Abstract

A promising label-free approach for the analysis of genetic material by means of detecting the hybridization of polynucleotides with electromagnetic waves at terahertz (THz) frequencies is presented. Using an integrated waveguide approach, incorporating resonant THz structures as sample carriers and transducers for the analysis of the DNA molecules, we achieve a sensitivity down to femtomolar levels. The approach is demonstrated with time-domain ultrafast techniques based on femtosecond laser pulses for generating and electro-optically detecting broadband THz signals, although the principle can certainly be transferred to other THz technologies.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. Drmanac, S. Drmanac, Z. Strezoska, T. Paunesku, I. Labat, M. Zeremski, J. Snoddy, W. K. Funkhouser, B. Koop, L. Hood, “DNA sequence determination by hybridization: a strategy for efficient large-scale sequencing,” Science 260, 1649–1653 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. Chee, R. Yang, E. Hubbell, A. Berno, X. C. Huang, D. Stern, J. Winkler, D. J. Lockhart, M. S. Morris, S. P. Fodor, “Accessing genetic information with high-density DNA arrays,” Science 274, 610–614 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. R. J. Cho, M. Fromont-Racine, L. Wodicka, B. Feierbach, T. Stearns, P. Legrain, D. J. Lockhart, R. W. Davis, “Parallel analysis of genetic selections using whole genome oligonucleotide arrays,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 3752–3757 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. H. Ozaki, L. W. McLaughlin, “The estimation of distances between specific backbone-labeled sites in DNA using fluorescence resonance energy transfer,” Nucleic Acids Res. 20, 5205–5214 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Z. Zhu, J. Chao, H. Yu, A. S. Waggoner, “Directly labeled DNA probes using fluorescent nucleotides with different length linkers,” Nucleic Acids Res. 22, 3418–3422 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Z. Zhu, A. S. Waggoner, “Molecular mechanism controlling the incorporation of fluorescent nucleotides into DNA by PCR,” Cytometry 28, 206–211 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. L. Larramendy, W. El-Rifai, S. Knuutila, “Comparison of fluorescein isothiocyanate- and Texas red-conjugated nucleotides for direct labeling in comparative genomic hybridization,” Cytometry 31, 174–179 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. G. S. Edwards, C. C. Davis, J. D. Saffer, M. L. Swicord, “Resonant microwave absorption of selected DNA molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 1284–1287 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Hefti, A. Pan, A. Kumar, “Sensitive detection method of dielectric dispersions in aqueous-based, surface-bound macromolecular structures using microwave spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1802–1804 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. J. Watts, D. Yeung, H. Parkes, “Real-time detection and quantification of DNA hybridization by an optical biosensor,” Anal. Chem. 67, 4283–4289 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. E. Souteyrand, J. P. Cloarec, J. R. Martin, C. Wilson, I. Lawrence, S. Mikkelsen, M. F. Lawrence, “Direct detection of the hybridization of synthetic homo-oligomer DNA sequences by field effect,” J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 2980–2985 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. E. Palecek, M. Fojta, M. Tomschik, J. Wang, “Electrochemical biosensors for DNA hybridization and DNA damage,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 13, 621–628 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. Y. Okahata, M. Kawase, K. Niikura, F. Ohtake, H. Furusawa, Y. Ebara, “Kinetic measurements of DNA hybridization on an oligonucleotide-immobilized 27-MHz quartz crystal microbalance,” Anal. Chem. 10, 1288–1296 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. Zhang, H. Tan, R. Wang, W. Wei, S. Yao, “Immobilization of DNA on silver surface of bulk acoustic wave sensor and its application to the study of UV-C damage,” Anal. Chim. Acta 374, 31–38 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. Fritz, M. K. Baller, H. P. Lang, H. Rothuizen, P. Vettiger, E. Meyer, H.-J. Güntherodt, Ch. Gerber, J. K. Gimzewskil, “Translating biomolecular recognition into nanomechanics,” Science 288, 316–318 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. M. Brucherseifer, M. Nagel, P. Haring Bolivar, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, R. Büttner, “Label-free probing of the binding state of DNA by time-domain terahertz sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 4049–4051 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  17. L. L. Van Zandt, V. K. Saxena, “Millimeter-microwave spectrum of DNA: six predictions for spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 39, 2672–2674 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. W. Zhuang, Y. Feng, E. W. Prohofsky, “Self-consistent calculation of localized DNA vibrational properties at a double-helix-single-strand junction with anharmonic potential,” Phys. Rev. A. 41, 7033–7042 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. M. Bykhovskaia, B. Gelmont, T. Globus, D. L. Woolard, A. C. Samuels, T. H. Duong, K. Zakrzewska, “Prediction of DNA far-IR absorption spectra based on normal mode analysis,” Theor. Chem. Acc. 106, 22–27 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  20. H. Urabe, Y. Tominaga, “Low-lying collective modes of DNA double helix by Raman spectroscopy,” Biopolymers 21, 2477–2481 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. S. Lindsay, S. A. Lee, J. W. Powell, T. Weidlich, C. Demarco, G. D. Lewen, N. J. Tao, “The origin of the A to B transitions in DNA fibres and films,” Biopolymers 27, 1015–1043 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. J. W. Powell, G. S. Edwards, L. Genzel, F. Kremer, A. Wittlin, W. Kubasek, W. Peticolas, “Investigation of far-infrared vibrational modes in polynucleotides,” Phys. Rev. A 35, 3929–3939 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. A. G. Markelz, A. Roitberg, E. J. Heilweil, “Pulsed terahertz spectroscopy of DNA, bovine serum albumin and collagen between 0.1 and 2.0 THz,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 320, 42–48 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  24. H. Urabe, Y. Tominaga, “Low frequency Raman spectra of DNA,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 50, 3543–3543 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  25. M. Nagel, C. Meyer, H.-M. Heiliger, T. Dekorsy, H. Kurz, R. Hey, K. Ploog, “Optical second-harmonic probe for ultra-high frequency on-chip interconnects with benzocyclobutene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1018–1020 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  26. M. D. Janezic, J. Baker-Jarvis, “Full-wave analysis of a split-cylinder resonator for nondestructive permittivity measurements,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2014–2020 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  27. T. Pfeifer, H.-M. Heiliger, T. Loffler, C. Ohlhoff, C. Meyer, G. Lupke, H. G. Roskos, H. Kurz, “Optoelectronic on-chip characterization of ultrafast electric devices: measurements techniques and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 586–604 (1996)
    [CrossRef]

2001

M. Bykhovskaia, B. Gelmont, T. Globus, D. L. Woolard, A. C. Samuels, T. H. Duong, K. Zakrzewska, “Prediction of DNA far-IR absorption spectra based on normal mode analysis,” Theor. Chem. Acc. 106, 22–27 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

A. G. Markelz, A. Roitberg, E. J. Heilweil, “Pulsed terahertz spectroscopy of DNA, bovine serum albumin and collagen between 0.1 and 2.0 THz,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 320, 42–48 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Fritz, M. K. Baller, H. P. Lang, H. Rothuizen, P. Vettiger, E. Meyer, H.-J. Güntherodt, Ch. Gerber, J. K. Gimzewskil, “Translating biomolecular recognition into nanomechanics,” Science 288, 316–318 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Brucherseifer, M. Nagel, P. Haring Bolivar, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, R. Büttner, “Label-free probing of the binding state of DNA by time-domain terahertz sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 4049–4051 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

J. Hefti, A. Pan, A. Kumar, “Sensitive detection method of dielectric dispersions in aqueous-based, surface-bound macromolecular structures using microwave spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1802–1804 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Janezic, J. Baker-Jarvis, “Full-wave analysis of a split-cylinder resonator for nondestructive permittivity measurements,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2014–2020 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

M. Nagel, C. Meyer, H.-M. Heiliger, T. Dekorsy, H. Kurz, R. Hey, K. Ploog, “Optical second-harmonic probe for ultra-high frequency on-chip interconnects with benzocyclobutene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1018–1020 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Palecek, M. Fojta, M. Tomschik, J. Wang, “Electrochemical biosensors for DNA hybridization and DNA damage,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 13, 621–628 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Okahata, M. Kawase, K. Niikura, F. Ohtake, H. Furusawa, Y. Ebara, “Kinetic measurements of DNA hybridization on an oligonucleotide-immobilized 27-MHz quartz crystal microbalance,” Anal. Chem. 10, 1288–1296 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, H. Tan, R. Wang, W. Wei, S. Yao, “Immobilization of DNA on silver surface of bulk acoustic wave sensor and its application to the study of UV-C damage,” Anal. Chim. Acta 374, 31–38 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Cho, M. Fromont-Racine, L. Wodicka, B. Feierbach, T. Stearns, P. Legrain, D. J. Lockhart, R. W. Davis, “Parallel analysis of genetic selections using whole genome oligonucleotide arrays,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 3752–3757 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. Larramendy, W. El-Rifai, S. Knuutila, “Comparison of fluorescein isothiocyanate- and Texas red-conjugated nucleotides for direct labeling in comparative genomic hybridization,” Cytometry 31, 174–179 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

Z. Zhu, A. S. Waggoner, “Molecular mechanism controlling the incorporation of fluorescent nucleotides into DNA by PCR,” Cytometry 28, 206–211 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Souteyrand, J. P. Cloarec, J. R. Martin, C. Wilson, I. Lawrence, S. Mikkelsen, M. F. Lawrence, “Direct detection of the hybridization of synthetic homo-oligomer DNA sequences by field effect,” J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 2980–2985 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

M. Chee, R. Yang, E. Hubbell, A. Berno, X. C. Huang, D. Stern, J. Winkler, D. J. Lockhart, M. S. Morris, S. P. Fodor, “Accessing genetic information with high-density DNA arrays,” Science 274, 610–614 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Pfeifer, H.-M. Heiliger, T. Loffler, C. Ohlhoff, C. Meyer, G. Lupke, H. G. Roskos, H. Kurz, “Optoelectronic on-chip characterization of ultrafast electric devices: measurements techniques and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 586–604 (1996)
[CrossRef]

1995

H. J. Watts, D. Yeung, H. Parkes, “Real-time detection and quantification of DNA hybridization by an optical biosensor,” Anal. Chem. 67, 4283–4289 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

Z. Zhu, J. Chao, H. Yu, A. S. Waggoner, “Directly labeled DNA probes using fluorescent nucleotides with different length linkers,” Nucleic Acids Res. 22, 3418–3422 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

R. Drmanac, S. Drmanac, Z. Strezoska, T. Paunesku, I. Labat, M. Zeremski, J. Snoddy, W. K. Funkhouser, B. Koop, L. Hood, “DNA sequence determination by hybridization: a strategy for efficient large-scale sequencing,” Science 260, 1649–1653 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

H. Ozaki, L. W. McLaughlin, “The estimation of distances between specific backbone-labeled sites in DNA using fluorescence resonance energy transfer,” Nucleic Acids Res. 20, 5205–5214 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990

W. Zhuang, Y. Feng, E. W. Prohofsky, “Self-consistent calculation of localized DNA vibrational properties at a double-helix-single-strand junction with anharmonic potential,” Phys. Rev. A. 41, 7033–7042 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989

L. L. Van Zandt, V. K. Saxena, “Millimeter-microwave spectrum of DNA: six predictions for spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 39, 2672–2674 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988

S. Lindsay, S. A. Lee, J. W. Powell, T. Weidlich, C. Demarco, G. D. Lewen, N. J. Tao, “The origin of the A to B transitions in DNA fibres and films,” Biopolymers 27, 1015–1043 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987

J. W. Powell, G. S. Edwards, L. Genzel, F. Kremer, A. Wittlin, W. Kubasek, W. Peticolas, “Investigation of far-infrared vibrational modes in polynucleotides,” Phys. Rev. A 35, 3929–3939 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984

G. S. Edwards, C. C. Davis, J. D. Saffer, M. L. Swicord, “Resonant microwave absorption of selected DNA molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 1284–1287 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1982

H. Urabe, Y. Tominaga, “Low-lying collective modes of DNA double helix by Raman spectroscopy,” Biopolymers 21, 2477–2481 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981

H. Urabe, Y. Tominaga, “Low frequency Raman spectra of DNA,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 50, 3543–3543 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Baker-Jarvis, J.

M. D. Janezic, J. Baker-Jarvis, “Full-wave analysis of a split-cylinder resonator for nondestructive permittivity measurements,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2014–2020 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Baller, M. K.

J. Fritz, M. K. Baller, H. P. Lang, H. Rothuizen, P. Vettiger, E. Meyer, H.-J. Güntherodt, Ch. Gerber, J. K. Gimzewskil, “Translating biomolecular recognition into nanomechanics,” Science 288, 316–318 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berno, A.

M. Chee, R. Yang, E. Hubbell, A. Berno, X. C. Huang, D. Stern, J. Winkler, D. J. Lockhart, M. S. Morris, S. P. Fodor, “Accessing genetic information with high-density DNA arrays,” Science 274, 610–614 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bosserhoff, A.

M. Brucherseifer, M. Nagel, P. Haring Bolivar, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, R. Büttner, “Label-free probing of the binding state of DNA by time-domain terahertz sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 4049–4051 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Brucherseifer, M.

M. Brucherseifer, M. Nagel, P. Haring Bolivar, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, R. Büttner, “Label-free probing of the binding state of DNA by time-domain terahertz sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 4049–4051 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Büttner, R.

M. Brucherseifer, M. Nagel, P. Haring Bolivar, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, R. Büttner, “Label-free probing of the binding state of DNA by time-domain terahertz sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 4049–4051 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bykhovskaia, M.

M. Bykhovskaia, B. Gelmont, T. Globus, D. L. Woolard, A. C. Samuels, T. H. Duong, K. Zakrzewska, “Prediction of DNA far-IR absorption spectra based on normal mode analysis,” Theor. Chem. Acc. 106, 22–27 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chao, J.

Z. Zhu, J. Chao, H. Yu, A. S. Waggoner, “Directly labeled DNA probes using fluorescent nucleotides with different length linkers,” Nucleic Acids Res. 22, 3418–3422 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chee, M.

M. Chee, R. Yang, E. Hubbell, A. Berno, X. C. Huang, D. Stern, J. Winkler, D. J. Lockhart, M. S. Morris, S. P. Fodor, “Accessing genetic information with high-density DNA arrays,” Science 274, 610–614 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, R. J.

R. J. Cho, M. Fromont-Racine, L. Wodicka, B. Feierbach, T. Stearns, P. Legrain, D. J. Lockhart, R. W. Davis, “Parallel analysis of genetic selections using whole genome oligonucleotide arrays,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 3752–3757 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cloarec, J. P.

E. Souteyrand, J. P. Cloarec, J. R. Martin, C. Wilson, I. Lawrence, S. Mikkelsen, M. F. Lawrence, “Direct detection of the hybridization of synthetic homo-oligomer DNA sequences by field effect,” J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 2980–2985 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Davis, C. C.

G. S. Edwards, C. C. Davis, J. D. Saffer, M. L. Swicord, “Resonant microwave absorption of selected DNA molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 1284–1287 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Davis, R. W.

R. J. Cho, M. Fromont-Racine, L. Wodicka, B. Feierbach, T. Stearns, P. Legrain, D. J. Lockhart, R. W. Davis, “Parallel analysis of genetic selections using whole genome oligonucleotide arrays,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 3752–3757 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dekorsy, T.

M. Nagel, C. Meyer, H.-M. Heiliger, T. Dekorsy, H. Kurz, R. Hey, K. Ploog, “Optical second-harmonic probe for ultra-high frequency on-chip interconnects with benzocyclobutene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1018–1020 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Demarco, C.

S. Lindsay, S. A. Lee, J. W. Powell, T. Weidlich, C. Demarco, G. D. Lewen, N. J. Tao, “The origin of the A to B transitions in DNA fibres and films,” Biopolymers 27, 1015–1043 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drmanac, R.

R. Drmanac, S. Drmanac, Z. Strezoska, T. Paunesku, I. Labat, M. Zeremski, J. Snoddy, W. K. Funkhouser, B. Koop, L. Hood, “DNA sequence determination by hybridization: a strategy for efficient large-scale sequencing,” Science 260, 1649–1653 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drmanac, S.

R. Drmanac, S. Drmanac, Z. Strezoska, T. Paunesku, I. Labat, M. Zeremski, J. Snoddy, W. K. Funkhouser, B. Koop, L. Hood, “DNA sequence determination by hybridization: a strategy for efficient large-scale sequencing,” Science 260, 1649–1653 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duong, T. H.

M. Bykhovskaia, B. Gelmont, T. Globus, D. L. Woolard, A. C. Samuels, T. H. Duong, K. Zakrzewska, “Prediction of DNA far-IR absorption spectra based on normal mode analysis,” Theor. Chem. Acc. 106, 22–27 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ebara, Y.

Y. Okahata, M. Kawase, K. Niikura, F. Ohtake, H. Furusawa, Y. Ebara, “Kinetic measurements of DNA hybridization on an oligonucleotide-immobilized 27-MHz quartz crystal microbalance,” Anal. Chem. 10, 1288–1296 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Edwards, G. S.

J. W. Powell, G. S. Edwards, L. Genzel, F. Kremer, A. Wittlin, W. Kubasek, W. Peticolas, “Investigation of far-infrared vibrational modes in polynucleotides,” Phys. Rev. A 35, 3929–3939 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. S. Edwards, C. C. Davis, J. D. Saffer, M. L. Swicord, “Resonant microwave absorption of selected DNA molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 1284–1287 (1984).
[CrossRef]

El-Rifai, W.

M. L. Larramendy, W. El-Rifai, S. Knuutila, “Comparison of fluorescein isothiocyanate- and Texas red-conjugated nucleotides for direct labeling in comparative genomic hybridization,” Cytometry 31, 174–179 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feierbach, B.

R. J. Cho, M. Fromont-Racine, L. Wodicka, B. Feierbach, T. Stearns, P. Legrain, D. J. Lockhart, R. W. Davis, “Parallel analysis of genetic selections using whole genome oligonucleotide arrays,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 3752–3757 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feng, Y.

W. Zhuang, Y. Feng, E. W. Prohofsky, “Self-consistent calculation of localized DNA vibrational properties at a double-helix-single-strand junction with anharmonic potential,” Phys. Rev. A. 41, 7033–7042 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fodor, S. P.

M. Chee, R. Yang, E. Hubbell, A. Berno, X. C. Huang, D. Stern, J. Winkler, D. J. Lockhart, M. S. Morris, S. P. Fodor, “Accessing genetic information with high-density DNA arrays,” Science 274, 610–614 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fojta, M.

E. Palecek, M. Fojta, M. Tomschik, J. Wang, “Electrochemical biosensors for DNA hybridization and DNA damage,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 13, 621–628 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fritz, J.

J. Fritz, M. K. Baller, H. P. Lang, H. Rothuizen, P. Vettiger, E. Meyer, H.-J. Güntherodt, Ch. Gerber, J. K. Gimzewskil, “Translating biomolecular recognition into nanomechanics,” Science 288, 316–318 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fromont-Racine, M.

R. J. Cho, M. Fromont-Racine, L. Wodicka, B. Feierbach, T. Stearns, P. Legrain, D. J. Lockhart, R. W. Davis, “Parallel analysis of genetic selections using whole genome oligonucleotide arrays,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 3752–3757 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Funkhouser, W. K.

R. Drmanac, S. Drmanac, Z. Strezoska, T. Paunesku, I. Labat, M. Zeremski, J. Snoddy, W. K. Funkhouser, B. Koop, L. Hood, “DNA sequence determination by hybridization: a strategy for efficient large-scale sequencing,” Science 260, 1649–1653 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Furusawa, H.

Y. Okahata, M. Kawase, K. Niikura, F. Ohtake, H. Furusawa, Y. Ebara, “Kinetic measurements of DNA hybridization on an oligonucleotide-immobilized 27-MHz quartz crystal microbalance,” Anal. Chem. 10, 1288–1296 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gelmont, B.

M. Bykhovskaia, B. Gelmont, T. Globus, D. L. Woolard, A. C. Samuels, T. H. Duong, K. Zakrzewska, “Prediction of DNA far-IR absorption spectra based on normal mode analysis,” Theor. Chem. Acc. 106, 22–27 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Genzel, L.

J. W. Powell, G. S. Edwards, L. Genzel, F. Kremer, A. Wittlin, W. Kubasek, W. Peticolas, “Investigation of far-infrared vibrational modes in polynucleotides,” Phys. Rev. A 35, 3929–3939 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gerber, Ch.

J. Fritz, M. K. Baller, H. P. Lang, H. Rothuizen, P. Vettiger, E. Meyer, H.-J. Güntherodt, Ch. Gerber, J. K. Gimzewskil, “Translating biomolecular recognition into nanomechanics,” Science 288, 316–318 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gimzewskil, J. K.

J. Fritz, M. K. Baller, H. P. Lang, H. Rothuizen, P. Vettiger, E. Meyer, H.-J. Güntherodt, Ch. Gerber, J. K. Gimzewskil, “Translating biomolecular recognition into nanomechanics,” Science 288, 316–318 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Globus, T.

M. Bykhovskaia, B. Gelmont, T. Globus, D. L. Woolard, A. C. Samuels, T. H. Duong, K. Zakrzewska, “Prediction of DNA far-IR absorption spectra based on normal mode analysis,” Theor. Chem. Acc. 106, 22–27 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Güntherodt, H.-J.

J. Fritz, M. K. Baller, H. P. Lang, H. Rothuizen, P. Vettiger, E. Meyer, H.-J. Güntherodt, Ch. Gerber, J. K. Gimzewskil, “Translating biomolecular recognition into nanomechanics,” Science 288, 316–318 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haring Bolivar, P.

M. Brucherseifer, M. Nagel, P. Haring Bolivar, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, R. Büttner, “Label-free probing of the binding state of DNA by time-domain terahertz sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 4049–4051 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hefti, J.

J. Hefti, A. Pan, A. Kumar, “Sensitive detection method of dielectric dispersions in aqueous-based, surface-bound macromolecular structures using microwave spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1802–1804 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Heiliger, H.-M.

M. Nagel, C. Meyer, H.-M. Heiliger, T. Dekorsy, H. Kurz, R. Hey, K. Ploog, “Optical second-harmonic probe for ultra-high frequency on-chip interconnects with benzocyclobutene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1018–1020 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Pfeifer, H.-M. Heiliger, T. Loffler, C. Ohlhoff, C. Meyer, G. Lupke, H. G. Roskos, H. Kurz, “Optoelectronic on-chip characterization of ultrafast electric devices: measurements techniques and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 586–604 (1996)
[CrossRef]

Heilweil, E. J.

A. G. Markelz, A. Roitberg, E. J. Heilweil, “Pulsed terahertz spectroscopy of DNA, bovine serum albumin and collagen between 0.1 and 2.0 THz,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 320, 42–48 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hey, R.

M. Nagel, C. Meyer, H.-M. Heiliger, T. Dekorsy, H. Kurz, R. Hey, K. Ploog, “Optical second-harmonic probe for ultra-high frequency on-chip interconnects with benzocyclobutene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1018–1020 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hood, L.

R. Drmanac, S. Drmanac, Z. Strezoska, T. Paunesku, I. Labat, M. Zeremski, J. Snoddy, W. K. Funkhouser, B. Koop, L. Hood, “DNA sequence determination by hybridization: a strategy for efficient large-scale sequencing,” Science 260, 1649–1653 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, X. C.

M. Chee, R. Yang, E. Hubbell, A. Berno, X. C. Huang, D. Stern, J. Winkler, D. J. Lockhart, M. S. Morris, S. P. Fodor, “Accessing genetic information with high-density DNA arrays,” Science 274, 610–614 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hubbell, E.

M. Chee, R. Yang, E. Hubbell, A. Berno, X. C. Huang, D. Stern, J. Winkler, D. J. Lockhart, M. S. Morris, S. P. Fodor, “Accessing genetic information with high-density DNA arrays,” Science 274, 610–614 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Janezic, M. D.

M. D. Janezic, J. Baker-Jarvis, “Full-wave analysis of a split-cylinder resonator for nondestructive permittivity measurements,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2014–2020 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kawase, M.

Y. Okahata, M. Kawase, K. Niikura, F. Ohtake, H. Furusawa, Y. Ebara, “Kinetic measurements of DNA hybridization on an oligonucleotide-immobilized 27-MHz quartz crystal microbalance,” Anal. Chem. 10, 1288–1296 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Knuutila, S.

M. L. Larramendy, W. El-Rifai, S. Knuutila, “Comparison of fluorescein isothiocyanate- and Texas red-conjugated nucleotides for direct labeling in comparative genomic hybridization,” Cytometry 31, 174–179 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koop, B.

R. Drmanac, S. Drmanac, Z. Strezoska, T. Paunesku, I. Labat, M. Zeremski, J. Snoddy, W. K. Funkhouser, B. Koop, L. Hood, “DNA sequence determination by hybridization: a strategy for efficient large-scale sequencing,” Science 260, 1649–1653 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kremer, F.

J. W. Powell, G. S. Edwards, L. Genzel, F. Kremer, A. Wittlin, W. Kubasek, W. Peticolas, “Investigation of far-infrared vibrational modes in polynucleotides,” Phys. Rev. A 35, 3929–3939 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kubasek, W.

J. W. Powell, G. S. Edwards, L. Genzel, F. Kremer, A. Wittlin, W. Kubasek, W. Peticolas, “Investigation of far-infrared vibrational modes in polynucleotides,” Phys. Rev. A 35, 3929–3939 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kumar, A.

J. Hefti, A. Pan, A. Kumar, “Sensitive detection method of dielectric dispersions in aqueous-based, surface-bound macromolecular structures using microwave spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1802–1804 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kurz, H.

M. Brucherseifer, M. Nagel, P. Haring Bolivar, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, R. Büttner, “Label-free probing of the binding state of DNA by time-domain terahertz sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 4049–4051 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Nagel, C. Meyer, H.-M. Heiliger, T. Dekorsy, H. Kurz, R. Hey, K. Ploog, “Optical second-harmonic probe for ultra-high frequency on-chip interconnects with benzocyclobutene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1018–1020 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Pfeifer, H.-M. Heiliger, T. Loffler, C. Ohlhoff, C. Meyer, G. Lupke, H. G. Roskos, H. Kurz, “Optoelectronic on-chip characterization of ultrafast electric devices: measurements techniques and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 586–604 (1996)
[CrossRef]

Labat, I.

R. Drmanac, S. Drmanac, Z. Strezoska, T. Paunesku, I. Labat, M. Zeremski, J. Snoddy, W. K. Funkhouser, B. Koop, L. Hood, “DNA sequence determination by hybridization: a strategy for efficient large-scale sequencing,” Science 260, 1649–1653 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lang, H. P.

J. Fritz, M. K. Baller, H. P. Lang, H. Rothuizen, P. Vettiger, E. Meyer, H.-J. Güntherodt, Ch. Gerber, J. K. Gimzewskil, “Translating biomolecular recognition into nanomechanics,” Science 288, 316–318 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Larramendy, M. L.

M. L. Larramendy, W. El-Rifai, S. Knuutila, “Comparison of fluorescein isothiocyanate- and Texas red-conjugated nucleotides for direct labeling in comparative genomic hybridization,” Cytometry 31, 174–179 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lawrence, I.

E. Souteyrand, J. P. Cloarec, J. R. Martin, C. Wilson, I. Lawrence, S. Mikkelsen, M. F. Lawrence, “Direct detection of the hybridization of synthetic homo-oligomer DNA sequences by field effect,” J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 2980–2985 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lawrence, M. F.

E. Souteyrand, J. P. Cloarec, J. R. Martin, C. Wilson, I. Lawrence, S. Mikkelsen, M. F. Lawrence, “Direct detection of the hybridization of synthetic homo-oligomer DNA sequences by field effect,” J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 2980–2985 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. A.

S. Lindsay, S. A. Lee, J. W. Powell, T. Weidlich, C. Demarco, G. D. Lewen, N. J. Tao, “The origin of the A to B transitions in DNA fibres and films,” Biopolymers 27, 1015–1043 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Legrain, P.

R. J. Cho, M. Fromont-Racine, L. Wodicka, B. Feierbach, T. Stearns, P. Legrain, D. J. Lockhart, R. W. Davis, “Parallel analysis of genetic selections using whole genome oligonucleotide arrays,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 3752–3757 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lewen, G. D.

S. Lindsay, S. A. Lee, J. W. Powell, T. Weidlich, C. Demarco, G. D. Lewen, N. J. Tao, “The origin of the A to B transitions in DNA fibres and films,” Biopolymers 27, 1015–1043 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lindsay, S.

S. Lindsay, S. A. Lee, J. W. Powell, T. Weidlich, C. Demarco, G. D. Lewen, N. J. Tao, “The origin of the A to B transitions in DNA fibres and films,” Biopolymers 27, 1015–1043 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lockhart, D. J.

R. J. Cho, M. Fromont-Racine, L. Wodicka, B. Feierbach, T. Stearns, P. Legrain, D. J. Lockhart, R. W. Davis, “Parallel analysis of genetic selections using whole genome oligonucleotide arrays,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 3752–3757 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Chee, R. Yang, E. Hubbell, A. Berno, X. C. Huang, D. Stern, J. Winkler, D. J. Lockhart, M. S. Morris, S. P. Fodor, “Accessing genetic information with high-density DNA arrays,” Science 274, 610–614 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Loffler, T.

T. Pfeifer, H.-M. Heiliger, T. Loffler, C. Ohlhoff, C. Meyer, G. Lupke, H. G. Roskos, H. Kurz, “Optoelectronic on-chip characterization of ultrafast electric devices: measurements techniques and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 586–604 (1996)
[CrossRef]

Lupke, G.

T. Pfeifer, H.-M. Heiliger, T. Loffler, C. Ohlhoff, C. Meyer, G. Lupke, H. G. Roskos, H. Kurz, “Optoelectronic on-chip characterization of ultrafast electric devices: measurements techniques and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 586–604 (1996)
[CrossRef]

Markelz, A. G.

A. G. Markelz, A. Roitberg, E. J. Heilweil, “Pulsed terahertz spectroscopy of DNA, bovine serum albumin and collagen between 0.1 and 2.0 THz,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 320, 42–48 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Martin, J. R.

E. Souteyrand, J. P. Cloarec, J. R. Martin, C. Wilson, I. Lawrence, S. Mikkelsen, M. F. Lawrence, “Direct detection of the hybridization of synthetic homo-oligomer DNA sequences by field effect,” J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 2980–2985 (1997).
[CrossRef]

McLaughlin, L. W.

H. Ozaki, L. W. McLaughlin, “The estimation of distances between specific backbone-labeled sites in DNA using fluorescence resonance energy transfer,” Nucleic Acids Res. 20, 5205–5214 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meyer, C.

M. Nagel, C. Meyer, H.-M. Heiliger, T. Dekorsy, H. Kurz, R. Hey, K. Ploog, “Optical second-harmonic probe for ultra-high frequency on-chip interconnects with benzocyclobutene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1018–1020 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Pfeifer, H.-M. Heiliger, T. Loffler, C. Ohlhoff, C. Meyer, G. Lupke, H. G. Roskos, H. Kurz, “Optoelectronic on-chip characterization of ultrafast electric devices: measurements techniques and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 586–604 (1996)
[CrossRef]

Meyer, E.

J. Fritz, M. K. Baller, H. P. Lang, H. Rothuizen, P. Vettiger, E. Meyer, H.-J. Güntherodt, Ch. Gerber, J. K. Gimzewskil, “Translating biomolecular recognition into nanomechanics,” Science 288, 316–318 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mikkelsen, S.

E. Souteyrand, J. P. Cloarec, J. R. Martin, C. Wilson, I. Lawrence, S. Mikkelsen, M. F. Lawrence, “Direct detection of the hybridization of synthetic homo-oligomer DNA sequences by field effect,” J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 2980–2985 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Morris, M. S.

M. Chee, R. Yang, E. Hubbell, A. Berno, X. C. Huang, D. Stern, J. Winkler, D. J. Lockhart, M. S. Morris, S. P. Fodor, “Accessing genetic information with high-density DNA arrays,” Science 274, 610–614 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nagel, M.

M. Brucherseifer, M. Nagel, P. Haring Bolivar, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, R. Büttner, “Label-free probing of the binding state of DNA by time-domain terahertz sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 4049–4051 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Nagel, C. Meyer, H.-M. Heiliger, T. Dekorsy, H. Kurz, R. Hey, K. Ploog, “Optical second-harmonic probe for ultra-high frequency on-chip interconnects with benzocyclobutene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1018–1020 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Niikura, K.

Y. Okahata, M. Kawase, K. Niikura, F. Ohtake, H. Furusawa, Y. Ebara, “Kinetic measurements of DNA hybridization on an oligonucleotide-immobilized 27-MHz quartz crystal microbalance,” Anal. Chem. 10, 1288–1296 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ohlhoff, C.

T. Pfeifer, H.-M. Heiliger, T. Loffler, C. Ohlhoff, C. Meyer, G. Lupke, H. G. Roskos, H. Kurz, “Optoelectronic on-chip characterization of ultrafast electric devices: measurements techniques and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 586–604 (1996)
[CrossRef]

Ohtake, F.

Y. Okahata, M. Kawase, K. Niikura, F. Ohtake, H. Furusawa, Y. Ebara, “Kinetic measurements of DNA hybridization on an oligonucleotide-immobilized 27-MHz quartz crystal microbalance,” Anal. Chem. 10, 1288–1296 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Okahata, Y.

Y. Okahata, M. Kawase, K. Niikura, F. Ohtake, H. Furusawa, Y. Ebara, “Kinetic measurements of DNA hybridization on an oligonucleotide-immobilized 27-MHz quartz crystal microbalance,” Anal. Chem. 10, 1288–1296 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ozaki, H.

H. Ozaki, L. W. McLaughlin, “The estimation of distances between specific backbone-labeled sites in DNA using fluorescence resonance energy transfer,” Nucleic Acids Res. 20, 5205–5214 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palecek, E.

E. Palecek, M. Fojta, M. Tomschik, J. Wang, “Electrochemical biosensors for DNA hybridization and DNA damage,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 13, 621–628 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pan, A.

J. Hefti, A. Pan, A. Kumar, “Sensitive detection method of dielectric dispersions in aqueous-based, surface-bound macromolecular structures using microwave spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1802–1804 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Parkes, H.

H. J. Watts, D. Yeung, H. Parkes, “Real-time detection and quantification of DNA hybridization by an optical biosensor,” Anal. Chem. 67, 4283–4289 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paunesku, T.

R. Drmanac, S. Drmanac, Z. Strezoska, T. Paunesku, I. Labat, M. Zeremski, J. Snoddy, W. K. Funkhouser, B. Koop, L. Hood, “DNA sequence determination by hybridization: a strategy for efficient large-scale sequencing,” Science 260, 1649–1653 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peticolas, W.

J. W. Powell, G. S. Edwards, L. Genzel, F. Kremer, A. Wittlin, W. Kubasek, W. Peticolas, “Investigation of far-infrared vibrational modes in polynucleotides,” Phys. Rev. A 35, 3929–3939 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pfeifer, T.

T. Pfeifer, H.-M. Heiliger, T. Loffler, C. Ohlhoff, C. Meyer, G. Lupke, H. G. Roskos, H. Kurz, “Optoelectronic on-chip characterization of ultrafast electric devices: measurements techniques and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 586–604 (1996)
[CrossRef]

Ploog, K.

M. Nagel, C. Meyer, H.-M. Heiliger, T. Dekorsy, H. Kurz, R. Hey, K. Ploog, “Optical second-harmonic probe for ultra-high frequency on-chip interconnects with benzocyclobutene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1018–1020 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Powell, J. W.

S. Lindsay, S. A. Lee, J. W. Powell, T. Weidlich, C. Demarco, G. D. Lewen, N. J. Tao, “The origin of the A to B transitions in DNA fibres and films,” Biopolymers 27, 1015–1043 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Powell, G. S. Edwards, L. Genzel, F. Kremer, A. Wittlin, W. Kubasek, W. Peticolas, “Investigation of far-infrared vibrational modes in polynucleotides,” Phys. Rev. A 35, 3929–3939 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prohofsky, E. W.

W. Zhuang, Y. Feng, E. W. Prohofsky, “Self-consistent calculation of localized DNA vibrational properties at a double-helix-single-strand junction with anharmonic potential,” Phys. Rev. A. 41, 7033–7042 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roitberg, A.

A. G. Markelz, A. Roitberg, E. J. Heilweil, “Pulsed terahertz spectroscopy of DNA, bovine serum albumin and collagen between 0.1 and 2.0 THz,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 320, 42–48 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Roskos, H. G.

T. Pfeifer, H.-M. Heiliger, T. Loffler, C. Ohlhoff, C. Meyer, G. Lupke, H. G. Roskos, H. Kurz, “Optoelectronic on-chip characterization of ultrafast electric devices: measurements techniques and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 586–604 (1996)
[CrossRef]

Rothuizen, H.

J. Fritz, M. K. Baller, H. P. Lang, H. Rothuizen, P. Vettiger, E. Meyer, H.-J. Güntherodt, Ch. Gerber, J. K. Gimzewskil, “Translating biomolecular recognition into nanomechanics,” Science 288, 316–318 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saffer, J. D.

G. S. Edwards, C. C. Davis, J. D. Saffer, M. L. Swicord, “Resonant microwave absorption of selected DNA molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 1284–1287 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Samuels, A. C.

M. Bykhovskaia, B. Gelmont, T. Globus, D. L. Woolard, A. C. Samuels, T. H. Duong, K. Zakrzewska, “Prediction of DNA far-IR absorption spectra based on normal mode analysis,” Theor. Chem. Acc. 106, 22–27 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Saxena, V. K.

L. L. Van Zandt, V. K. Saxena, “Millimeter-microwave spectrum of DNA: six predictions for spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 39, 2672–2674 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Snoddy, J.

R. Drmanac, S. Drmanac, Z. Strezoska, T. Paunesku, I. Labat, M. Zeremski, J. Snoddy, W. K. Funkhouser, B. Koop, L. Hood, “DNA sequence determination by hybridization: a strategy for efficient large-scale sequencing,” Science 260, 1649–1653 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Souteyrand, E.

E. Souteyrand, J. P. Cloarec, J. R. Martin, C. Wilson, I. Lawrence, S. Mikkelsen, M. F. Lawrence, “Direct detection of the hybridization of synthetic homo-oligomer DNA sequences by field effect,” J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 2980–2985 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Stearns, T.

R. J. Cho, M. Fromont-Racine, L. Wodicka, B. Feierbach, T. Stearns, P. Legrain, D. J. Lockhart, R. W. Davis, “Parallel analysis of genetic selections using whole genome oligonucleotide arrays,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 3752–3757 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stern, D.

M. Chee, R. Yang, E. Hubbell, A. Berno, X. C. Huang, D. Stern, J. Winkler, D. J. Lockhart, M. S. Morris, S. P. Fodor, “Accessing genetic information with high-density DNA arrays,” Science 274, 610–614 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strezoska, Z.

R. Drmanac, S. Drmanac, Z. Strezoska, T. Paunesku, I. Labat, M. Zeremski, J. Snoddy, W. K. Funkhouser, B. Koop, L. Hood, “DNA sequence determination by hybridization: a strategy for efficient large-scale sequencing,” Science 260, 1649–1653 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swicord, M. L.

G. S. Edwards, C. C. Davis, J. D. Saffer, M. L. Swicord, “Resonant microwave absorption of selected DNA molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 1284–1287 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Tan, H.

H. Zhang, H. Tan, R. Wang, W. Wei, S. Yao, “Immobilization of DNA on silver surface of bulk acoustic wave sensor and its application to the study of UV-C damage,” Anal. Chim. Acta 374, 31–38 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tao, N. J.

S. Lindsay, S. A. Lee, J. W. Powell, T. Weidlich, C. Demarco, G. D. Lewen, N. J. Tao, “The origin of the A to B transitions in DNA fibres and films,” Biopolymers 27, 1015–1043 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tominaga, Y.

H. Urabe, Y. Tominaga, “Low-lying collective modes of DNA double helix by Raman spectroscopy,” Biopolymers 21, 2477–2481 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Urabe, Y. Tominaga, “Low frequency Raman spectra of DNA,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 50, 3543–3543 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Tomschik, M.

E. Palecek, M. Fojta, M. Tomschik, J. Wang, “Electrochemical biosensors for DNA hybridization and DNA damage,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 13, 621–628 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Urabe, H.

H. Urabe, Y. Tominaga, “Low-lying collective modes of DNA double helix by Raman spectroscopy,” Biopolymers 21, 2477–2481 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Urabe, Y. Tominaga, “Low frequency Raman spectra of DNA,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 50, 3543–3543 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Van Zandt, L. L.

L. L. Van Zandt, V. K. Saxena, “Millimeter-microwave spectrum of DNA: six predictions for spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 39, 2672–2674 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vettiger, P.

J. Fritz, M. K. Baller, H. P. Lang, H. Rothuizen, P. Vettiger, E. Meyer, H.-J. Güntherodt, Ch. Gerber, J. K. Gimzewskil, “Translating biomolecular recognition into nanomechanics,” Science 288, 316–318 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Waggoner, A. S.

Z. Zhu, A. S. Waggoner, “Molecular mechanism controlling the incorporation of fluorescent nucleotides into DNA by PCR,” Cytometry 28, 206–211 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Zhu, J. Chao, H. Yu, A. S. Waggoner, “Directly labeled DNA probes using fluorescent nucleotides with different length linkers,” Nucleic Acids Res. 22, 3418–3422 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

E. Palecek, M. Fojta, M. Tomschik, J. Wang, “Electrochemical biosensors for DNA hybridization and DNA damage,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 13, 621–628 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, R.

H. Zhang, H. Tan, R. Wang, W. Wei, S. Yao, “Immobilization of DNA on silver surface of bulk acoustic wave sensor and its application to the study of UV-C damage,” Anal. Chim. Acta 374, 31–38 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Watts, H. J.

H. J. Watts, D. Yeung, H. Parkes, “Real-time detection and quantification of DNA hybridization by an optical biosensor,” Anal. Chem. 67, 4283–4289 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wei, W.

H. Zhang, H. Tan, R. Wang, W. Wei, S. Yao, “Immobilization of DNA on silver surface of bulk acoustic wave sensor and its application to the study of UV-C damage,” Anal. Chim. Acta 374, 31–38 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Weidlich, T.

S. Lindsay, S. A. Lee, J. W. Powell, T. Weidlich, C. Demarco, G. D. Lewen, N. J. Tao, “The origin of the A to B transitions in DNA fibres and films,” Biopolymers 27, 1015–1043 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, C.

E. Souteyrand, J. P. Cloarec, J. R. Martin, C. Wilson, I. Lawrence, S. Mikkelsen, M. F. Lawrence, “Direct detection of the hybridization of synthetic homo-oligomer DNA sequences by field effect,” J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 2980–2985 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Winkler, J.

M. Chee, R. Yang, E. Hubbell, A. Berno, X. C. Huang, D. Stern, J. Winkler, D. J. Lockhart, M. S. Morris, S. P. Fodor, “Accessing genetic information with high-density DNA arrays,” Science 274, 610–614 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wittlin, A.

J. W. Powell, G. S. Edwards, L. Genzel, F. Kremer, A. Wittlin, W. Kubasek, W. Peticolas, “Investigation of far-infrared vibrational modes in polynucleotides,” Phys. Rev. A 35, 3929–3939 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wodicka, L.

R. J. Cho, M. Fromont-Racine, L. Wodicka, B. Feierbach, T. Stearns, P. Legrain, D. J. Lockhart, R. W. Davis, “Parallel analysis of genetic selections using whole genome oligonucleotide arrays,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 3752–3757 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Woolard, D. L.

M. Bykhovskaia, B. Gelmont, T. Globus, D. L. Woolard, A. C. Samuels, T. H. Duong, K. Zakrzewska, “Prediction of DNA far-IR absorption spectra based on normal mode analysis,” Theor. Chem. Acc. 106, 22–27 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yang, R.

M. Chee, R. Yang, E. Hubbell, A. Berno, X. C. Huang, D. Stern, J. Winkler, D. J. Lockhart, M. S. Morris, S. P. Fodor, “Accessing genetic information with high-density DNA arrays,” Science 274, 610–614 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yao, S.

H. Zhang, H. Tan, R. Wang, W. Wei, S. Yao, “Immobilization of DNA on silver surface of bulk acoustic wave sensor and its application to the study of UV-C damage,” Anal. Chim. Acta 374, 31–38 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yeung, D.

H. J. Watts, D. Yeung, H. Parkes, “Real-time detection and quantification of DNA hybridization by an optical biosensor,” Anal. Chem. 67, 4283–4289 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, H.

Z. Zhu, J. Chao, H. Yu, A. S. Waggoner, “Directly labeled DNA probes using fluorescent nucleotides with different length linkers,” Nucleic Acids Res. 22, 3418–3422 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zakrzewska, K.

M. Bykhovskaia, B. Gelmont, T. Globus, D. L. Woolard, A. C. Samuels, T. H. Duong, K. Zakrzewska, “Prediction of DNA far-IR absorption spectra based on normal mode analysis,” Theor. Chem. Acc. 106, 22–27 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zeremski, M.

R. Drmanac, S. Drmanac, Z. Strezoska, T. Paunesku, I. Labat, M. Zeremski, J. Snoddy, W. K. Funkhouser, B. Koop, L. Hood, “DNA sequence determination by hybridization: a strategy for efficient large-scale sequencing,” Science 260, 1649–1653 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, H.

H. Zhang, H. Tan, R. Wang, W. Wei, S. Yao, “Immobilization of DNA on silver surface of bulk acoustic wave sensor and its application to the study of UV-C damage,” Anal. Chim. Acta 374, 31–38 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Z.

Z. Zhu, A. S. Waggoner, “Molecular mechanism controlling the incorporation of fluorescent nucleotides into DNA by PCR,” Cytometry 28, 206–211 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Zhu, J. Chao, H. Yu, A. S. Waggoner, “Directly labeled DNA probes using fluorescent nucleotides with different length linkers,” Nucleic Acids Res. 22, 3418–3422 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhuang, W.

W. Zhuang, Y. Feng, E. W. Prohofsky, “Self-consistent calculation of localized DNA vibrational properties at a double-helix-single-strand junction with anharmonic potential,” Phys. Rev. A. 41, 7033–7042 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem.

H. J. Watts, D. Yeung, H. Parkes, “Real-time detection and quantification of DNA hybridization by an optical biosensor,” Anal. Chem. 67, 4283–4289 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scheme of the experimental setup and employed THz probes: (a) operation principle of the analytic system including PC signal generation, microstrip waveguide with DNA spot and free-positionable electro-optic (EO) prober; (b) cross section through the microstrip waveguide; (c) first approach using the microstrip waveguide as signal transducer under the DNA spot; (d) enhanced sensitivity approach using a THz resonator (bandpass filter) as a far more efficient transducer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental transients using the microstrip line signal transducer of the THz pulse transmitted through hybridized (upper plot) and denatured (lower plot) pcDNA3 molecules of length 5.4 kb. The propagation length through DNA spots was 6 mm. Δt is an indication for the DNA induced temporal shift of the signal.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Enhanced sensitivity results using a bandpass filter as THz resonator under DNA spots of 0.5-mm diameter. The spectra illustrate the calculated and the experimental transmisson spectra through the device prior to the deposition of DNA, and the transmission after deposition of hybridized and denatured pcDNA3 molecules of length 5.4 kb.

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