature and Water Vapor Retrieval from the Ground-based Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI),” J. Appl. Meteorol. 37, 857–875 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rodgers, C. D.

L. Pan, J. C. Gille, D. P. Edwards, P. L. Bailey, C. D. Rodgers, “Retrieval of tropospheric carbon monoxide for the MOPITT Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 32277–32290 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Rodgers, “Retrieval of atmospheric temperature and composition from remote measurements of thermal radiation,” Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 14, 609–624 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Rosenfield, J.

J. D. Susskind, J. Rosenfield, D. Reuter, M. T. Chahine, “Remote sensing of weather and climate parameters from HIRS2/MSU on TIROS-N,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 4677–4697 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Schmit, T. J.

T. J. Schmit, “Sounder bias correction on the east-west radiance gradient,” in Proc. SPIEGOES-8 and Beyond, E. R. Washwell, ed. 2812, 630–637 (1996).

Schroeder, J.

E. R. Westwater, M. J. Fals, J. Schroeder, “Combined ground- and satellite-based radiometric remote sensing,” in RSRM ’87: Advances in Remote Sensing Retrieval Methods, A. Deepak, H. E. Fleming, J. S. Theon, eds. (Deepak Publishing, Hampton, Va., 1988), pp. 203–208.

Sela, J. G.

J. E. Hoke, N. A. Phillips, G. J. DiMego, J. J. Tuccillo, J. G. Sela, “The regional analysis and forecast system of the national meteorological center,” Wea. Forecasting 4, 323–334 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Silverman, S.

W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercomb, D. D. Laporte, L. A. Sromovsky, S. Silverman, H. M. Woolf, H. B. Howell, R. O. Knuteson, H. L. Huang, “GHIS—the GOES High-Resolution Interferometer Sounder,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 29, 1189–1204 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Simpson, J. M.

D. E. Flittner, B. M. Herman, K. J. Thome, J. M. Simpson, J. A. Reagan, “Total ozone and aerosol optical depths inferred from radiometric measurements in the Chappius absorption band,” J. Atmos. Sci. 50, 1113–1121 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sisko, C. A.

W. L. Smith, A. Larga, B. Hinton, H. B. Howell, H. E. Revercomb, D. H. DeSlover, C. A. Sisko, D. C. Tobin, D. Cousins, D. Mooney, M. Gazarik, S. Mango, “The NPOESS airborne sounder tested-Interferometer (NAST-I): The validation of results from a new and revolutionary airborne remote sensing tool,” in Proceedings, Tenth Conference on Atmosphere Radiation (1999), pp. 548–551.

Smith, W. L.

W. L. Smith, W. F. Feltz, R. O. Knuteson, H. R. Revercomb, H. B. Howell, “The retrieval of planetary boundary layer structure using ground-based infrared spectral radiance measurements,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Tech. 16, 323–333 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. F. Feltz, W. L. Smith, R. O. Knuteson, H. R. Revercomb, H. B. Howell, H. H. Woolf, “Meteorological Applications of Temperature and Water Vapor Retrieval from the Ground-based Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI),” J. Appl. Meteorol. 37, 857–875 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercomb, D. D. Laporte, L. A. Sromovsky, S. Silverman, H. M. Woolf, H. B. Howell, R. O. Knuteson, H. L. Huang, “GHIS—the GOES High-Resolution Interferometer Sounder,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 29, 1189–1204 (1991).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercomb, H. B. Howell, H. M. Woolf, R. O. Knuteson, R. G. Dedecker, M. J. Lynch, E. R. Westwater, R. G. Struch, K. P. Morton, B. Stankov, M. J. Falls, J. Jordan, M. Jacobsen, W. F. Daberdt, R. McBeth, G. Albright, C. Paneitz, G. Wright, P. T. May, M. T. Decker, “GAPEX: A ground-based atmospheric profiling experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 71, 86–98 (1990).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Smith, H. M. Woolf, “The use of eigenvectors of statistical covariance matrices for interpreting satellite sounding radiometer observations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 1127–1140 (1976).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercomb, H. B. Howell, H. M. Woolf, “HIS—A satellite instrument to observe temperature and moisture profiles with high vertical resolution,” Presented at Fifth Conference on Atmospheric Radiation, Baltimore, MD, 31 Oct.–4 Nov. (1983).

H. E. Revercomb, H. Buijs, H. B. Howell, R. O. Knuteson, D. D. Laporte, W. L. Smith, L. A. Sromovsky, H. W. Woolf, “Radiometric calibration of IR interferometers: experience from the High-resolution Interferometer Sounder (HIS) aircraft instrument,” in RSRM ’87: Advances in Remote Sensing Retrieval Methods, A. Deepak, H. E. Fleming, J. S. Theon, eds. (Deepak Publishing, Hampton, Va., 1988), pp. 89–101.

W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercomb, H. L. Huang, R. O. Knuteson, “Vertical sounding capabilities with high spectral resolution atmospheric radiation measurements—a demonstration with the high resolution interferometer sounder (HIS),” in High Spectral Resolution Infrared Remote Sensing for Earth’s Weather and Climate Studies. A. Chedin, M. T. Chahine, N. A. Scott, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, New York, 1995), pp. 123–127.

W. L. Smith, H. M. Woolf, H. B. Howell, H. L. Huang, H. E. Revercomb, “The simultaneous retrieval of atmospheric temperature and water vapor profiles—applications to measurements with the High spectral resolution Interferometer Sounder (HIS),” in RSRM ’87: Advances in Remote Sensing Retrieval Methods, A. Deepak, H. E. Fleming, J. S. Theon, eds. (Deepak Publishing, Hampton, Va., 1988), pp. 189–202.

W. L. Smith, A. Larga, B. Hinton, H. B. Howell, H. E. Revercomb, D. H. DeSlover, C. A. Sisko, D. C. Tobin, D. Cousins, D. Mooney, M. Gazarik, S. Mango, “The NPOESS airborne sounder tested-Interferometer (NAST-I): The validation of results from a new and revolutionary airborne remote sensing tool,” in Proceedings, Tenth Conference on Atmosphere Radiation (1999), pp. 548–551.

W. L. Smith, A. M. Larar, H.-L. Huang, B. Huang, H. E. Revercomb, “Hyperspectral remote sensing of atmospheric profiles from satellites and aircraft,” presented at SPIE’s second international ASIA-Pacific symposium on Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, Environment, and Space, Sendai, Japan, 9–12 Oct. (2000).

Sromovsky, L. A.

W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercomb, D. D. Laporte, L. A. Sromovsky, S. Silverman, H. M. Woolf, H. B. Howell, R. O. Knuteson, H. L. Huang, “GHIS—the GOES High-Resolution Interferometer Sounder,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 29, 1189–1204 (1991).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Revercomb, H. Buijs, H. B. Howell, R. O. Knuteson, D. D. Laporte, W. L. Smith, L. A. Sromovsky, H. W. Woolf, “Radiometric calibration of IR interferometers: experience from the High-resolution Interferometer Sounder (HIS) aircraft instrument,” in RSRM ’87: Advances in Remote Sensing Retrieval Methods, A. Deepak, H. E. Fleming, J. S. Theon, eds. (Deepak Publishing, Hampton, Va., 1988), pp. 89–101.

Stankov, B.

W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercomb, H. B. Howell, H. M. Woolf, R. O. Knuteson, R. G. Dedecker, M. J. Lynch, E. R. Westwater, R. G. Struch, K. P. Morton, B. Stankov, M. J. Falls, J. Jordan, M. Jacobsen, W. F. Daberdt, R. McBeth, G. Albright, C. Paneitz, G. Wright, P. T. May, M. T. Decker, “GAPEX: A ground-based atmospheric profiling experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 71, 86–98 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Struch, R. G.

W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercomb, H. B. Howell, H. M. Woolf, R. O. Knuteson, R. G. Dedecker, M. J. Lynch, E. R. Westwater, R. G. Struch, K. P. Morton, B. Stankov, M. J. Falls, J. Jordan, M. Jacobsen, W. F. Daberdt, R. McBeth, G. Albright, C. Paneitz, G. Wright, P. T. May, M. T. Decker, “GAPEX: A ground-based atmospheric profiling experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 71, 86–98 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Susskind, J. D.

J. D. Susskind, J. Rosenfield, D. Reuter, M. T. Chahine, “Remote sensing of weather and climate parameters from HIRS2/MSU on TIROS-N,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 4677–4697 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Sweezy, W. B.

E. R. Westwater, W. B. Sweezy, L. M. McMillin, C. Dean, “Determination of atmospheric temperature profiles from a statistical combination of ground-based profiler and operational NOAA 6/7 satellite retrievals,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 23, 689–703 (1984).
[CrossRef]

E. R. Westwater, W. B. Sweezy, L. M. McMillin, C. Dean, “Determination of atmospheric temperature profiles from a statistical combination of ground-based profiler and operational NOAA 6/7 satellite retrievals,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 23, 689–703 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Thome, K. J.

D. E. Flittner, B. M. Herman, K. J. Thome, J. M. Simpson, J. A. Reagan, “Total ozone and aerosol optical depths inferred from radiometric measurements in the Chappius absorption band,” J. Atmos. Sci. 50, 1113–1121 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tobin, D. C.

H. E. Revercomb, T. Walden, D. C. Tobin, J. Anderson, F. A. Best, N. C. Ciganovich, R. G. Dedecker, T. Dirkx, S. C. Ellington, R. K. Garcia, R. Herbselb, R. O. Knuteson, D. Laporte, D. McRae, M. Werner, “Recent results from two new aircraft-based Fourier-transform interferometers—The scanning high-resolution interferometer sounder and the NPOESS atmospheric sounder tested interferometer,” presented at the 8th International Workshop on Atmospheric Science from Space using Fourier Transform Spectrometry, Toulouse, France, 16–18 November (1998).

W. L. Smith, A. Larga, B. Hinton, H. B. Howell, H. E. Revercomb, D. H. DeSlover, C. A. Sisko, D. C. Tobin, D. Cousins, D. Mooney, M. Gazarik, S. Mango, “The NPOESS airborne sounder tested-Interferometer (NAST-I): The validation of results from a new and revolutionary airborne remote sensing tool,” in Proceedings, Tenth Conference on Atmosphere Radiation (1999), pp. 548–551.

Tuccillo, J. J.

J. E. Hoke, N. A. Phillips, G. J. DiMego, J. J. Tuccillo, J. G. Sela, “The regional analysis and forecast system of the national meteorological center,” Wea. Forecasting 4, 323–334 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Twomey, S.

S. Twomey, “On the numerical solution of the Fredholm integral equations of the first kind by inversion of the linear system procedured by quadrature,” J. Assoc. Comput. Mach. 10, 79–101 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Wahba, G.

F. O’Sullivan, G. Wahba, “Gross validated Baysian retrieval algorithm for nonlinear remote sensing,” J. Comput. Phys. 59, 441–455 (1985).
[CrossRef]

G. Wahba, “Design criteria and eigensequence plots for satellite-computed tomography,” J. Atmo. Oceanic Tech. 2, 125–131 (1985).
[CrossRef]

P. Craven, G. Wahba, “Smoothing noisy data with spline functions: estimating the correct degree of smoothing by the method of generalized cross-validation,” Numer. Math. 31, 377–403 (1979).
[CrossRef]

G. Wahba, “Smoothing noisy data by spline functions,” Numer. Math. 24, 383–393 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Walden, T.

H. E. Revercomb, T. Walden, D. C. Tobin, J. Anderson, F. A. Best, N. C. Ciganovich, R. G. Dedecker, T. Dirkx, S. C. Ellington, R. K. Garcia, R. Herbselb, R. O. Knuteson, D. Laporte, D. McRae, M. Werner, “Recent results from two new aircraft-based Fourier-transform interferometers—The scanning high-resolution interferometer sounder and the NPOESS atmospheric sounder tested interferometer,” presented at the 8th International Workshop on Atmospheric Science from Space using Fourier Transform Spectrometry, Toulouse, France, 16–18 November (1998).

Wang, Z.

E. R. Westwater, Z. Wang, N. C. Grody, L. M. McMillin, “Remote sensing of temperature profiles from a combination of observations from the satellite-based microwave sounding unit and the ground-based profiler,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Tech. 2, 97–109 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Werner, M.

H. E. Revercomb, T. Walden, D. C. Tobin, J. Anderson, F. A. Best, N. C. Ciganovich, R. G. Dedecker, T. Dirkx, S. C. Ellington, R. K. Garcia, R. Herbselb, R. O. Knuteson, D. Laporte, D. McRae, M. Werner, “Recent results from two new aircraft-based Fourier-transform interferometers—The scanning high-resolution interferometer sounder and the NPOESS atmospheric sounder tested interferometer,” presented at the 8th International Workshop on Atmospheric Science from Space using Fourier Transform Spectrometry, Toulouse, France, 16–18 November (1998).

Westwater, E. R.

W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercomb, H. B. Howell, H. M. Woolf, R. O. Knuteson, R. G. Dedecker, M. J. Lynch, E. R. Westwater, R. G. Struch, K. P. Morton, B. Stankov, M. J. Falls, J. Jordan, M. Jacobsen, W. F. Daberdt, R. McBeth, G. Albright, C. Paneitz, G. Wright, P. T. May, M. T. Decker, “GAPEX: A ground-based atmospheric profiling experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 71, 86–98 (1990).
[CrossRef]

E. R. Westwater, Z. Wang, N. C. Grody, L. M. McMillin, “Remote sensing of temperature profiles from a combination of observations from the satellite-based microwave sounding unit and the ground-based profiler,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Tech. 2, 97–109 (1985).
[CrossRef]

E. R. Westwater, W. B. Sweezy, L. M. McMillin, C. Dean, “Determination of atmospheric temperature profiles from a statistical combination of ground-based profiler and operational NOAA 6/7 satellite retrievals,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 23, 689–703 (1984).
[CrossRef]

E. R. Westwater, W. B. Sweezy, L. M. McMillin, C. Dean, “Determination of atmospheric temperature profiles from a statistical combination of ground-based profiler and operational NOAA 6/7 satellite retrievals,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 23, 689–703 (1984).
[CrossRef]

E. R. Westwater, N. C. Grody, “Combined surface-based and satellite-based microwave temperature profile retrieval,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 19, 1438–1444 (1980).
[CrossRef]

E. R. Westwater, M. J. Fals, J. Schroeder, “Combined ground- and satellite-based radiometric remote sensing,” in RSRM ’87: Advances in Remote Sensing Retrieval Methods, A. Deepak, H. E. Fleming, J. S. Theon, eds. (Deepak Publishing, Hampton, Va., 1988), pp. 203–208.

Woolf, H. H.

W. F. Feltz, W. L. Smith, R. O. Knuteson, H. R. Revercomb, H. B. Howell, H. H. Woolf, “Meteorological Applications of Temperature and Water Vapor Retrieval from the Ground-based Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI),” J. Appl. Meteorol. 37, 857–875 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Woolf, H. M.

W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercomb, D. D. Laporte, L. A. Sromovsky, S. Silverman, H. M. Woolf, H. B. Howell, R. O. Knuteson, H. L. Huang, “GHIS—the GOES High-Resolution Interferometer Sounder,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 29, 1189–1204 (1991).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercomb, H. B. Howell, H. M. Woolf, R. O. Knuteson, R. G. Dedecker, M. J. Lynch, E. R. Westwater, R. G. Struch, K. P. Morton, B. Stankov, M. J. Falls, J. Jordan, M. Jacobsen, W. F. Daberdt, R. McBeth, G. Albright, C. Paneitz, G. Wright, P. T. May, M. T. Decker, “GAPEX: A ground-based atmospheric profiling experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 71, 86–98 (1990).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Smith, H. M. Woolf, “The use of eigenvectors of statistical covariance matrices for interpreting satellite sounding radiometer observations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 1127–1140 (1976).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercomb, H. B. Howell, H. M. Woolf, “HIS—A satellite instrument to observe temperature and moisture profiles with high vertical resolution,” Presented at Fifth Conference on Atmospheric Radiation, Baltimore, MD, 31 Oct.–4 Nov. (1983).

W. L. Smith, H. M. Woolf, H. B. Howell, H. L. Huang, H. E. Revercomb, “The simultaneous retrieval of atmospheric temperature and water vapor profiles—applications to measurements with the High spectral resolution Interferometer Sounder (HIS),” in RSRM ’87: Advances in Remote Sensing Retrieval Methods, A. Deepak, H. E. Fleming, J. S. Theon, eds. (Deepak Publishing, Hampton, Va., 1988), pp. 189–202.

Woolf, H. W.

H. E. Revercomb, H. Buijs, H. B. Howell, R. O. Knuteson, D. D. Laporte, W. L. Smith, L. A. Sromovsky, H. W. Woolf, “Radiometric calibration of IR interferometers: experience from the High-resolution Interferometer Sounder (HIS) aircraft instrument,” in RSRM ’87: Advances in Remote Sensing Retrieval Methods, A. Deepak, H. E. Fleming, J. S. Theon, eds. (Deepak Publishing, Hampton, Va., 1988), pp. 89–101.

Wright, G.

W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercomb, H. B. Howell, H. M. Woolf, R. O. Knuteson, R. G. Dedecker, M. J. Lynch, E. R. Westwater, R. G. Struch, K. P. Morton, B. Stankov, M. J. Falls, J. Jordan, M. Jacobsen, W. F. Daberdt, R. McBeth, G. Albright, C. Paneitz, G. Wright, P. T. May, M. T. Decker, “GAPEX: A ground-based atmospheric profiling experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 71, 86–98 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Atmos. Sci. (1)

J. Li, “Temperature and water vapor weighting functions from radiative transfer equation with surface emissivity and solar reflectivity,” Adv. Atmos. Sci. 11, 421–426 (1995).

Appl. Math. (1)

K. Levenberg, “A method for the solution of certain non-linear problems in least squares,” Appl. Math. 2, 2164–2168 (1944).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. (1)

W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercomb, H. B. Howell, H. M. Woolf, R. O. Knuteson, R. G. Dedecker, M. J. Lynch, E. R. Westwater, R. G. Struch, K. P. Morton, B. Stankov, M. J. Falls, J. Jordan, M. Jacobsen, W. F. Daberdt, R. McBeth, G. Albright, C. Paneitz, G. Wright, P. T. May, M. T. Decker, “GAPEX: A ground-based atmospheric profiling experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 71, 86–98 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Meteorol. (6)

E. R. Westwater, W. B. Sweezy, L. M. McMillin, C. Dean, “Determination of atmospheric temperature profiles from a statistical combination of ground-based profiler and operational NOAA 6/7 satellite retrievals,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 23, 689–703 (1984).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Hayden, “GOES-VAS simultaneous temperature-moisture retrieval algorithm,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 27, 705–733 (1988).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercomb, D. D. Laporte, L. A. Sromovsky, S. Silverman, H. M. Woolf, H. B. Howell, R. O. Knuteson, H. L. Huang, “GHIS—the GOES High-Resolution Interferometer Sounder,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 29, 1189–1204 (1991).
[CrossRef]

E. R. Westwater, N. C. Grody, “Combined surface-based and satellite-based microwave temperature profile retrieval,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 19, 1438–1444 (1980).
[CrossRef]

E. R. Westwater, W. B. Sweezy, L. M. McMillin, C. Dean, “Determination of atmospheric temperature profiles from a statistical combination of ground-based profiler and operational NOAA 6/7 satellite retrievals,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 23, 689–703 (1984).
[CrossRef]

W. F. Feltz, W. L. Smith, R. O. Knuteson, H. R. Revercomb, H. B. Howell, H. H. Woolf, “Meteorological Applications of Temperature and Water Vapor Retrieval from the Ground-based Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI),” J. Appl. Meteorol. 37, 857–875 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Assoc. Comput. Mach. (1)

S. Twomey, “On the numerical solution of the Fredholm integral equations of the first kind by inversion of the linear system procedured by quadrature,” J. Assoc. Comput. Mach. 10, 79–101 (1963).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmo. Oceanic Tech. (1)

G. Wahba, “Design criteria and eigensequence plots for satellite-computed tomography,” J. Atmo. Oceanic Tech. 2, 125–131 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Oceanic Tech. (2)

E. R. Westwater, Z. Wang, N. C. Grody, L. M. McMillin, “Remote sensing of temperature profiles from a combination of observations from the satellite-based microwave sounding unit and the ground-based profiler,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Tech. 2, 97–109 (1985).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Smith, W. F. Feltz, R. O. Knuteson, H. R. Revercomb, H. B. Howell, “The retrieval of planetary boundary layer structure using ground-based infrared spectral radiance measurements,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Tech. 16, 323–333 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci. (3)

D. E. Flittner, B. M. Herman, K. J. Thome, J. M. Simpson, J. A. Reagan, “Total ozone and aerosol optical depths inferred from radiometric measurements in the Chappius absorption band,” J. Atmos. Sci. 50, 1113–1121 (1993).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Smith, H. M. Woolf, “The use of eigenvectors of statistical covariance matrices for interpreting satellite sounding radiometer observations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 1127–1140 (1976).
[CrossRef]

M. D. King, “Sensitivity of constrained linear inversions to the selection of the Lagrange multiplier,” J. Atmos. Sci. 39, 1356–1369 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Comput. Phys. (1)

F. O’Sullivan, G. Wahba, “Gross validated Baysian retrieval algorithm for nonlinear remote sensing,” J. Comput. Phys. 59, 441–455 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (2)

L. Pan, J. C. Gille, D. P. Edwards, P. L. Bailey, C. D. Rodgers, “Retrieval of tropospheric carbon monoxide for the MOPITT Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 32277–32290 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Susskind, J. Rosenfield, D. Reuter, M. T. Chahine, “Remote sensing of weather and climate parameters from HIRS2/MSU on TIROS-N,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 4677–4697 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Numer. Math. (2)

G. Wahba, “Smoothing noisy data by spline functions,” Numer. Math. 24, 383–393 (1975).
[CrossRef]

P. Craven, G. Wahba, “Smoothing noisy data with spline functions: estimating the correct degree of smoothing by the method of generalized cross-validation,” Numer. Math. 31, 377–403 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

H. H. Aumann, R. Pugnao, “The Atmospheric Sounder on EOS,” Opt. Eng. 32, 776–784 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. (1)

C. D. Rodgers, “Retrieval of atmospheric temperature and composition from remote measurements of thermal radiation,” Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 14, 609–624 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Math. Dokl. (1)

V. A. Morozov, “On the solution of functional equation by the method of regularization,” Sov. Math. Dokl. 7, 414–417 (1966).

Wea. Forecasting (1)

J. E. Hoke, N. A. Phillips, G. J. DiMego, J. J. Tuccillo, J. G. Sela, “The regional analysis and forecast system of the national meteorological center,” Wea. Forecasting 4, 323–334 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Other (9)

T. J. Schmit, “Sounder bias correction on the east-west radiance gradient,” in Proc. SPIEGOES-8 and Beyond, E. R. Washwell, ed. 2812, 630–637 (1996).

W. L. Smith, A. Larga, B. Hinton, H. B. Howell, H. E. Revercomb, D. H. DeSlover, C. A. Sisko, D. C. Tobin, D. Cousins, D. Mooney, M. Gazarik, S. Mango, “The NPOESS airborne sounder tested-Interferometer (NAST-I): The validation of results from a new and revolutionary airborne remote sensing tool,” in Proceedings, Tenth Conference on Atmosphere Radiation (1999), pp. 548–551.

H. E. Revercomb, T. Walden, D. C. Tobin, J. Anderson, F. A. Best, N. C. Ciganovich, R. G. Dedecker, T. Dirkx, S. C. Ellington, R. K. Garcia, R. Herbselb, R. O. Knuteson, D. Laporte, D. McRae, M. Werner, “Recent results from two new aircraft-based Fourier-transform interferometers—The scanning high-resolution interferometer sounder and the NPOESS atmospheric sounder tested interferometer,” presented at the 8th International Workshop on Atmospheric Science from Space using Fourier Transform Spectrometry, Toulouse, France, 16–18 November (1998).

W. L. Smith, A. M. Larar, H.-L. Huang, B. Huang, H. E. Revercomb, “Hyperspectral remote sensing of atmospheric profiles from satellites and aircraft,” presented at SPIE’s second international ASIA-Pacific symposium on Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, Environment, and Space, Sendai, Japan, 9–12 Oct. (2000).

W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercomb, H. B. Howell, H. M. Woolf, “HIS—A satellite instrument to observe temperature and moisture profiles with high vertical resolution,” Presented at Fifth Conference on Atmospheric Radiation, Baltimore, MD, 31 Oct.–4 Nov. (1983).

H. E. Revercomb, H. Buijs, H. B. Howell, R. O. Knuteson, D. D. Laporte, W. L. Smith, L. A. Sromovsky, H. W. Woolf, “Radiometric calibration of IR interferometers: experience from the High-resolution Interferometer Sounder (HIS) aircraft instrument,” in RSRM ’87: Advances in Remote Sensing Retrieval Methods, A. Deepak, H. E. Fleming, J. S. Theon, eds. (Deepak Publishing, Hampton, Va., 1988), pp. 89–101.

W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercomb, H. L. Huang, R. O. Knuteson, “Vertical sounding capabilities with high spectral resolution atmospheric radiation measurements—a demonstration with the high resolution interferometer sounder (HIS),” in High Spectral Resolution Infrared Remote Sensing for Earth’s Weather and Climate Studies. A. Chedin, M. T. Chahine, N. A. Scott, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, New York, 1995), pp. 123–127.

W. L. Smith, H. M. Woolf, H. B. Howell, H. L. Huang, H. E. Revercomb, “The simultaneous retrieval of atmospheric temperature and water vapor profiles—applications to measurements with the High spectral resolution Interferometer Sounder (HIS),” in RSRM ’87: Advances in Remote Sensing Retrieval Methods, A. Deepak, H. E. Fleming, J. S. Theon, eds. (Deepak Publishing, Hampton, Va., 1988), pp. 189–202.

E. R. Westwater, M. J. Fals, J. Schroeder, “Combined ground- and satellite-based radiometric remote sensing,” in RSRM ’87: Advances in Remote Sensing Retrieval Methods, A. Deepak, H. E. Fleming, J. S. Theon, eds. (Deepak Publishing, Hampton, Va., 1988), pp. 203–208.

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

HIS brightness temperature obtained by aircraft measurements over Tucson, Arizona with the bandwidths of GOES filter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

AERI spectral bands one (top) and two (bottom) indicating regions used for the physical temperature and water-vapor retrieval algorithm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

HIS and AERI brightness temperature in Seneca, Kansas in March 1992. The solid curve shows AERI measurements. The dotted curve shows HIS observations.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Temperature eigenvalue sequence plots of K T E -1 K for GOES, AERI, and the combined GOES and AERI. (b) Temperature eigenvalue sequence plots of K T E -1 K for HIS, AERI, and the combined HIS and AERI.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Gamma found by using the discrepancy principle. The solid curve is Dif(gamma) in atmosphere temperature changed with gamma. The dashed curve is the RMSE of all levels changed with gamma.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) RMSE of temperature of GOES for the first guess (1.782 K), the fixed gamma case (1.701 K), and the discrepancy-principle case (1.61 K). (b) RMSE of water vapor of GOES for the first guess (1.138 g/kg), the fixed gamma case (1.09 g/kg), and the discrepancy-principle case (1.06 g/kg).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Standard deviation of 137 independent vertical temperature profiles collected in the United States in May 1995. (b) Standard deviation of 137 independent vertical water-vapor vertical profiles collected in the United States in May 1995.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) RMSE of temperature from regression retrieval for GOES, HIS, the combined GOES and AERI, and the combined HIS and AERI. (b) RMSE of moisture from regression retrieval for GOES, HIS, the combined GOES and AERI, and the combined HIS and AERI.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) RMSE of temperature for HIS, AERI, and the combined HIS and AERI physical retrieval. (b) RMSE of moisture for HIS, AERI, and the combined HIS and AERI physical retrieval.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a) The choice of gamma and RMSE of all levels for 137 combined HIS and AERI temperature retrievals. (b) The choice of gamma and RMSE of all levels for 137 combined HIS and AERI water-vapor mixing-ratio retrievals.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(a) RMSE of temperature for GOES, AERI, and the combined GOES and AERI physical retrieval. (b) RMSE of moisture for GOES, AERI, and the combined GOES and AERI physical retrieval.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

(a) RMSE of temperature for the combined GOES and AERI retrieval from the CART site. (b) RMSE of moisture for the combined GOES and AERI retrieval from the CART site.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

(a) RMSE of temperature for GOES, AERI, and the combined GOES and AERI retrieval from the CART site. (b) RMSE of moisture for GOES, AERI, and the combined GOES and AERI retrieval from the CART site.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

(a) RAOB (RAwinsonde observation) is compared with the retrieved temperature from HIS, and the combined HIS and AERI measurements over SUCCESS in 960413 1830 UTC CART site, OK. (b) RAOB is compared with retrieved water vapor in dew point temperature (°K) from HIS and the combined HIS and AERI measurements over SUCCESS in 960413 1830 UTC CART site, OK.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Temperature Degrees of Freedom for Signal

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Table 2 The Mean Root Mean Square Deviation of Temperature and Water Vapor of All Vertical Layersa

Equations (14)

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JX=Ym-FXTE-1Ym-FX+γX-XbTC-1X-Xb,
RHν, θ, 0=B ν, TsτHν, θ, ps-0ps Bν, TτHν, θ, pPdp,
RAν, θ, ps=- Ps0 Bν, TτAν, θ, pPdp,
Xn+1=Xn- JXn-1JXn.
Xn+1=X0+ KnTE-1Kn+γC-1-1KnTE-1δYnm+KnXn-X0,
δYM+N×1=KM+N×2L+1δX2L+1×1,
K=WT,HISM×LWq,HISM×LWTs,HISM×1WT,AERIN×LWq,AERIN×LWTs,AERIN×1M+N×2L+1,
Rn+1= 1nchk=1nchYkm-FkXn+12/vark1/2,
σ=1nchk=1nch ηk2/vark1/2,
δTret,γ=DδY,
D=KTE-1K+γC-1-1KTE-1.
δTret,γ=AδX=DKδX= KTE-1K+γC-1-1KTE-1KδX
A=DK= KTE-1K+γC-1-1KTE-1K.
Difγ= R-σ,

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