Abstract

Vision-based evaluation of industrial workpieces can make efficient use of knowledge-based approaches, in particular for quality control, inspection, and accurate-measurement tasks. A possible approach is to compare real images with conceptual (synthetic) images generated by use of standard computer-aided design models, which include tolerances and take the application-specific conditions into account (e.g., the measured-calibration data). Integrated in (industrial) real-life environments, our evaluation methods have been successfully applied to on-line inspection of manufactured parts including sculptured surfaces, using structured light techniques for the reconstruction of three-dimensional shapes. Accuracies in the range 15–50 µm are routinely achieved by use of either isolated images or spatially registered image sequences.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  4. C. Costa, M. Petrou, “Automatic registration of ceramic tiles for the purpose of fault detection,” Mach. Vision Appl. 11, 225–230 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. F. Arman, J. Aggarwal, “Model-Based Object Recognition Dense-Range Images.—A Review,” ACM Comput. Surv. 25, 5–43 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Newman, A. Jain, “A survey of automated visual inspection,” Comput. Vision Image Understand. 61, 231–262 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. Kanade, “Region segmentation: signal versus semantics,” in Proceedings of the International Joint Conference on Pattern Recognition, Kyoto, Japan (1978), pp. 95–105.
  8. T. Kanade, “Region segmentation: signal versus semantics,” Comput. Graph. Image Process. 13, 279–297 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H.-H. Nagel, “Über die repräsentation von wissen zur auswertung von bildern,” in Angewandte Szenenanalyse, J.-P. Foith, ed., Informatik-Fachberichte No. 20 (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1979), pp. 3–21.
  10. P. Graebling, C. Boucher, Ch. Daul, E. Hirsch, “3D sculptured surface analysis using a structured light approach,” in Videometrics IV, S. El-Hakim, ed., Proc. SPIE2598, 15–139 (1995).
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  12. R. Y. Tsai, “A versatile camera calibration technique for high accuracy 3D machine vision metrology using of the shelf TV cameras and lenses,” IEEE Trans. Rob. Autom. RA-3, 323–344 (1987).
  13. R. Benjemaa, F. Schmitt, “Recalage global de plusieurs surfaces par une approche algébrique,” in 11ème Congrès Reconnaissance des Formes et Intelligence Artificielle, RFIA’98, 20-17 Janvier, LASMEA, Clermont-Ferrand, France (1998), pp. 227–396.
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  17. G. Blais, M. Levine, “Registering multiview range data to create 3D computer objects,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 14, 820–818 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  18. L. Brown, “A survey of image registration techniques,” ACM Comput. Surv. 18, 325–376 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  19. Y. Chen, G. Medioni, “Object modelling by registration of multiple range images,” Image Vision Comput. 10, 145–155 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  20. C. Dorai, G. Wang, A. Jain, C. Mercer, “Registration and integration of multiple object views for 3D model construction,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 20, 83–89 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  21. A. Goshtbasy, “Three-dimensional model construction from multiview range images: survey with new results,” Pattern Recogn. 31, 1405–1414 (1998).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  26. M. Walker, L. Shao, R. Volz, “Estimating 3D location parameters using dual number quaternions,” Comput. Vision Image Understand. 54, 358–367 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  27. K. Arun, T. Huang, S. Blostein, “Least squares fitting of two 3D points sets,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 9, 698–700 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. A. Lorusso, D. W. Eggert, R. B. Fisher, “A comparison of four algorithms for estimating 3-d rigid transformation,” in Proceedings of the 6th British Machine Vision Conference (BMVC’95), D. Pycock, ed. (BMVA Press, Edinburgh, UK, 1995), pp. 237–246.
  29. A. Fleming, “Geometric relationships between toleranced features,” Artif. Intell. 37, 403–423 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  30. J. Guilford, J. Turner, “Representational primitives for geometric tolerancing,” Comput. Aided Des. 25, 577–586 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  31. N. P. Juster, “Modeling and representation of dimensions and tolerances: a survey,” Comput. Aided Des., 24, 25–237 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  32. A. A. G. Requicha, “Toward a theory of geometric tolerancing,” Int. J. Rob. Res. 24, 45–60 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  33. A. A. G. Requicha, S. C. Chan, “Representation of geometric features, tolerances, and attributes in solid modellers based on constructive geometry,” IEEE Trans. Rob. Autom. RA-24, 2356–2366 (1986).
  34. L. Rivest, C. Fortin, C. Morel, “Tolerancing a solid model with a kinematic formulation,” Comput. Aided Des. 26, 465–476 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  35. U. Roy, C. R. Liu, “Integrated CAD frameworks: Tolerance representation scheme in a solid model,” Comput. Indus. Eng. 24, 495–509 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  36. G. H. Tarbox, S. N. Gottschlich, “IVIS: An integrated volumetric inspection system,” Comput. Vision Image Understand. 61, 430–444 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  37. C. Boucher, C. Daul, P. Graebling, E. Hirsch, “KBED: A knowledge-based edge detection system,” in Database and Expert System Applications, N. Revelle, A. M. Tjoa, eds., Lectures Notes in Computer Sciences No. 978 (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1995), pp. 344–353.
  38. C. Boucher, “Système à base de connaissances pour la détection contrôlée des contours dans des images à niveaux de gris,” Ph.D. dissertation (Université Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg, France, July1996).
  39. G. Farin, “Curves and surfaces for CAGD: a practical guide,” 4th ed. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1996).

2000 (1)

C. Costa, M. Petrou, “Automatic registration of ceramic tiles for the purpose of fault detection,” Mach. Vision Appl. 11, 225–230 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

C. Dorai, G. Wang, A. Jain, C. Mercer, “Registration and integration of multiple object views for 3D model construction,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 20, 83–89 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Goshtbasy, “Three-dimensional model construction from multiview range images: survey with new results,” Pattern Recogn. 31, 1405–1414 (1998).

1996 (1)

R. Bergevin, M. Soucy, H. Gagnon, D. Laurendeau, “Towards a general multi-view registration technique,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 15, 540–547 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (5)

T. Newman, A. Jain, “A system for 3D CAD-based inspection using range images,” Pattern Recogn. 20, 1555–1574 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Newman, A. Jain, “A survey of automated visual inspection,” Comput. Vision Image Understand. 61, 231–262 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Blais, M. Levine, “Registering multiview range data to create 3D computer objects,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 14, 820–818 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Bergevin, D. Laurendeau, D. Poussart, “Registering range views of multipart objects,” Comput. Vision Image Understand. 61, 1–16 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. H. Tarbox, S. N. Gottschlich, “IVIS: An integrated volumetric inspection system,” Comput. Vision Image Understand. 61, 430–444 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

L. Rivest, C. Fortin, C. Morel, “Tolerancing a solid model with a kinematic formulation,” Comput. Aided Des. 26, 465–476 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhang, “Iterative point matching for registration of free-form curves and surfaces,” Int. J. Comput. Vision 13(2), 119–152 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (3)

F. Arman, J. Aggarwal, “Model-Based Object Recognition Dense-Range Images.—A Review,” ACM Comput. Surv. 25, 5–43 (1993).
[CrossRef]

U. Roy, C. R. Liu, “Integrated CAD frameworks: Tolerance representation scheme in a solid model,” Comput. Indus. Eng. 24, 495–509 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Guilford, J. Turner, “Representational primitives for geometric tolerancing,” Comput. Aided Des. 25, 577–586 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (4)

N. P. Juster, “Modeling and representation of dimensions and tolerances: a survey,” Comput. Aided Des., 24, 25–237 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. Besl, N. Mc Kay, “A model for registration of 3D shapes,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 14, 239–256 (1992).
[CrossRef]

L. Brown, “A survey of image registration techniques,” ACM Comput. Surv. 18, 325–376 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, G. Medioni, “Object modelling by registration of multiple range images,” Image Vision Comput. 10, 145–155 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

M. Walker, L. Shao, R. Volz, “Estimating 3D location parameters using dual number quaternions,” Comput. Vision Image Understand. 54, 358–367 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

A. Fleming, “Geometric relationships between toleranced features,” Artif. Intell. 37, 403–423 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (3)

K. Arun, T. Huang, S. Blostein, “Least squares fitting of two 3D points sets,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 9, 698–700 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Y. Tsai, “A versatile camera calibration technique for high accuracy 3D machine vision metrology using of the shelf TV cameras and lenses,” IEEE Trans. Rob. Autom. RA-3, 323–344 (1987).

B. Horn, “Closed-form solution of absolute orientation using unit quaternions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, 4, 629–642 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

A. A. G. Requicha, S. C. Chan, “Representation of geometric features, tolerances, and attributes in solid modellers based on constructive geometry,” IEEE Trans. Rob. Autom. RA-24, 2356–2366 (1986).

1983 (1)

A. A. G. Requicha, “Toward a theory of geometric tolerancing,” Int. J. Rob. Res. 24, 45–60 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

T. Kanade, “Region segmentation: signal versus semantics,” Comput. Graph. Image Process. 13, 279–297 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Aggarwal, J.

F. Arman, J. Aggarwal, “Model-Based Object Recognition Dense-Range Images.—A Review,” ACM Comput. Surv. 25, 5–43 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Arman, F.

F. Arman, J. Aggarwal, “Model-Based Object Recognition Dense-Range Images.—A Review,” ACM Comput. Surv. 25, 5–43 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Arun, K.

K. Arun, T. Huang, S. Blostein, “Least squares fitting of two 3D points sets,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 9, 698–700 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bayro-Corrochano, E. J.

E. J. Bayro-Corrochano, “Review of automated visual inspection 1983–1993, Part II: Approaches to intelligent systems,” in Intelligent Robots and Computer Vision XII: Algorithms and Techniques, D. P. Casasent, ed., Proc. SPIE2055, 159–173 (1993).

E. J. Bayro-Corrochano, “Review of automated visual inspection 1983–1993, Part I: conventional approaches,” in Intelligent Robots and Computer Vision XII: Algorithms and Techniques, D. P. Casasent, ed., Proc. SPIE2055, 128–158 (1993).

Benjemaa, R.

R. Benjemaa, F. Schmitt, “Recalage global de plusieurs surfaces par une approche algébrique,” in 11ème Congrès Reconnaissance des Formes et Intelligence Artificielle, RFIA’98, 20-17 Janvier, LASMEA, Clermont-Ferrand, France (1998), pp. 227–396.

Bergevin, R.

R. Bergevin, M. Soucy, H. Gagnon, D. Laurendeau, “Towards a general multi-view registration technique,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 15, 540–547 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Bergevin, D. Laurendeau, D. Poussart, “Registering range views of multipart objects,” Comput. Vision Image Understand. 61, 1–16 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Besl, P.

P. Besl, N. Mc Kay, “A model for registration of 3D shapes,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 14, 239–256 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Blais, G.

G. Blais, M. Levine, “Registering multiview range data to create 3D computer objects,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 14, 820–818 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Blostein, S.

K. Arun, T. Huang, S. Blostein, “Least squares fitting of two 3D points sets,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 9, 698–700 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boucher, C.

C. Boucher, “Système à base de connaissances pour la détection contrôlée des contours dans des images à niveaux de gris,” Ph.D. dissertation (Université Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg, France, July1996).

C. Boucher, C. Daul, P. Graebling, E. Hirsch, “KBED: A knowledge-based edge detection system,” in Database and Expert System Applications, N. Revelle, A. M. Tjoa, eds., Lectures Notes in Computer Sciences No. 978 (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1995), pp. 344–353.

P. Graebling, C. Boucher, Ch. Daul, E. Hirsch, “3D sculptured surface analysis using a structured light approach,” in Videometrics IV, S. El-Hakim, ed., Proc. SPIE2598, 15–139 (1995).

Brown, L.

L. Brown, “A survey of image registration techniques,” ACM Comput. Surv. 18, 325–376 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chan, S. C.

A. A. G. Requicha, S. C. Chan, “Representation of geometric features, tolerances, and attributes in solid modellers based on constructive geometry,” IEEE Trans. Rob. Autom. RA-24, 2356–2366 (1986).

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, G. Medioni, “Object modelling by registration of multiple range images,” Image Vision Comput. 10, 145–155 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Costa, C.

C. Costa, M. Petrou, “Automatic registration of ceramic tiles for the purpose of fault detection,” Mach. Vision Appl. 11, 225–230 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Daul, C.

C. Boucher, C. Daul, P. Graebling, E. Hirsch, “KBED: A knowledge-based edge detection system,” in Database and Expert System Applications, N. Revelle, A. M. Tjoa, eds., Lectures Notes in Computer Sciences No. 978 (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1995), pp. 344–353.

Daul, Ch.

P. Graebling, C. Boucher, Ch. Daul, E. Hirsch, “3D sculptured surface analysis using a structured light approach,” in Videometrics IV, S. El-Hakim, ed., Proc. SPIE2598, 15–139 (1995).

Dorai, C.

C. Dorai, G. Wang, A. Jain, C. Mercer, “Registration and integration of multiple object views for 3D model construction,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 20, 83–89 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Eggert, D. W.

A. Lorusso, D. W. Eggert, R. B. Fisher, “A comparison of four algorithms for estimating 3-d rigid transformation,” in Proceedings of the 6th British Machine Vision Conference (BMVC’95), D. Pycock, ed. (BMVA Press, Edinburgh, UK, 1995), pp. 237–246.

Farin, G.

G. Farin, “Curves and surfaces for CAGD: a practical guide,” 4th ed. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1996).

Fisher, R. B.

A. Lorusso, D. W. Eggert, R. B. Fisher, “A comparison of four algorithms for estimating 3-d rigid transformation,” in Proceedings of the 6th British Machine Vision Conference (BMVC’95), D. Pycock, ed. (BMVA Press, Edinburgh, UK, 1995), pp. 237–246.

Fleming, A.

A. Fleming, “Geometric relationships between toleranced features,” Artif. Intell. 37, 403–423 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Fortin, C.

L. Rivest, C. Fortin, C. Morel, “Tolerancing a solid model with a kinematic formulation,” Comput. Aided Des. 26, 465–476 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gagnon, H.

R. Bergevin, M. Soucy, H. Gagnon, D. Laurendeau, “Towards a general multi-view registration technique,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 15, 540–547 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Goshtbasy, A.

A. Goshtbasy, “Three-dimensional model construction from multiview range images: survey with new results,” Pattern Recogn. 31, 1405–1414 (1998).

Gottschlich, S. N.

G. H. Tarbox, S. N. Gottschlich, “IVIS: An integrated volumetric inspection system,” Comput. Vision Image Understand. 61, 430–444 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Graebling, P.

E. Hirsch, P. Graebling, “Vision based on-line inspection of manufactured parts: advanced concepts for quantitative quality control, standardization and integration aspects,” in Proc. IMS - Int. Conf. on Rapid Product Development, FPF, Stuttgart, Germany (1994), pp. 147–158.

P. Graebling, C. Boucher, Ch. Daul, E. Hirsch, “3D sculptured surface analysis using a structured light approach,” in Videometrics IV, S. El-Hakim, ed., Proc. SPIE2598, 15–139 (1995).

C. Boucher, C. Daul, P. Graebling, E. Hirsch, “KBED: A knowledge-based edge detection system,” in Database and Expert System Applications, N. Revelle, A. M. Tjoa, eds., Lectures Notes in Computer Sciences No. 978 (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1995), pp. 344–353.

Ch. Schoenenberger, P. Graebling, E. Hirsch, “Acquisition and 3D registration of image sequences for structured light based free-form surface reconstruction,” in Proceedings of the IX European Signal Processing Conference, S. Theodaris, I. Pitas, A. Stouraikis, N. Kalouptsidis, eds. Rhodes Island, Greece, (Typorama Editions, Patras, Greece, 1998), Vol. III, pp. 1281–1284.

Guilford, J.

J. Guilford, J. Turner, “Representational primitives for geometric tolerancing,” Comput. Aided Des. 25, 577–586 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hirsch, E.

C. Boucher, C. Daul, P. Graebling, E. Hirsch, “KBED: A knowledge-based edge detection system,” in Database and Expert System Applications, N. Revelle, A. M. Tjoa, eds., Lectures Notes in Computer Sciences No. 978 (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1995), pp. 344–353.

Ch. Schoenenberger, P. Graebling, E. Hirsch, “Acquisition and 3D registration of image sequences for structured light based free-form surface reconstruction,” in Proceedings of the IX European Signal Processing Conference, S. Theodaris, I. Pitas, A. Stouraikis, N. Kalouptsidis, eds. Rhodes Island, Greece, (Typorama Editions, Patras, Greece, 1998), Vol. III, pp. 1281–1284.

P. Graebling, C. Boucher, Ch. Daul, E. Hirsch, “3D sculptured surface analysis using a structured light approach,” in Videometrics IV, S. El-Hakim, ed., Proc. SPIE2598, 15–139 (1995).

E. Hirsch, P. Graebling, “Vision based on-line inspection of manufactured parts: advanced concepts for quantitative quality control, standardization and integration aspects,” in Proc. IMS - Int. Conf. on Rapid Product Development, FPF, Stuttgart, Germany (1994), pp. 147–158.

Horn, B.

Huang, T.

K. Arun, T. Huang, S. Blostein, “Least squares fitting of two 3D points sets,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 9, 698–700 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jain, A.

C. Dorai, G. Wang, A. Jain, C. Mercer, “Registration and integration of multiple object views for 3D model construction,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 20, 83–89 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Newman, A. Jain, “A system for 3D CAD-based inspection using range images,” Pattern Recogn. 20, 1555–1574 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Newman, A. Jain, “A survey of automated visual inspection,” Comput. Vision Image Understand. 61, 231–262 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Juster, N. P.

N. P. Juster, “Modeling and representation of dimensions and tolerances: a survey,” Comput. Aided Des., 24, 25–237 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kanade, T.

T. Kanade, “Region segmentation: signal versus semantics,” Comput. Graph. Image Process. 13, 279–297 (1980).
[CrossRef]

T. Kanade, “Region segmentation: signal versus semantics,” in Proceedings of the International Joint Conference on Pattern Recognition, Kyoto, Japan (1978), pp. 95–105.

Laurendeau, D.

R. Bergevin, M. Soucy, H. Gagnon, D. Laurendeau, “Towards a general multi-view registration technique,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 15, 540–547 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Bergevin, D. Laurendeau, D. Poussart, “Registering range views of multipart objects,” Comput. Vision Image Understand. 61, 1–16 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Levine, M.

G. Blais, M. Levine, “Registering multiview range data to create 3D computer objects,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 14, 820–818 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C. R.

U. Roy, C. R. Liu, “Integrated CAD frameworks: Tolerance representation scheme in a solid model,” Comput. Indus. Eng. 24, 495–509 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lorusso, A.

A. Lorusso, D. W. Eggert, R. B. Fisher, “A comparison of four algorithms for estimating 3-d rigid transformation,” in Proceedings of the 6th British Machine Vision Conference (BMVC’95), D. Pycock, ed. (BMVA Press, Edinburgh, UK, 1995), pp. 237–246.

Mc Kay, N.

P. Besl, N. Mc Kay, “A model for registration of 3D shapes,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 14, 239–256 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Medioni, G.

Y. Chen, G. Medioni, “Object modelling by registration of multiple range images,” Image Vision Comput. 10, 145–155 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mercer, C.

C. Dorai, G. Wang, A. Jain, C. Mercer, “Registration and integration of multiple object views for 3D model construction,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 20, 83–89 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Morel, C.

L. Rivest, C. Fortin, C. Morel, “Tolerancing a solid model with a kinematic formulation,” Comput. Aided Des. 26, 465–476 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nagel, H.-H.

H.-H. Nagel, “Über die repräsentation von wissen zur auswertung von bildern,” in Angewandte Szenenanalyse, J.-P. Foith, ed., Informatik-Fachberichte No. 20 (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1979), pp. 3–21.

Newman, T.

T. Newman, A. Jain, “A system for 3D CAD-based inspection using range images,” Pattern Recogn. 20, 1555–1574 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Newman, A. Jain, “A survey of automated visual inspection,” Comput. Vision Image Understand. 61, 231–262 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Petrou, M.

C. Costa, M. Petrou, “Automatic registration of ceramic tiles for the purpose of fault detection,” Mach. Vision Appl. 11, 225–230 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Poussart, D.

R. Bergevin, D. Laurendeau, D. Poussart, “Registering range views of multipart objects,” Comput. Vision Image Understand. 61, 1–16 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Requicha, A. A. G.

A. A. G. Requicha, S. C. Chan, “Representation of geometric features, tolerances, and attributes in solid modellers based on constructive geometry,” IEEE Trans. Rob. Autom. RA-24, 2356–2366 (1986).

A. A. G. Requicha, “Toward a theory of geometric tolerancing,” Int. J. Rob. Res. 24, 45–60 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Rivest, L.

L. Rivest, C. Fortin, C. Morel, “Tolerancing a solid model with a kinematic formulation,” Comput. Aided Des. 26, 465–476 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Roy, U.

U. Roy, C. R. Liu, “Integrated CAD frameworks: Tolerance representation scheme in a solid model,” Comput. Indus. Eng. 24, 495–509 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt, F.

R. Benjemaa, F. Schmitt, “Recalage global de plusieurs surfaces par une approche algébrique,” in 11ème Congrès Reconnaissance des Formes et Intelligence Artificielle, RFIA’98, 20-17 Janvier, LASMEA, Clermont-Ferrand, France (1998), pp. 227–396.

Schoenenberger, Ch.

Ch. Schoenenberger, P. Graebling, E. Hirsch, “Acquisition and 3D registration of image sequences for structured light based free-form surface reconstruction,” in Proceedings of the IX European Signal Processing Conference, S. Theodaris, I. Pitas, A. Stouraikis, N. Kalouptsidis, eds. Rhodes Island, Greece, (Typorama Editions, Patras, Greece, 1998), Vol. III, pp. 1281–1284.

Shao, L.

M. Walker, L. Shao, R. Volz, “Estimating 3D location parameters using dual number quaternions,” Comput. Vision Image Understand. 54, 358–367 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Soucy, M.

R. Bergevin, M. Soucy, H. Gagnon, D. Laurendeau, “Towards a general multi-view registration technique,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 15, 540–547 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tarbox, G. H.

G. H. Tarbox, S. N. Gottschlich, “IVIS: An integrated volumetric inspection system,” Comput. Vision Image Understand. 61, 430–444 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, R. Y.

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