Abstract

An optical solution is described for the redistribution of the light reflected from a 400-m2 paraboloidal solar concentrating dish as uniformly as possible over an approximately 1-m2 plane. Concentrator photovoltaic cells will be mounted at this plane, and they require a uniform light distribution for high efficiency. It is proposed that the solar cells will be mounted at the output of a rectangular receiver box with reflective sidewalls (i.e., a kaleidoscope), which will redistribute the light. I discuss the receiver box properties that influence the light distribution reaching the solar cells.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. Faiman, “Concentrator PV: cost and materials issues,” in Ninth Sede Boqer Symposium on Solar Electricity Production, D. Faiman, ed. (Sede Boqer, Israel, 1999).
  2. S. M. Jeter, “The distribution of concentrated solar radiation in paraboloidal collectors,” J. Solar Energy Sci. Eng. 108, 219–225 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. M. Chen, J. B. Berkowitz-Mattuck, P. E. Glaser, “The use of a kaleidoscope to obtain uniform flux over a large area in a solar or arc imaging furnace,” Appl. Opt. 2, 265–271 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. Ries, J. M. Gordon, M. Laskin, “High-flux photovoltaic solar concentrators with kaleidoscope-based optical designs,” Sol. Energy 60, 11–16 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. Johnston, “On the analysis of surface error distributions on concentrated solar collectors,” J. Solar Energy Sci. Eng. 117, 294–296 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Schubnell, “Sunshape and its influence on the flux distributions in imaging solar concentrators,” J. Solar Energy Sci. Eng. 114, 260–266 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Bammert, A. Hegazy, H. Lange, “Determination of the distribution of incident solar radiation in cavity receivers with approximately real parabolic dish collectors,” J. Solar Energy Sci. Eng. 112, 237–243 (1990).
    [CrossRef]

1997

H. Ries, J. M. Gordon, M. Laskin, “High-flux photovoltaic solar concentrators with kaleidoscope-based optical designs,” Sol. Energy 60, 11–16 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

G. Johnston, “On the analysis of surface error distributions on concentrated solar collectors,” J. Solar Energy Sci. Eng. 117, 294–296 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992

M. Schubnell, “Sunshape and its influence on the flux distributions in imaging solar concentrators,” J. Solar Energy Sci. Eng. 114, 260–266 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990

K. Bammert, A. Hegazy, H. Lange, “Determination of the distribution of incident solar radiation in cavity receivers with approximately real parabolic dish collectors,” J. Solar Energy Sci. Eng. 112, 237–243 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1986

S. M. Jeter, “The distribution of concentrated solar radiation in paraboloidal collectors,” J. Solar Energy Sci. Eng. 108, 219–225 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1963

Bammert, K.

K. Bammert, A. Hegazy, H. Lange, “Determination of the distribution of incident solar radiation in cavity receivers with approximately real parabolic dish collectors,” J. Solar Energy Sci. Eng. 112, 237–243 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Berkowitz-Mattuck, J. B.

Chen, M. M.

Faiman, D.

D. Faiman, “Concentrator PV: cost and materials issues,” in Ninth Sede Boqer Symposium on Solar Electricity Production, D. Faiman, ed. (Sede Boqer, Israel, 1999).

Glaser, P. E.

Gordon, J. M.

H. Ries, J. M. Gordon, M. Laskin, “High-flux photovoltaic solar concentrators with kaleidoscope-based optical designs,” Sol. Energy 60, 11–16 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hegazy, A.

K. Bammert, A. Hegazy, H. Lange, “Determination of the distribution of incident solar radiation in cavity receivers with approximately real parabolic dish collectors,” J. Solar Energy Sci. Eng. 112, 237–243 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Jeter, S. M.

S. M. Jeter, “The distribution of concentrated solar radiation in paraboloidal collectors,” J. Solar Energy Sci. Eng. 108, 219–225 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Johnston, G.

G. Johnston, “On the analysis of surface error distributions on concentrated solar collectors,” J. Solar Energy Sci. Eng. 117, 294–296 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lange, H.

K. Bammert, A. Hegazy, H. Lange, “Determination of the distribution of incident solar radiation in cavity receivers with approximately real parabolic dish collectors,” J. Solar Energy Sci. Eng. 112, 237–243 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Laskin, M.

H. Ries, J. M. Gordon, M. Laskin, “High-flux photovoltaic solar concentrators with kaleidoscope-based optical designs,” Sol. Energy 60, 11–16 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ries, H.

H. Ries, J. M. Gordon, M. Laskin, “High-flux photovoltaic solar concentrators with kaleidoscope-based optical designs,” Sol. Energy 60, 11–16 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schubnell, M.

M. Schubnell, “Sunshape and its influence on the flux distributions in imaging solar concentrators,” J. Solar Energy Sci. Eng. 114, 260–266 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

J. Solar Energy Sci. Eng.

S. M. Jeter, “The distribution of concentrated solar radiation in paraboloidal collectors,” J. Solar Energy Sci. Eng. 108, 219–225 (1986).
[CrossRef]

G. Johnston, “On the analysis of surface error distributions on concentrated solar collectors,” J. Solar Energy Sci. Eng. 117, 294–296 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Schubnell, “Sunshape and its influence on the flux distributions in imaging solar concentrators,” J. Solar Energy Sci. Eng. 114, 260–266 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. Bammert, A. Hegazy, H. Lange, “Determination of the distribution of incident solar radiation in cavity receivers with approximately real parabolic dish collectors,” J. Solar Energy Sci. Eng. 112, 237–243 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energy

H. Ries, J. M. Gordon, M. Laskin, “High-flux photovoltaic solar concentrators with kaleidoscope-based optical designs,” Sol. Energy 60, 11–16 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other

D. Faiman, “Concentrator PV: cost and materials issues,” in Ninth Sede Boqer Symposium on Solar Electricity Production, D. Faiman, ed. (Sede Boqer, Israel, 1999).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic view of the paraboloidal concentrator and its associated receiver box: (a) cross-section including the optical axis, (b) projection of the receiver box on the hexagonal periphery of the paraboloid.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Off-axis rays reflected off of the paraboloidal concentrating mirror.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Contour map of the irradiance distribution at the kaleidoscope entrance plane (z = 13.4 m) in number of Suns.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Normalized standard deviation versus kaleidoscope length for a 0.88 m × 0.8 m rectangular-shaped kaleidoscope with 95% mirror reflectivity and an entrance plane at z = 13.4 m.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

x-axis cross section of the irradiance distribution at the z = 13.4-m plane in number of Suns: (a) no shading by the kaleidoscope (all rays from the source in the collection area of the dish will reach the dish), (b) center of the dish is shaded by a 1-m2 kaleidoscope of 2.5 m in length.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Irradiance distribution (in number of Suns) at the z = 15.06-m plane by use of a 1 m × 1 m kaleidoscope with the entrance plane at z = 13.5 m. The center dip area can be used for cell wiring.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Irradiance distribution (in number of Suns) at the z = 15.84-m plane with a 0.88 m × 0.8 m kaleidoscope with the entrance plane at z = 13.4 m. Percent nonuniformity is ±2.6%.

Equations (5)

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z1=x12/4f,
x=mz-z1+x1,
m=-x1f-z1 -tan θ1+x1f-z1 -tan θ.
σ=std1000s,
δ=maximum flux - minimum fluxaverage flux1002.

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