Abstract

An ultrafast imaging technique has been developed to visualize directly a light pulse that is propagating in a medium. The method, called femtosecond time-resolved optical polarigraphy (FTOP), senses instantaneous changes in the birefringence within the medium that are induced by the propagation of an intense light. A snapshot sequence composed of each femtosecond probing the pulse delay enables ultrafast propagation dynamics of the intense femtosecond laser pulse in the medium, such as gases and liquids, to be visualized directly. Other examples include the filamentation dynamics in CS2 liquid and the propagation dynamics in air related to the interaction with laser breakdown plasma. FTOP can also be used to extract information on the optical Kerr constant and its decay time in media. This method is useful in the monitoring of the intensity distribution in the nonlinear propagation of intense light pulses, which is a frequently studied subject in the field of physics regarding nonlinear optics and laser processing.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  1. For example, Y. R. Shen, “Self-focusing: experimental,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 4, 1–34 (1975), and references therein.
  2. S. L. Chin, A. Brodeur, S. Petit, O. G. Kosareva, V. P. Kandidov, “Filamentation and supercontinuum generation during the propagation of powerful ultrashort laser pulses in optical media (white light laser),” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Materials 8, 121–146 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Fuchs, G. Malka, J. C. Adam, F. Amiranoff, S. D. Baton, N. Blanchot, A. Héron, G. Laval, J. L. Miquel, P. Mora, H. Pépin, C. Rousseaux, “Dynamics of subpicosecond relativistic laser pulse self-channeling in an underdense preformed plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1658–1661 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. F. Amiranoff, S. Baton, D. Bernard, B. Cros, D. Descamps, F. Dorchies, F. Jacquet, V. Malka, J. R. Marquès, G. Matthieussent, P. Miné, A. Modena, P. Mora, J. Morillo, Z. Najmudin, “Observation of laser wakefield acceleration of electrons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 995–998 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Borghesi, A. J. Mackinnon, R. Gaillard, O. Willi, A. Pukhov, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, “Large quasistatic magnetic fields generated by a relativistically intense laser pulse propagating in a preionized plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5137–5140 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Pukhov, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, “Relativistic magnetic self-channeling of light in near-critical plasma: three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3975–3978 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. Braun, G. Kohn, X. Liu, D. Du, J. Squier, G. Mourou, “Self-channeling of high-peak-power femtosecond laser pulses in air,” Opt. Lett. 20, 73–75 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. H. R. Lange, G. Grillon, J. F. Ripoche, M. A. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. S. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, “Anomalous long-range propagation of femtosecond laser pulses through air: moving focus or pulse self-guiding?” Opt. Lett. 23, 120–122 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Petit, A. Talebpour, A. Proulx, S. L. Chin, “Polarization dependence of the propagation of intense laser pulses in air,” Opt. Commun. 175, 323–327 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Mlejnek, M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, E. M. Wright, “Optically turbulent femtosecond light guide in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2938–2941 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. N. Aközbek, C. M. Bowden, A. Talebpour, S. L. Chin, “Femtosecond pulse propagation in air: variational analysis,” Phys. Rev. E 61, 4540–4549 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  12. E. T. J. Nibbering, P. F. Curley, G. Grillon, B. S. Prade, M. A. Franco, F. Salin, A. Mysyrowicz, “Conical emission from self-guided femtosecond pulses in air,” Opt. Lett. 21, 62–65 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. O. G. Kosareva, V. P. Kandidov, A. Brodeur, C. Y. Chien, S. L. Chin, “Conical emission from laser-plasma interactions in the filamentation of powerful ultrashort laser pulses in air,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1332–1334 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. E. Clayton, K. C. Tzeng, D. Gordon, P. Muggli, W. B. Mori, C. Joshi, V. Malka, Z. Najmudin, A. Modena, D. Neely, A. E. Dangor, “Plasma wave generation in a self-focused channel of a relativistically intense laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 100–103 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Fujimoto, S. Aoshima, M. Hosoda, Y. Tsuchiya, “Femtosecond time-resolved optical polarigraphy: imaging of the propagation dynamics of intense light in a medium,” Opt. Lett. 80, 850–852 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. Aoshima, M. Fujimoto, M. Hosoda, Y. Tsuchiya, “Visualization of ultrafast dynamics of laser pulse propagating in the atmosphere using a novel measurement method, FTOP (Femtosecond Time-resolved Optical Polarigraphy),” in High-Power Laser Ablation II, C. R. Phipps, M. Niino, eds., Proc. SPIE3885, 461–470 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  17. E. T. J. Nibbering, G. Grillon, M. A. Franco, B. S. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, “Determination of the inertial contribution to the nonlinear refractive index of air, N2, and O2 by use of unfocused high-intensity femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 650–660 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. Fujimoto, S. Aoshima, M. Hosoda, Y. Tsuchiya, “Analysis of instantaneous profiles of intense femtosecond optical pulses propagating in helium gas measured by using femtosecond time-resolved optical polarigraphy,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 033813 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  19. A. Brodeur, C. Y. Chien, F. A. Ilkov, S. L. Chin, O. G. Kosareva, V. P. Kandidov, “Moving focus in the propagation of ultrashort laser pulses in air,” Opt. Lett. 22, 304–306 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. O. G. Kosareva, V. P. Kandidov, A. Brodeur, S. L. Chin, “From filamentation in condensed media to filamentation in gases,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Materials 6, 485–494 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  21. A. Brodeur, F. A. Ilkov, S. L. Chin, “Beam filamentation and the white light continuum divergence,” Opt. Commun. 129, 193–198 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  22. J. H. Marburger, “Self-focusing: theory,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 4, 35–110 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  23. T. Hattori, T. Kobayashi, “Ultrafast optical Kerr dynamics studied with incoherent light,” J. Chem. Phys. 94, 3332–3346 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  24. D. B. McDonald, S. A. Rice, “Measurement of the group refractive indices of several liquids,” Opt. Commun. 32, 416–418 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  25. D. F. Murphy, D. A. Flavin, “Dispersion-insensive measurement of thickness and group refractive index by low-coherence interferometry,” Apl. Opt. 39, 4607–4615 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  26. A. Brodeur, S. L. Chin, “Ultrafast white-light continuum generation and self-focusing in transparent condensed media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 637–650 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  27. A. Brodeur, S. L. Chin, “Band-gap dependence of the ultrafast white-light continuum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4406–4409 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  28. P. Monot, T. Auguste, L. A. Lompré, G. Mainfray, C. Manus, “Focusing limits of a terawatt laser in an underdense plasma,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1579–1584 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  29. For example, P. Chessa, E. de Wispelaere, F. Dorchies, V. Malka, J. R. Marquès, G. Hamoniaux, P. Mora, F. Amiranoff, “Temporal and angular resolution of the ionization-induced refraction of a short laser pulse in helium gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 552–555 (1999), and references therein.
  30. V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, S. A. Shlenov, “Influence of transient self-defocusing on the propagation of high-power femtosecond laser pulses in gases under ionisation conditions,” Quantum Electron. 24, 905–911 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  31. A. B. Borisov, A. V. Borovskiy, V. V. Korobkin, A. M. Prokhorov, O. B. Shiryaev, X. M. Shi, T. S. Luk, A. McPherson, J. C. Solem, K. Boyer, C. K. Rhodes, “Observation of relativistic and charge-displacement self-channeling of intense subpicosecond ultraviolet (248 nm) radiation in plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2309–2312 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. P. Monot, T. Auguste, P. Gibbon, F. Jakober, G. Mainfray, A. Dulieu, M. Louis-Jacquet, G. Malka, T. J. L. Miquel, “Experimental demonstration of relativistic self-channeling of a multiterawatt laser pulse in an underdense plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2953–2956 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

M. Fujimoto, S. Aoshima, M. Hosoda, Y. Tsuchiya, “Analysis of instantaneous profiles of intense femtosecond optical pulses propagating in helium gas measured by using femtosecond time-resolved optical polarigraphy,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 033813 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

N. Aközbek, C. M. Bowden, A. Talebpour, S. L. Chin, “Femtosecond pulse propagation in air: variational analysis,” Phys. Rev. E 61, 4540–4549 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Petit, A. Talebpour, A. Proulx, S. L. Chin, “Polarization dependence of the propagation of intense laser pulses in air,” Opt. Commun. 175, 323–327 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Murphy, D. A. Flavin, “Dispersion-insensive measurement of thickness and group refractive index by low-coherence interferometry,” Apl. Opt. 39, 4607–4615 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

M. Fujimoto, S. Aoshima, M. Hosoda, Y. Tsuchiya, “Femtosecond time-resolved optical polarigraphy: imaging of the propagation dynamics of intense light in a medium,” Opt. Lett. 80, 850–852 (1999).
[CrossRef]

For example, P. Chessa, E. de Wispelaere, F. Dorchies, V. Malka, J. R. Marquès, G. Hamoniaux, P. Mora, F. Amiranoff, “Temporal and angular resolution of the ionization-induced refraction of a short laser pulse in helium gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 552–555 (1999), and references therein.

M. Mlejnek, M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, E. M. Wright, “Optically turbulent femtosecond light guide in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2938–2941 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (6)

J. Fuchs, G. Malka, J. C. Adam, F. Amiranoff, S. D. Baton, N. Blanchot, A. Héron, G. Laval, J. L. Miquel, P. Mora, H. Pépin, C. Rousseaux, “Dynamics of subpicosecond relativistic laser pulse self-channeling in an underdense preformed plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1658–1661 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Amiranoff, S. Baton, D. Bernard, B. Cros, D. Descamps, F. Dorchies, F. Jacquet, V. Malka, J. R. Marquès, G. Matthieussent, P. Miné, A. Modena, P. Mora, J. Morillo, Z. Najmudin, “Observation of laser wakefield acceleration of electrons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 995–998 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Borghesi, A. J. Mackinnon, R. Gaillard, O. Willi, A. Pukhov, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, “Large quasistatic magnetic fields generated by a relativistically intense laser pulse propagating in a preionized plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5137–5140 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Lange, G. Grillon, J. F. Ripoche, M. A. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. S. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, “Anomalous long-range propagation of femtosecond laser pulses through air: moving focus or pulse self-guiding?” Opt. Lett. 23, 120–122 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Clayton, K. C. Tzeng, D. Gordon, P. Muggli, W. B. Mori, C. Joshi, V. Malka, Z. Najmudin, A. Modena, D. Neely, A. E. Dangor, “Plasma wave generation in a self-focused channel of a relativistically intense laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 100–103 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Brodeur, S. L. Chin, “Band-gap dependence of the ultrafast white-light continuum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4406–4409 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (5)

1996 (4)

A. Pukhov, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, “Relativistic magnetic self-channeling of light in near-critical plasma: three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3975–3978 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Brodeur, F. A. Ilkov, S. L. Chin, “Beam filamentation and the white light continuum divergence,” Opt. Commun. 129, 193–198 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. T. J. Nibbering, P. F. Curley, G. Grillon, B. S. Prade, M. A. Franco, F. Salin, A. Mysyrowicz, “Conical emission from self-guided femtosecond pulses in air,” Opt. Lett. 21, 62–65 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Brodeur, S. L. Chin, “Ultrafast white-light continuum generation and self-focusing in transparent condensed media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 637–650 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

P. Monot, T. Auguste, P. Gibbon, F. Jakober, G. Mainfray, A. Dulieu, M. Louis-Jacquet, G. Malka, T. J. L. Miquel, “Experimental demonstration of relativistic self-channeling of a multiterawatt laser pulse in an underdense plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2953–2956 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Braun, G. Kohn, X. Liu, D. Du, J. Squier, G. Mourou, “Self-channeling of high-peak-power femtosecond laser pulses in air,” Opt. Lett. 20, 73–75 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, S. A. Shlenov, “Influence of transient self-defocusing on the propagation of high-power femtosecond laser pulses in gases under ionisation conditions,” Quantum Electron. 24, 905–911 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

A. B. Borisov, A. V. Borovskiy, V. V. Korobkin, A. M. Prokhorov, O. B. Shiryaev, X. M. Shi, T. S. Luk, A. McPherson, J. C. Solem, K. Boyer, C. K. Rhodes, “Observation of relativistic and charge-displacement self-channeling of intense subpicosecond ultraviolet (248 nm) radiation in plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2309–2312 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Monot, T. Auguste, L. A. Lompré, G. Mainfray, C. Manus, “Focusing limits of a terawatt laser in an underdense plasma,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1579–1584 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

T. Hattori, T. Kobayashi, “Ultrafast optical Kerr dynamics studied with incoherent light,” J. Chem. Phys. 94, 3332–3346 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

D. B. McDonald, S. A. Rice, “Measurement of the group refractive indices of several liquids,” Opt. Commun. 32, 416–418 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1975 (2)

For example, Y. R. Shen, “Self-focusing: experimental,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 4, 1–34 (1975), and references therein.

J. H. Marburger, “Self-focusing: theory,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 4, 35–110 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Adam, J. C.

J. Fuchs, G. Malka, J. C. Adam, F. Amiranoff, S. D. Baton, N. Blanchot, A. Héron, G. Laval, J. L. Miquel, P. Mora, H. Pépin, C. Rousseaux, “Dynamics of subpicosecond relativistic laser pulse self-channeling in an underdense preformed plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1658–1661 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Aközbek, N.

N. Aközbek, C. M. Bowden, A. Talebpour, S. L. Chin, “Femtosecond pulse propagation in air: variational analysis,” Phys. Rev. E 61, 4540–4549 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Amiranoff, F.

For example, P. Chessa, E. de Wispelaere, F. Dorchies, V. Malka, J. R. Marquès, G. Hamoniaux, P. Mora, F. Amiranoff, “Temporal and angular resolution of the ionization-induced refraction of a short laser pulse in helium gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 552–555 (1999), and references therein.

J. Fuchs, G. Malka, J. C. Adam, F. Amiranoff, S. D. Baton, N. Blanchot, A. Héron, G. Laval, J. L. Miquel, P. Mora, H. Pépin, C. Rousseaux, “Dynamics of subpicosecond relativistic laser pulse self-channeling in an underdense preformed plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1658–1661 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Amiranoff, S. Baton, D. Bernard, B. Cros, D. Descamps, F. Dorchies, F. Jacquet, V. Malka, J. R. Marquès, G. Matthieussent, P. Miné, A. Modena, P. Mora, J. Morillo, Z. Najmudin, “Observation of laser wakefield acceleration of electrons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 995–998 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Aoshima, S.

M. Fujimoto, S. Aoshima, M. Hosoda, Y. Tsuchiya, “Analysis of instantaneous profiles of intense femtosecond optical pulses propagating in helium gas measured by using femtosecond time-resolved optical polarigraphy,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 033813 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujimoto, S. Aoshima, M. Hosoda, Y. Tsuchiya, “Femtosecond time-resolved optical polarigraphy: imaging of the propagation dynamics of intense light in a medium,” Opt. Lett. 80, 850–852 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Aoshima, M. Fujimoto, M. Hosoda, Y. Tsuchiya, “Visualization of ultrafast dynamics of laser pulse propagating in the atmosphere using a novel measurement method, FTOP (Femtosecond Time-resolved Optical Polarigraphy),” in High-Power Laser Ablation II, C. R. Phipps, M. Niino, eds., Proc. SPIE3885, 461–470 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Auguste, T.

P. Monot, T. Auguste, P. Gibbon, F. Jakober, G. Mainfray, A. Dulieu, M. Louis-Jacquet, G. Malka, T. J. L. Miquel, “Experimental demonstration of relativistic self-channeling of a multiterawatt laser pulse in an underdense plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2953–2956 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Monot, T. Auguste, L. A. Lompré, G. Mainfray, C. Manus, “Focusing limits of a terawatt laser in an underdense plasma,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1579–1584 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Baton, S.

F. Amiranoff, S. Baton, D. Bernard, B. Cros, D. Descamps, F. Dorchies, F. Jacquet, V. Malka, J. R. Marquès, G. Matthieussent, P. Miné, A. Modena, P. Mora, J. Morillo, Z. Najmudin, “Observation of laser wakefield acceleration of electrons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 995–998 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Baton, S. D.

J. Fuchs, G. Malka, J. C. Adam, F. Amiranoff, S. D. Baton, N. Blanchot, A. Héron, G. Laval, J. L. Miquel, P. Mora, H. Pépin, C. Rousseaux, “Dynamics of subpicosecond relativistic laser pulse self-channeling in an underdense preformed plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1658–1661 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bernard, D.

F. Amiranoff, S. Baton, D. Bernard, B. Cros, D. Descamps, F. Dorchies, F. Jacquet, V. Malka, J. R. Marquès, G. Matthieussent, P. Miné, A. Modena, P. Mora, J. Morillo, Z. Najmudin, “Observation of laser wakefield acceleration of electrons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 995–998 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Blanchot, N.

J. Fuchs, G. Malka, J. C. Adam, F. Amiranoff, S. D. Baton, N. Blanchot, A. Héron, G. Laval, J. L. Miquel, P. Mora, H. Pépin, C. Rousseaux, “Dynamics of subpicosecond relativistic laser pulse self-channeling in an underdense preformed plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1658–1661 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Borghesi, M.

M. Borghesi, A. J. Mackinnon, R. Gaillard, O. Willi, A. Pukhov, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, “Large quasistatic magnetic fields generated by a relativistically intense laser pulse propagating in a preionized plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5137–5140 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Borisov, A. B.

A. B. Borisov, A. V. Borovskiy, V. V. Korobkin, A. M. Prokhorov, O. B. Shiryaev, X. M. Shi, T. S. Luk, A. McPherson, J. C. Solem, K. Boyer, C. K. Rhodes, “Observation of relativistic and charge-displacement self-channeling of intense subpicosecond ultraviolet (248 nm) radiation in plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2309–2312 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Borovskiy, A. V.

A. B. Borisov, A. V. Borovskiy, V. V. Korobkin, A. M. Prokhorov, O. B. Shiryaev, X. M. Shi, T. S. Luk, A. McPherson, J. C. Solem, K. Boyer, C. K. Rhodes, “Observation of relativistic and charge-displacement self-channeling of intense subpicosecond ultraviolet (248 nm) radiation in plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2309–2312 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bowden, C. M.

N. Aközbek, C. M. Bowden, A. Talebpour, S. L. Chin, “Femtosecond pulse propagation in air: variational analysis,” Phys. Rev. E 61, 4540–4549 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Boyer, K.

A. B. Borisov, A. V. Borovskiy, V. V. Korobkin, A. M. Prokhorov, O. B. Shiryaev, X. M. Shi, T. S. Luk, A. McPherson, J. C. Solem, K. Boyer, C. K. Rhodes, “Observation of relativistic and charge-displacement self-channeling of intense subpicosecond ultraviolet (248 nm) radiation in plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2309–2312 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Braun, A.

Brodeur, A.

A. Brodeur, S. L. Chin, “Band-gap dependence of the ultrafast white-light continuum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4406–4409 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Brodeur, C. Y. Chien, F. A. Ilkov, S. L. Chin, O. G. Kosareva, V. P. Kandidov, “Moving focus in the propagation of ultrashort laser pulses in air,” Opt. Lett. 22, 304–306 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. G. Kosareva, V. P. Kandidov, A. Brodeur, S. L. Chin, “From filamentation in condensed media to filamentation in gases,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Materials 6, 485–494 (1997).
[CrossRef]

O. G. Kosareva, V. P. Kandidov, A. Brodeur, C. Y. Chien, S. L. Chin, “Conical emission from laser-plasma interactions in the filamentation of powerful ultrashort laser pulses in air,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1332–1334 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Chin, A. Brodeur, S. Petit, O. G. Kosareva, V. P. Kandidov, “Filamentation and supercontinuum generation during the propagation of powerful ultrashort laser pulses in optical media (white light laser),” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Materials 8, 121–146 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Brodeur, S. L. Chin, “Ultrafast white-light continuum generation and self-focusing in transparent condensed media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 637–650 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Brodeur, F. A. Ilkov, S. L. Chin, “Beam filamentation and the white light continuum divergence,” Opt. Commun. 129, 193–198 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chessa, P.

For example, P. Chessa, E. de Wispelaere, F. Dorchies, V. Malka, J. R. Marquès, G. Hamoniaux, P. Mora, F. Amiranoff, “Temporal and angular resolution of the ionization-induced refraction of a short laser pulse in helium gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 552–555 (1999), and references therein.

Chien, C. Y.

Chin, S. L.

N. Aközbek, C. M. Bowden, A. Talebpour, S. L. Chin, “Femtosecond pulse propagation in air: variational analysis,” Phys. Rev. E 61, 4540–4549 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Petit, A. Talebpour, A. Proulx, S. L. Chin, “Polarization dependence of the propagation of intense laser pulses in air,” Opt. Commun. 175, 323–327 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Brodeur, S. L. Chin, “Band-gap dependence of the ultrafast white-light continuum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4406–4409 (1998).
[CrossRef]

O. G. Kosareva, V. P. Kandidov, A. Brodeur, S. L. Chin, “From filamentation in condensed media to filamentation in gases,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Materials 6, 485–494 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Brodeur, C. Y. Chien, F. A. Ilkov, S. L. Chin, O. G. Kosareva, V. P. Kandidov, “Moving focus in the propagation of ultrashort laser pulses in air,” Opt. Lett. 22, 304–306 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. G. Kosareva, V. P. Kandidov, A. Brodeur, C. Y. Chien, S. L. Chin, “Conical emission from laser-plasma interactions in the filamentation of powerful ultrashort laser pulses in air,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1332–1334 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Chin, A. Brodeur, S. Petit, O. G. Kosareva, V. P. Kandidov, “Filamentation and supercontinuum generation during the propagation of powerful ultrashort laser pulses in optical media (white light laser),” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Materials 8, 121–146 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Brodeur, F. A. Ilkov, S. L. Chin, “Beam filamentation and the white light continuum divergence,” Opt. Commun. 129, 193–198 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Brodeur, S. L. Chin, “Ultrafast white-light continuum generation and self-focusing in transparent condensed media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 637–650 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Clayton, C. E.

C. E. Clayton, K. C. Tzeng, D. Gordon, P. Muggli, W. B. Mori, C. Joshi, V. Malka, Z. Najmudin, A. Modena, D. Neely, A. E. Dangor, “Plasma wave generation in a self-focused channel of a relativistically intense laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 100–103 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cros, B.

F. Amiranoff, S. Baton, D. Bernard, B. Cros, D. Descamps, F. Dorchies, F. Jacquet, V. Malka, J. R. Marquès, G. Matthieussent, P. Miné, A. Modena, P. Mora, J. Morillo, Z. Najmudin, “Observation of laser wakefield acceleration of electrons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 995–998 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Curley, P. F.

Dangor, A. E.

C. E. Clayton, K. C. Tzeng, D. Gordon, P. Muggli, W. B. Mori, C. Joshi, V. Malka, Z. Najmudin, A. Modena, D. Neely, A. E. Dangor, “Plasma wave generation in a self-focused channel of a relativistically intense laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 100–103 (1998).
[CrossRef]

de Wispelaere, E.

For example, P. Chessa, E. de Wispelaere, F. Dorchies, V. Malka, J. R. Marquès, G. Hamoniaux, P. Mora, F. Amiranoff, “Temporal and angular resolution of the ionization-induced refraction of a short laser pulse in helium gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 552–555 (1999), and references therein.

Descamps, D.

F. Amiranoff, S. Baton, D. Bernard, B. Cros, D. Descamps, F. Dorchies, F. Jacquet, V. Malka, J. R. Marquès, G. Matthieussent, P. Miné, A. Modena, P. Mora, J. Morillo, Z. Najmudin, “Observation of laser wakefield acceleration of electrons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 995–998 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dorchies, F.

For example, P. Chessa, E. de Wispelaere, F. Dorchies, V. Malka, J. R. Marquès, G. Hamoniaux, P. Mora, F. Amiranoff, “Temporal and angular resolution of the ionization-induced refraction of a short laser pulse in helium gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 552–555 (1999), and references therein.

F. Amiranoff, S. Baton, D. Bernard, B. Cros, D. Descamps, F. Dorchies, F. Jacquet, V. Malka, J. R. Marquès, G. Matthieussent, P. Miné, A. Modena, P. Mora, J. Morillo, Z. Najmudin, “Observation of laser wakefield acceleration of electrons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 995–998 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Du, D.

Dulieu, A.

P. Monot, T. Auguste, P. Gibbon, F. Jakober, G. Mainfray, A. Dulieu, M. Louis-Jacquet, G. Malka, T. J. L. Miquel, “Experimental demonstration of relativistic self-channeling of a multiterawatt laser pulse in an underdense plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2953–2956 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flavin, D. A.

D. F. Murphy, D. A. Flavin, “Dispersion-insensive measurement of thickness and group refractive index by low-coherence interferometry,” Apl. Opt. 39, 4607–4615 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Franco, M. A.

Fuchs, J.

J. Fuchs, G. Malka, J. C. Adam, F. Amiranoff, S. D. Baton, N. Blanchot, A. Héron, G. Laval, J. L. Miquel, P. Mora, H. Pépin, C. Rousseaux, “Dynamics of subpicosecond relativistic laser pulse self-channeling in an underdense preformed plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1658–1661 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, M.

M. Fujimoto, S. Aoshima, M. Hosoda, Y. Tsuchiya, “Analysis of instantaneous profiles of intense femtosecond optical pulses propagating in helium gas measured by using femtosecond time-resolved optical polarigraphy,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 033813 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujimoto, S. Aoshima, M. Hosoda, Y. Tsuchiya, “Femtosecond time-resolved optical polarigraphy: imaging of the propagation dynamics of intense light in a medium,” Opt. Lett. 80, 850–852 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Aoshima, M. Fujimoto, M. Hosoda, Y. Tsuchiya, “Visualization of ultrafast dynamics of laser pulse propagating in the atmosphere using a novel measurement method, FTOP (Femtosecond Time-resolved Optical Polarigraphy),” in High-Power Laser Ablation II, C. R. Phipps, M. Niino, eds., Proc. SPIE3885, 461–470 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gaillard, R.

M. Borghesi, A. J. Mackinnon, R. Gaillard, O. Willi, A. Pukhov, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, “Large quasistatic magnetic fields generated by a relativistically intense laser pulse propagating in a preionized plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5137–5140 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gibbon, P.

P. Monot, T. Auguste, P. Gibbon, F. Jakober, G. Mainfray, A. Dulieu, M. Louis-Jacquet, G. Malka, T. J. L. Miquel, “Experimental demonstration of relativistic self-channeling of a multiterawatt laser pulse in an underdense plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2953–2956 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gordon, D.

C. E. Clayton, K. C. Tzeng, D. Gordon, P. Muggli, W. B. Mori, C. Joshi, V. Malka, Z. Najmudin, A. Modena, D. Neely, A. E. Dangor, “Plasma wave generation in a self-focused channel of a relativistically intense laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 100–103 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Grillon, G.

Hamoniaux, G.

For example, P. Chessa, E. de Wispelaere, F. Dorchies, V. Malka, J. R. Marquès, G. Hamoniaux, P. Mora, F. Amiranoff, “Temporal and angular resolution of the ionization-induced refraction of a short laser pulse in helium gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 552–555 (1999), and references therein.

Hattori, T.

T. Hattori, T. Kobayashi, “Ultrafast optical Kerr dynamics studied with incoherent light,” J. Chem. Phys. 94, 3332–3346 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Héron, A.

J. Fuchs, G. Malka, J. C. Adam, F. Amiranoff, S. D. Baton, N. Blanchot, A. Héron, G. Laval, J. L. Miquel, P. Mora, H. Pépin, C. Rousseaux, “Dynamics of subpicosecond relativistic laser pulse self-channeling in an underdense preformed plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1658–1661 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hosoda, M.

M. Fujimoto, S. Aoshima, M. Hosoda, Y. Tsuchiya, “Analysis of instantaneous profiles of intense femtosecond optical pulses propagating in helium gas measured by using femtosecond time-resolved optical polarigraphy,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 033813 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujimoto, S. Aoshima, M. Hosoda, Y. Tsuchiya, “Femtosecond time-resolved optical polarigraphy: imaging of the propagation dynamics of intense light in a medium,” Opt. Lett. 80, 850–852 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Aoshima, M. Fujimoto, M. Hosoda, Y. Tsuchiya, “Visualization of ultrafast dynamics of laser pulse propagating in the atmosphere using a novel measurement method, FTOP (Femtosecond Time-resolved Optical Polarigraphy),” in High-Power Laser Ablation II, C. R. Phipps, M. Niino, eds., Proc. SPIE3885, 461–470 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ilkov, F. A.

Jacquet, F.

F. Amiranoff, S. Baton, D. Bernard, B. Cros, D. Descamps, F. Dorchies, F. Jacquet, V. Malka, J. R. Marquès, G. Matthieussent, P. Miné, A. Modena, P. Mora, J. Morillo, Z. Najmudin, “Observation of laser wakefield acceleration of electrons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 995–998 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jakober, F.

P. Monot, T. Auguste, P. Gibbon, F. Jakober, G. Mainfray, A. Dulieu, M. Louis-Jacquet, G. Malka, T. J. L. Miquel, “Experimental demonstration of relativistic self-channeling of a multiterawatt laser pulse in an underdense plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2953–2956 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joshi, C.

C. E. Clayton, K. C. Tzeng, D. Gordon, P. Muggli, W. B. Mori, C. Joshi, V. Malka, Z. Najmudin, A. Modena, D. Neely, A. E. Dangor, “Plasma wave generation in a self-focused channel of a relativistically intense laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 100–103 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kandidov, V. P.

O. G. Kosareva, V. P. Kandidov, A. Brodeur, S. L. Chin, “From filamentation in condensed media to filamentation in gases,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Materials 6, 485–494 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Brodeur, C. Y. Chien, F. A. Ilkov, S. L. Chin, O. G. Kosareva, V. P. Kandidov, “Moving focus in the propagation of ultrashort laser pulses in air,” Opt. Lett. 22, 304–306 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Chin, A. Brodeur, S. Petit, O. G. Kosareva, V. P. Kandidov, “Filamentation and supercontinuum generation during the propagation of powerful ultrashort laser pulses in optical media (white light laser),” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Materials 8, 121–146 (1997).
[CrossRef]

O. G. Kosareva, V. P. Kandidov, A. Brodeur, C. Y. Chien, S. L. Chin, “Conical emission from laser-plasma interactions in the filamentation of powerful ultrashort laser pulses in air,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1332–1334 (1997).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, S. A. Shlenov, “Influence of transient self-defocusing on the propagation of high-power femtosecond laser pulses in gases under ionisation conditions,” Quantum Electron. 24, 905–911 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, T.

T. Hattori, T. Kobayashi, “Ultrafast optical Kerr dynamics studied with incoherent light,” J. Chem. Phys. 94, 3332–3346 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kohn, G.

Kolesik, M.

M. Mlejnek, M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, E. M. Wright, “Optically turbulent femtosecond light guide in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2938–2941 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Korobkin, V. V.

A. B. Borisov, A. V. Borovskiy, V. V. Korobkin, A. M. Prokhorov, O. B. Shiryaev, X. M. Shi, T. S. Luk, A. McPherson, J. C. Solem, K. Boyer, C. K. Rhodes, “Observation of relativistic and charge-displacement self-channeling of intense subpicosecond ultraviolet (248 nm) radiation in plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2309–2312 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kosareva, O. G.

O. G. Kosareva, V. P. Kandidov, A. Brodeur, S. L. Chin, “From filamentation in condensed media to filamentation in gases,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Materials 6, 485–494 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Brodeur, C. Y. Chien, F. A. Ilkov, S. L. Chin, O. G. Kosareva, V. P. Kandidov, “Moving focus in the propagation of ultrashort laser pulses in air,” Opt. Lett. 22, 304–306 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. G. Kosareva, V. P. Kandidov, A. Brodeur, C. Y. Chien, S. L. Chin, “Conical emission from laser-plasma interactions in the filamentation of powerful ultrashort laser pulses in air,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1332–1334 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Chin, A. Brodeur, S. Petit, O. G. Kosareva, V. P. Kandidov, “Filamentation and supercontinuum generation during the propagation of powerful ultrashort laser pulses in optical media (white light laser),” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Materials 8, 121–146 (1997).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, S. A. Shlenov, “Influence of transient self-defocusing on the propagation of high-power femtosecond laser pulses in gases under ionisation conditions,” Quantum Electron. 24, 905–911 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lamouroux, B.

Lange, H. R.

Laval, G.

J. Fuchs, G. Malka, J. C. Adam, F. Amiranoff, S. D. Baton, N. Blanchot, A. Héron, G. Laval, J. L. Miquel, P. Mora, H. Pépin, C. Rousseaux, “Dynamics of subpicosecond relativistic laser pulse self-channeling in an underdense preformed plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1658–1661 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

Lompré, L. A.

Louis-Jacquet, M.

P. Monot, T. Auguste, P. Gibbon, F. Jakober, G. Mainfray, A. Dulieu, M. Louis-Jacquet, G. Malka, T. J. L. Miquel, “Experimental demonstration of relativistic self-channeling of a multiterawatt laser pulse in an underdense plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2953–2956 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luk, T. S.

A. B. Borisov, A. V. Borovskiy, V. V. Korobkin, A. M. Prokhorov, O. B. Shiryaev, X. M. Shi, T. S. Luk, A. McPherson, J. C. Solem, K. Boyer, C. K. Rhodes, “Observation of relativistic and charge-displacement self-channeling of intense subpicosecond ultraviolet (248 nm) radiation in plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2309–2312 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mackinnon, A. J.

M. Borghesi, A. J. Mackinnon, R. Gaillard, O. Willi, A. Pukhov, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, “Large quasistatic magnetic fields generated by a relativistically intense laser pulse propagating in a preionized plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5137–5140 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mainfray, G.

P. Monot, T. Auguste, P. Gibbon, F. Jakober, G. Mainfray, A. Dulieu, M. Louis-Jacquet, G. Malka, T. J. L. Miquel, “Experimental demonstration of relativistic self-channeling of a multiterawatt laser pulse in an underdense plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2953–2956 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Monot, T. Auguste, L. A. Lompré, G. Mainfray, C. Manus, “Focusing limits of a terawatt laser in an underdense plasma,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1579–1584 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Malka, G.

J. Fuchs, G. Malka, J. C. Adam, F. Amiranoff, S. D. Baton, N. Blanchot, A. Héron, G. Laval, J. L. Miquel, P. Mora, H. Pépin, C. Rousseaux, “Dynamics of subpicosecond relativistic laser pulse self-channeling in an underdense preformed plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1658–1661 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Monot, T. Auguste, P. Gibbon, F. Jakober, G. Mainfray, A. Dulieu, M. Louis-Jacquet, G. Malka, T. J. L. Miquel, “Experimental demonstration of relativistic self-channeling of a multiterawatt laser pulse in an underdense plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2953–2956 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malka, V.

For example, P. Chessa, E. de Wispelaere, F. Dorchies, V. Malka, J. R. Marquès, G. Hamoniaux, P. Mora, F. Amiranoff, “Temporal and angular resolution of the ionization-induced refraction of a short laser pulse in helium gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 552–555 (1999), and references therein.

C. E. Clayton, K. C. Tzeng, D. Gordon, P. Muggli, W. B. Mori, C. Joshi, V. Malka, Z. Najmudin, A. Modena, D. Neely, A. E. Dangor, “Plasma wave generation in a self-focused channel of a relativistically intense laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 100–103 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Amiranoff, S. Baton, D. Bernard, B. Cros, D. Descamps, F. Dorchies, F. Jacquet, V. Malka, J. R. Marquès, G. Matthieussent, P. Miné, A. Modena, P. Mora, J. Morillo, Z. Najmudin, “Observation of laser wakefield acceleration of electrons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 995–998 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Manus, C.

Marburger, J. H.

J. H. Marburger, “Self-focusing: theory,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 4, 35–110 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Marquès, J. R.

For example, P. Chessa, E. de Wispelaere, F. Dorchies, V. Malka, J. R. Marquès, G. Hamoniaux, P. Mora, F. Amiranoff, “Temporal and angular resolution of the ionization-induced refraction of a short laser pulse in helium gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 552–555 (1999), and references therein.

F. Amiranoff, S. Baton, D. Bernard, B. Cros, D. Descamps, F. Dorchies, F. Jacquet, V. Malka, J. R. Marquès, G. Matthieussent, P. Miné, A. Modena, P. Mora, J. Morillo, Z. Najmudin, “Observation of laser wakefield acceleration of electrons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 995–998 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Matthieussent, G.

F. Amiranoff, S. Baton, D. Bernard, B. Cros, D. Descamps, F. Dorchies, F. Jacquet, V. Malka, J. R. Marquès, G. Matthieussent, P. Miné, A. Modena, P. Mora, J. Morillo, Z. Najmudin, “Observation of laser wakefield acceleration of electrons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 995–998 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McDonald, D. B.

D. B. McDonald, S. A. Rice, “Measurement of the group refractive indices of several liquids,” Opt. Commun. 32, 416–418 (1980).
[CrossRef]

McPherson, A.

A. B. Borisov, A. V. Borovskiy, V. V. Korobkin, A. M. Prokhorov, O. B. Shiryaev, X. M. Shi, T. S. Luk, A. McPherson, J. C. Solem, K. Boyer, C. K. Rhodes, “Observation of relativistic and charge-displacement self-channeling of intense subpicosecond ultraviolet (248 nm) radiation in plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2309–2312 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meyer-ter-Vehn, J.

M. Borghesi, A. J. Mackinnon, R. Gaillard, O. Willi, A. Pukhov, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, “Large quasistatic magnetic fields generated by a relativistically intense laser pulse propagating in a preionized plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5137–5140 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Pukhov, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, “Relativistic magnetic self-channeling of light in near-critical plasma: three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3975–3978 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miné, P.

F. Amiranoff, S. Baton, D. Bernard, B. Cros, D. Descamps, F. Dorchies, F. Jacquet, V. Malka, J. R. Marquès, G. Matthieussent, P. Miné, A. Modena, P. Mora, J. Morillo, Z. Najmudin, “Observation of laser wakefield acceleration of electrons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 995–998 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Miquel, J. L.

J. Fuchs, G. Malka, J. C. Adam, F. Amiranoff, S. D. Baton, N. Blanchot, A. Héron, G. Laval, J. L. Miquel, P. Mora, H. Pépin, C. Rousseaux, “Dynamics of subpicosecond relativistic laser pulse self-channeling in an underdense preformed plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1658–1661 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Miquel, T. J. L.

P. Monot, T. Auguste, P. Gibbon, F. Jakober, G. Mainfray, A. Dulieu, M. Louis-Jacquet, G. Malka, T. J. L. Miquel, “Experimental demonstration of relativistic self-channeling of a multiterawatt laser pulse in an underdense plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2953–2956 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mlejnek, M.

M. Mlejnek, M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, E. M. Wright, “Optically turbulent femtosecond light guide in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2938–2941 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Modena, A.

F. Amiranoff, S. Baton, D. Bernard, B. Cros, D. Descamps, F. Dorchies, F. Jacquet, V. Malka, J. R. Marquès, G. Matthieussent, P. Miné, A. Modena, P. Mora, J. Morillo, Z. Najmudin, “Observation of laser wakefield acceleration of electrons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 995–998 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Clayton, K. C. Tzeng, D. Gordon, P. Muggli, W. B. Mori, C. Joshi, V. Malka, Z. Najmudin, A. Modena, D. Neely, A. E. Dangor, “Plasma wave generation in a self-focused channel of a relativistically intense laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 100–103 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Moloney, J. V.

M. Mlejnek, M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, E. M. Wright, “Optically turbulent femtosecond light guide in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2938–2941 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Monot, P.

P. Monot, T. Auguste, P. Gibbon, F. Jakober, G. Mainfray, A. Dulieu, M. Louis-Jacquet, G. Malka, T. J. L. Miquel, “Experimental demonstration of relativistic self-channeling of a multiterawatt laser pulse in an underdense plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2953–2956 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Monot, T. Auguste, L. A. Lompré, G. Mainfray, C. Manus, “Focusing limits of a terawatt laser in an underdense plasma,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1579–1584 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mora, P.

For example, P. Chessa, E. de Wispelaere, F. Dorchies, V. Malka, J. R. Marquès, G. Hamoniaux, P. Mora, F. Amiranoff, “Temporal and angular resolution of the ionization-induced refraction of a short laser pulse in helium gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 552–555 (1999), and references therein.

F. Amiranoff, S. Baton, D. Bernard, B. Cros, D. Descamps, F. Dorchies, F. Jacquet, V. Malka, J. R. Marquès, G. Matthieussent, P. Miné, A. Modena, P. Mora, J. Morillo, Z. Najmudin, “Observation of laser wakefield acceleration of electrons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 995–998 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Fuchs, G. Malka, J. C. Adam, F. Amiranoff, S. D. Baton, N. Blanchot, A. Héron, G. Laval, J. L. Miquel, P. Mora, H. Pépin, C. Rousseaux, “Dynamics of subpicosecond relativistic laser pulse self-channeling in an underdense preformed plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1658–1661 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mori, W. B.

C. E. Clayton, K. C. Tzeng, D. Gordon, P. Muggli, W. B. Mori, C. Joshi, V. Malka, Z. Najmudin, A. Modena, D. Neely, A. E. Dangor, “Plasma wave generation in a self-focused channel of a relativistically intense laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 100–103 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Morillo, J.

F. Amiranoff, S. Baton, D. Bernard, B. Cros, D. Descamps, F. Dorchies, F. Jacquet, V. Malka, J. R. Marquès, G. Matthieussent, P. Miné, A. Modena, P. Mora, J. Morillo, Z. Najmudin, “Observation of laser wakefield acceleration of electrons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 995–998 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mourou, G.

Muggli, P.

C. E. Clayton, K. C. Tzeng, D. Gordon, P. Muggli, W. B. Mori, C. Joshi, V. Malka, Z. Najmudin, A. Modena, D. Neely, A. E. Dangor, “Plasma wave generation in a self-focused channel of a relativistically intense laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 100–103 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, D. F.

D. F. Murphy, D. A. Flavin, “Dispersion-insensive measurement of thickness and group refractive index by low-coherence interferometry,” Apl. Opt. 39, 4607–4615 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mysyrowicz, A.

Najmudin, Z.

F. Amiranoff, S. Baton, D. Bernard, B. Cros, D. Descamps, F. Dorchies, F. Jacquet, V. Malka, J. R. Marquès, G. Matthieussent, P. Miné, A. Modena, P. Mora, J. Morillo, Z. Najmudin, “Observation of laser wakefield acceleration of electrons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 995–998 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Clayton, K. C. Tzeng, D. Gordon, P. Muggli, W. B. Mori, C. Joshi, V. Malka, Z. Najmudin, A. Modena, D. Neely, A. E. Dangor, “Plasma wave generation in a self-focused channel of a relativistically intense laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 100–103 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Neely, D.

C. E. Clayton, K. C. Tzeng, D. Gordon, P. Muggli, W. B. Mori, C. Joshi, V. Malka, Z. Najmudin, A. Modena, D. Neely, A. E. Dangor, “Plasma wave generation in a self-focused channel of a relativistically intense laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 100–103 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nibbering, E. T. J.

Pépin, H.

J. Fuchs, G. Malka, J. C. Adam, F. Amiranoff, S. D. Baton, N. Blanchot, A. Héron, G. Laval, J. L. Miquel, P. Mora, H. Pépin, C. Rousseaux, “Dynamics of subpicosecond relativistic laser pulse self-channeling in an underdense preformed plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1658–1661 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Petit, S.

S. Petit, A. Talebpour, A. Proulx, S. L. Chin, “Polarization dependence of the propagation of intense laser pulses in air,” Opt. Commun. 175, 323–327 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Chin, A. Brodeur, S. Petit, O. G. Kosareva, V. P. Kandidov, “Filamentation and supercontinuum generation during the propagation of powerful ultrashort laser pulses in optical media (white light laser),” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Materials 8, 121–146 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Prade, B. S.

Prokhorov, A. M.

A. B. Borisov, A. V. Borovskiy, V. V. Korobkin, A. M. Prokhorov, O. B. Shiryaev, X. M. Shi, T. S. Luk, A. McPherson, J. C. Solem, K. Boyer, C. K. Rhodes, “Observation of relativistic and charge-displacement self-channeling of intense subpicosecond ultraviolet (248 nm) radiation in plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2309–2312 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proulx, A.

S. Petit, A. Talebpour, A. Proulx, S. L. Chin, “Polarization dependence of the propagation of intense laser pulses in air,” Opt. Commun. 175, 323–327 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pukhov, A.

M. Borghesi, A. J. Mackinnon, R. Gaillard, O. Willi, A. Pukhov, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, “Large quasistatic magnetic fields generated by a relativistically intense laser pulse propagating in a preionized plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5137–5140 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Pukhov, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, “Relativistic magnetic self-channeling of light in near-critical plasma: three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3975–3978 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rhodes, C. K.

A. B. Borisov, A. V. Borovskiy, V. V. Korobkin, A. M. Prokhorov, O. B. Shiryaev, X. M. Shi, T. S. Luk, A. McPherson, J. C. Solem, K. Boyer, C. K. Rhodes, “Observation of relativistic and charge-displacement self-channeling of intense subpicosecond ultraviolet (248 nm) radiation in plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2309–2312 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rice, S. A.

D. B. McDonald, S. A. Rice, “Measurement of the group refractive indices of several liquids,” Opt. Commun. 32, 416–418 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Ripoche, J. F.

Rousseaux, C.

J. Fuchs, G. Malka, J. C. Adam, F. Amiranoff, S. D. Baton, N. Blanchot, A. Héron, G. Laval, J. L. Miquel, P. Mora, H. Pépin, C. Rousseaux, “Dynamics of subpicosecond relativistic laser pulse self-channeling in an underdense preformed plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1658–1661 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Salin, F.

Shen, Y. R.

For example, Y. R. Shen, “Self-focusing: experimental,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 4, 1–34 (1975), and references therein.

Shi, X. M.

A. B. Borisov, A. V. Borovskiy, V. V. Korobkin, A. M. Prokhorov, O. B. Shiryaev, X. M. Shi, T. S. Luk, A. McPherson, J. C. Solem, K. Boyer, C. K. Rhodes, “Observation of relativistic and charge-displacement self-channeling of intense subpicosecond ultraviolet (248 nm) radiation in plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2309–2312 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shiryaev, O. B.

A. B. Borisov, A. V. Borovskiy, V. V. Korobkin, A. M. Prokhorov, O. B. Shiryaev, X. M. Shi, T. S. Luk, A. McPherson, J. C. Solem, K. Boyer, C. K. Rhodes, “Observation of relativistic and charge-displacement self-channeling of intense subpicosecond ultraviolet (248 nm) radiation in plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2309–2312 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shlenov, S. A.

V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, S. A. Shlenov, “Influence of transient self-defocusing on the propagation of high-power femtosecond laser pulses in gases under ionisation conditions,” Quantum Electron. 24, 905–911 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Solem, J. C.

A. B. Borisov, A. V. Borovskiy, V. V. Korobkin, A. M. Prokhorov, O. B. Shiryaev, X. M. Shi, T. S. Luk, A. McPherson, J. C. Solem, K. Boyer, C. K. Rhodes, “Observation of relativistic and charge-displacement self-channeling of intense subpicosecond ultraviolet (248 nm) radiation in plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2309–2312 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Squier, J.

Talebpour, A.

S. Petit, A. Talebpour, A. Proulx, S. L. Chin, “Polarization dependence of the propagation of intense laser pulses in air,” Opt. Commun. 175, 323–327 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. Aközbek, C. M. Bowden, A. Talebpour, S. L. Chin, “Femtosecond pulse propagation in air: variational analysis,” Phys. Rev. E 61, 4540–4549 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchiya, Y.

M. Fujimoto, S. Aoshima, M. Hosoda, Y. Tsuchiya, “Analysis of instantaneous profiles of intense femtosecond optical pulses propagating in helium gas measured by using femtosecond time-resolved optical polarigraphy,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 033813 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujimoto, S. Aoshima, M. Hosoda, Y. Tsuchiya, “Femtosecond time-resolved optical polarigraphy: imaging of the propagation dynamics of intense light in a medium,” Opt. Lett. 80, 850–852 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Aoshima, M. Fujimoto, M. Hosoda, Y. Tsuchiya, “Visualization of ultrafast dynamics of laser pulse propagating in the atmosphere using a novel measurement method, FTOP (Femtosecond Time-resolved Optical Polarigraphy),” in High-Power Laser Ablation II, C. R. Phipps, M. Niino, eds., Proc. SPIE3885, 461–470 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tzeng, K. C.

C. E. Clayton, K. C. Tzeng, D. Gordon, P. Muggli, W. B. Mori, C. Joshi, V. Malka, Z. Najmudin, A. Modena, D. Neely, A. E. Dangor, “Plasma wave generation in a self-focused channel of a relativistically intense laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 100–103 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Willi, O.

M. Borghesi, A. J. Mackinnon, R. Gaillard, O. Willi, A. Pukhov, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, “Large quasistatic magnetic fields generated by a relativistically intense laser pulse propagating in a preionized plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5137–5140 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wright, E. M.

M. Mlejnek, M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, E. M. Wright, “Optically turbulent femtosecond light guide in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2938–2941 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Apl. Opt. (1)

D. F. Murphy, D. A. Flavin, “Dispersion-insensive measurement of thickness and group refractive index by low-coherence interferometry,” Apl. Opt. 39, 4607–4615 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

T. Hattori, T. Kobayashi, “Ultrafast optical Kerr dynamics studied with incoherent light,” J. Chem. Phys. 94, 3332–3346 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Materials (2)

O. G. Kosareva, V. P. Kandidov, A. Brodeur, S. L. Chin, “From filamentation in condensed media to filamentation in gases,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Materials 6, 485–494 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Chin, A. Brodeur, S. Petit, O. G. Kosareva, V. P. Kandidov, “Filamentation and supercontinuum generation during the propagation of powerful ultrashort laser pulses in optical media (white light laser),” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Materials 8, 121–146 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

Opt. Commun. (3)

A. Brodeur, F. A. Ilkov, S. L. Chin, “Beam filamentation and the white light continuum divergence,” Opt. Commun. 129, 193–198 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. B. McDonald, S. A. Rice, “Measurement of the group refractive indices of several liquids,” Opt. Commun. 32, 416–418 (1980).
[CrossRef]

S. Petit, A. Talebpour, A. Proulx, S. L. Chin, “Polarization dependence of the propagation of intense laser pulses in air,” Opt. Commun. 175, 323–327 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (6)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

M. Fujimoto, S. Aoshima, M. Hosoda, Y. Tsuchiya, “Analysis of instantaneous profiles of intense femtosecond optical pulses propagating in helium gas measured by using femtosecond time-resolved optical polarigraphy,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 033813 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

N. Aközbek, C. M. Bowden, A. Talebpour, S. L. Chin, “Femtosecond pulse propagation in air: variational analysis,” Phys. Rev. E 61, 4540–4549 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (10)

C. E. Clayton, K. C. Tzeng, D. Gordon, P. Muggli, W. B. Mori, C. Joshi, V. Malka, Z. Najmudin, A. Modena, D. Neely, A. E. Dangor, “Plasma wave generation in a self-focused channel of a relativistically intense laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 100–103 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Mlejnek, M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, E. M. Wright, “Optically turbulent femtosecond light guide in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2938–2941 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Fuchs, G. Malka, J. C. Adam, F. Amiranoff, S. D. Baton, N. Blanchot, A. Héron, G. Laval, J. L. Miquel, P. Mora, H. Pépin, C. Rousseaux, “Dynamics of subpicosecond relativistic laser pulse self-channeling in an underdense preformed plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1658–1661 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Amiranoff, S. Baton, D. Bernard, B. Cros, D. Descamps, F. Dorchies, F. Jacquet, V. Malka, J. R. Marquès, G. Matthieussent, P. Miné, A. Modena, P. Mora, J. Morillo, Z. Najmudin, “Observation of laser wakefield acceleration of electrons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 995–998 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Borghesi, A. J. Mackinnon, R. Gaillard, O. Willi, A. Pukhov, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, “Large quasistatic magnetic fields generated by a relativistically intense laser pulse propagating in a preionized plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5137–5140 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Pukhov, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, “Relativistic magnetic self-channeling of light in near-critical plasma: three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3975–3978 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. B. Borisov, A. V. Borovskiy, V. V. Korobkin, A. M. Prokhorov, O. B. Shiryaev, X. M. Shi, T. S. Luk, A. McPherson, J. C. Solem, K. Boyer, C. K. Rhodes, “Observation of relativistic and charge-displacement self-channeling of intense subpicosecond ultraviolet (248 nm) radiation in plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2309–2312 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Monot, T. Auguste, P. Gibbon, F. Jakober, G. Mainfray, A. Dulieu, M. Louis-Jacquet, G. Malka, T. J. L. Miquel, “Experimental demonstration of relativistic self-channeling of a multiterawatt laser pulse in an underdense plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2953–2956 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

For example, P. Chessa, E. de Wispelaere, F. Dorchies, V. Malka, J. R. Marquès, G. Hamoniaux, P. Mora, F. Amiranoff, “Temporal and angular resolution of the ionization-induced refraction of a short laser pulse in helium gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 552–555 (1999), and references therein.

A. Brodeur, S. L. Chin, “Band-gap dependence of the ultrafast white-light continuum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4406–4409 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Quantum Electron. (2)

J. H. Marburger, “Self-focusing: theory,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 4, 35–110 (1975).
[CrossRef]

For example, Y. R. Shen, “Self-focusing: experimental,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 4, 1–34 (1975), and references therein.

Quantum Electron. (1)

V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, S. A. Shlenov, “Influence of transient self-defocusing on the propagation of high-power femtosecond laser pulses in gases under ionisation conditions,” Quantum Electron. 24, 905–911 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

S. Aoshima, M. Fujimoto, M. Hosoda, Y. Tsuchiya, “Visualization of ultrafast dynamics of laser pulse propagating in the atmosphere using a novel measurement method, FTOP (Femtosecond Time-resolved Optical Polarigraphy),” in High-Power Laser Ablation II, C. R. Phipps, M. Niino, eds., Proc. SPIE3885, 461–470 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Measurement principle of FTOP.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup of FTOP.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Example of FTOP image of a 10-µJ optical pump pulse propagating in CS2. The pulse propagates from top to bottom. Ten shots are integrated.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Typical FTOP images of 24 continuous snapshots with a 1-ps delay step under a 1-µJ, 100-fs pump pulse propagating in CS2 focused with a f = 200 mm lens. The focal point corresponds to a delay of 32 ps. The pulse propagation direction is downward in each image. The time proceeds from the left image to the right image in each column, and proceeds from the right most image in the top column to the left most image in the next column.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Image showing a propagation sequence of a 4.3-µJ, 100-fs pump pulse in CS2 focused with a f = 200 mm lens. The image is composed of measured images at respective multiple temporal positions with 66.7-fs delay steps. The pulse propagates from top to bottom. The linear scale intensity is displayed with a false color to be able to display a weak intensity area. The focal point corresponds to the delay of 32 ps.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Schematic diagram of interaction between two femtosecond pulses in FTOP measurement.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Optical Kerr response in CS2. The pump pulse propagates towards the left side. The dashed line is the fitting curve.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Optical-pulse propagation diagram in CS2. The linear scale intensity is displayed with a false color to be able to display a weak intensity area. The pump pulse propagates from top left to bottom right.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Images of a 3.5-mJ, 100-fs optical pulse propagating in air. The pump pulse propagates from top to bottom in each image, and the time proceeds from the left image to the right image. The numbers at the top column represent the magnification factor of the image brightness. Panels (g) and (h) show the optical pulse passing and after it has passed the focal point, respectively.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a) Summed image of propagation sequence measured at 91 respective temporal positions with 66.7-fs delay steps. The pump pulse propagates from top to bottom. The arrow at the left side indicates the vacuum focus position. The linear scale intensity is displayed [as in (b) and (c)] with a false color to be able to display a weak intensity area. (b) Light emission from the induced plasma. (c) Superimposed image of four FTOP snapshots at different positions during the propagation. The intensity of each snapshot image is normalized to offer a comparison.

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