Abstract

Blazed diffractive optical elements (DOEs) were studied for the violet wavelength by electron-beam lithography. By optimizing electron-beam writing parameters and electron-dose distributions, we fabricated eight kinds of grating (period Λ = 10–0.54 µm) with excellent blazed structure. It has been demonstrated that the measured diffraction efficiency values agreed well with the rigorous theoretical ones. For the fine period of 0.54 µm, we confirmed a peak appearance of 75.6% (TE) experimentally. A wave aberration as small as ∼0.01λ (rms) was obtained for the first-order diffracted wave from the fabricated DOEs. Blazed DOEs for the violet wavelength could be used as key devices in a high-density optical disk pickup of the next generation.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Petit, ed., Electromagnetic Theory of Gratings (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1980).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. J. Swanson, “Binary optics technology: theoretical limits on the diffraction efficiency of multilevel diffractive optical elements,” MIT Tech. Rep. 914 (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1991), pp. 1–27.
  10. T. Shiono, M. Kitagawa, K. Setsune, T. Mitsuyu, “Reflection micro-Fresnel lenses and their use in an integrated focus sensor,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3434–3442 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. E. Noponen, J. Turunen, A. Vasara, “Electromagnetic theory and design of diffractive-lens arrays,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 434–443 (1993).
    [CrossRef]

2000

1994

1993

1989

1982

Ekberg, M.

Fujita, T.

Gale, M. T.

M. T. Gale, “Direct writing of continuous-relief micro-optics,” in Micro-Optics, H. P. Herzig, ed. (Taylor & Francis, London, 1997), pp. 87–126.

Hard, S.

Kitagawa, M.

Koyama, J.

Kuittinen, M.

Laakkonen, P.

Larsson, M.

Mitsuyu, T.

Nikolajeff, F.

Nishihara, H.

T. Fujita, H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, “Blazed gratings and Fresnel lenses fabricated by electron-beam lithography,” Opt. Lett. 7, 578–580 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Nishihara, T. Suhara, “Micro Fresnel lenses,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1987), Vol. 24, pp. 1–37.
[CrossRef]

Noponen, E.

Setsune, K.

Shiono, T.

T. Shiono, M. Kitagawa, K. Setsune, T. Mitsuyu, “Reflection micro-Fresnel lenses and their use in an integrated focus sensor,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3434–3442 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Shiono, “Diffractive microlenses fabricated by electron-beam lithography,” in Optical Computing Hardware, J. Lahns, S. Lee, eds. (Academic, Boston, 1993), pp. 169–192.

Simonen, J.

Suhara, T.

H. Nishihara, T. Suhara, “Micro Fresnel lenses,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1987), Vol. 24, pp. 1–37.
[CrossRef]

Swanson, G. J.

G. J. Swanson, W. B. Veldkamp, “Diffractive optical elements for use in infrared systems,” Opt. Eng. 28, 605–608 (1989).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Swanson, “Binary optics technology: theoretical limits on the diffraction efficiency of multilevel diffractive optical elements,” MIT Tech. Rep. 914 (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1991), pp. 1–27.

Turunen, J.

Vasara, A.

Veldkamp, W. B.

G. J. Swanson, W. B. Veldkamp, “Diffractive optical elements for use in infrared systems,” Opt. Eng. 28, 605–608 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Opt. Eng.

G. J. Swanson, W. B. Veldkamp, “Diffractive optical elements for use in infrared systems,” Opt. Eng. 28, 605–608 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Other

H. Nishihara, T. Suhara, “Micro Fresnel lenses,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1987), Vol. 24, pp. 1–37.
[CrossRef]

T. Shiono, “Diffractive microlenses fabricated by electron-beam lithography,” in Optical Computing Hardware, J. Lahns, S. Lee, eds. (Academic, Boston, 1993), pp. 169–192.

M. T. Gale, “Direct writing of continuous-relief micro-optics,” in Micro-Optics, H. P. Herzig, ed. (Taylor & Francis, London, 1997), pp. 87–126.

R. Petit, ed., Electromagnetic Theory of Gratings (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1980).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Swanson, “Binary optics technology: theoretical limits on the diffraction efficiency of multilevel diffractive optical elements,” MIT Tech. Rep. 914 (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1991), pp. 1–27.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Theoretical first-order diffraction efficiency curves as a function of the normalized grating period when the plane wave is incident vertically from the substrate.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Fabrication process of a blazed diffractive optical element by EB lithography.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Electron-dose distribution and thickness profile when a blazed DOE is fabricated by use of a positive resist.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Surface profile of the fabricated blazed grating that was measured with an atomic force microscope for periods of (a) 5 µm and (b) 1.5 µm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Cross-sectional scanning electron microscope photograph of the fabricated blazed grating with periods of (a) 3 µm, (b) 2 µm, (c) 0.54 µm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Theoretical and experimental values of first-order diffraction efficiency of blazed gratings as a function of grating period.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Wave-front interference pattern of the diffracted wave of the blazed DOE with a period of 5 µm. A wave aberration was measured to be ∼0.01λ (rms) at λ = 0.405 µm.

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