Abstract

The influence on the internal stress and optical properties of Nb2O5 thin films with ion-beam energy was investigated. Nb2O5 thin films were deposited on unheated glass substrates by means of ion-beam sputtering with different ion-beam voltage, V b. The refractive index, extinction coefficient, and surface roughness were found to depend on the ion-beam energy. The stresses in thin films were measured by the phase-shifting interferometry technique. The film stress was also found to be related to V b, and a high compressive stress of -0.467 GPa was measured at V b = 850 V. The Nb2O5–SiO2 multilayer coatings had smaller average compressive stress as compared with single-layer Nb2O5 film.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. R. Sites, P. Gilstrap, R. Rujkorakarn, “Ion beam sputter deposition of optical coatings,” Opt. Eng. 22, 447–449 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. T. Wei, “Ion beam interference coating for ultralow optical loss,” Appl. Opt. 15, 2813–2816 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. T. Wei, H. R. Kaufman, C. C. Lee, in Thin Films for Optical Systems, F. R. Flory, ed. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1995), Chap. 6.
  4. J. Edlinger, J. Ramm, H. K. Pulker, “Properties of ion-plated Nb2O5 films,” Thin Solid Films 175, 207–212 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. Konopka, D. E. Morton, F. T. Zimone, “Bipolar pulsed DC sputtering of optical films,” in Proceedings of 42nd Annual SVC Technical Conference (Society of Vacuum Centers, Chicago, 1999), pp. 217–222.
  6. H. Kupfer, T. Flugel, F. Richter, P. Schlott, “Intrinsic stress in dielectric thin films for micromechanical components,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 116-117, 116–120 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Q. Tang, “Study on the optical properties originated by the microstructures of thin oxide film,” Ph.D. dissertation (Kobe Design University, Kobe, Japan, 1997), pp. 139–141.
  8. C. C. Lee, J. C. Hsu, D. T. Wei, D. H. Wong, “Low loss niobium oxides film deposited by ion beam sputter deposition,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 32, 327–337 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. C. Manifacier, J. Gasiot, J. P. Fillard, “A simple method for the determination of the optical constants n, k and the thickness of a weakly absorbing thin film,” J. Phys. E 9, 1002–1004 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. C. Lee, C. L. Tien, W. S. Sheu, C. C. Jaing, “A new apparatus for the measurement of internal stress and thermal expansion coefficient of metal oxide films,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2128–2213 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. L. Tien, C. C. Lee, C. C. Jaing, “The measurement of thin film stress using phase shifting interferometry,” J. Mod. Opt. 47, 839–849 (2000).
  12. G. G. Stoney, “The tension of metallic films deposited by electrolysis,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 82, 172–175 (1909).
    [CrossRef]
  13. N. N. Davidenkov, “Measurement of residual stress in electrolytic deposits,” Sov. Phys. 2, 2595–2598 (1961).
  14. C. A. Davis, “A simple model for formation of compressive stress in thin films by ion bombardment,” Thin Solid Films 226, 30–34 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  15. K. H. Muller, “Modeling ion-assisted deposition of CeO2 films,” Appl. Phys. A 40, 209–213 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. Vilms, D. Kerps, “Simple stress formula for multilayered thin films on a thick substrate,” J. Appl. Phys. 53, 1536–1537 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. E. Ennos, “Stress developed in optical film coatings,” Appl. Opt. 5, 51–61 (1966).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

C. C. Lee, C. L. Tien, W. S. Sheu, C. C. Jaing, “A new apparatus for the measurement of internal stress and thermal expansion coefficient of metal oxide films,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2128–2213 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

C. L. Tien, C. C. Lee, C. C. Jaing, “The measurement of thin film stress using phase shifting interferometry,” J. Mod. Opt. 47, 839–849 (2000).

C. C. Lee, J. C. Hsu, D. T. Wei, D. H. Wong, “Low loss niobium oxides film deposited by ion beam sputter deposition,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 32, 327–337 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

H. Kupfer, T. Flugel, F. Richter, P. Schlott, “Intrinsic stress in dielectric thin films for micromechanical components,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 116-117, 116–120 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

C. A. Davis, “A simple model for formation of compressive stress in thin films by ion bombardment,” Thin Solid Films 226, 30–34 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

D. T. Wei, “Ion beam interference coating for ultralow optical loss,” Appl. Opt. 15, 2813–2816 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Edlinger, J. Ramm, H. K. Pulker, “Properties of ion-plated Nb2O5 films,” Thin Solid Films 175, 207–212 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

K. H. Muller, “Modeling ion-assisted deposition of CeO2 films,” Appl. Phys. A 40, 209–213 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

J. R. Sites, P. Gilstrap, R. Rujkorakarn, “Ion beam sputter deposition of optical coatings,” Opt. Eng. 22, 447–449 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

J. Vilms, D. Kerps, “Simple stress formula for multilayered thin films on a thick substrate,” J. Appl. Phys. 53, 1536–1537 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

J. C. Manifacier, J. Gasiot, J. P. Fillard, “A simple method for the determination of the optical constants n, k and the thickness of a weakly absorbing thin film,” J. Phys. E 9, 1002–1004 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

1961 (1)

N. N. Davidenkov, “Measurement of residual stress in electrolytic deposits,” Sov. Phys. 2, 2595–2598 (1961).

1909 (1)

G. G. Stoney, “The tension of metallic films deposited by electrolysis,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 82, 172–175 (1909).
[CrossRef]

Davidenkov, N. N.

N. N. Davidenkov, “Measurement of residual stress in electrolytic deposits,” Sov. Phys. 2, 2595–2598 (1961).

Davis, C. A.

C. A. Davis, “A simple model for formation of compressive stress in thin films by ion bombardment,” Thin Solid Films 226, 30–34 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Edlinger, J.

J. Edlinger, J. Ramm, H. K. Pulker, “Properties of ion-plated Nb2O5 films,” Thin Solid Films 175, 207–212 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ennos, A. E.

Fillard, J. P.

J. C. Manifacier, J. Gasiot, J. P. Fillard, “A simple method for the determination of the optical constants n, k and the thickness of a weakly absorbing thin film,” J. Phys. E 9, 1002–1004 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Flugel, T.

H. Kupfer, T. Flugel, F. Richter, P. Schlott, “Intrinsic stress in dielectric thin films for micromechanical components,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 116-117, 116–120 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gasiot, J.

J. C. Manifacier, J. Gasiot, J. P. Fillard, “A simple method for the determination of the optical constants n, k and the thickness of a weakly absorbing thin film,” J. Phys. E 9, 1002–1004 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Gilstrap, P.

J. R. Sites, P. Gilstrap, R. Rujkorakarn, “Ion beam sputter deposition of optical coatings,” Opt. Eng. 22, 447–449 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, J. C.

C. C. Lee, J. C. Hsu, D. T. Wei, D. H. Wong, “Low loss niobium oxides film deposited by ion beam sputter deposition,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 32, 327–337 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jaing, C. C.

C. C. Lee, C. L. Tien, W. S. Sheu, C. C. Jaing, “A new apparatus for the measurement of internal stress and thermal expansion coefficient of metal oxide films,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2128–2213 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Tien, C. C. Lee, C. C. Jaing, “The measurement of thin film stress using phase shifting interferometry,” J. Mod. Opt. 47, 839–849 (2000).

Kaufman, H. R.

D. T. Wei, H. R. Kaufman, C. C. Lee, in Thin Films for Optical Systems, F. R. Flory, ed. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1995), Chap. 6.

Kerps, D.

J. Vilms, D. Kerps, “Simple stress formula for multilayered thin films on a thick substrate,” J. Appl. Phys. 53, 1536–1537 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Konopka, D.

D. Konopka, D. E. Morton, F. T. Zimone, “Bipolar pulsed DC sputtering of optical films,” in Proceedings of 42nd Annual SVC Technical Conference (Society of Vacuum Centers, Chicago, 1999), pp. 217–222.

Kupfer, H.

H. Kupfer, T. Flugel, F. Richter, P. Schlott, “Intrinsic stress in dielectric thin films for micromechanical components,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 116-117, 116–120 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. C.

C. C. Lee, C. L. Tien, W. S. Sheu, C. C. Jaing, “A new apparatus for the measurement of internal stress and thermal expansion coefficient of metal oxide films,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2128–2213 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Lee, J. C. Hsu, D. T. Wei, D. H. Wong, “Low loss niobium oxides film deposited by ion beam sputter deposition,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 32, 327–337 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Tien, C. C. Lee, C. C. Jaing, “The measurement of thin film stress using phase shifting interferometry,” J. Mod. Opt. 47, 839–849 (2000).

D. T. Wei, H. R. Kaufman, C. C. Lee, in Thin Films for Optical Systems, F. R. Flory, ed. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1995), Chap. 6.

Manifacier, J. C.

J. C. Manifacier, J. Gasiot, J. P. Fillard, “A simple method for the determination of the optical constants n, k and the thickness of a weakly absorbing thin film,” J. Phys. E 9, 1002–1004 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Morton, D. E.

D. Konopka, D. E. Morton, F. T. Zimone, “Bipolar pulsed DC sputtering of optical films,” in Proceedings of 42nd Annual SVC Technical Conference (Society of Vacuum Centers, Chicago, 1999), pp. 217–222.

Muller, K. H.

K. H. Muller, “Modeling ion-assisted deposition of CeO2 films,” Appl. Phys. A 40, 209–213 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Pulker, H. K.

J. Edlinger, J. Ramm, H. K. Pulker, “Properties of ion-plated Nb2O5 films,” Thin Solid Films 175, 207–212 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ramm, J.

J. Edlinger, J. Ramm, H. K. Pulker, “Properties of ion-plated Nb2O5 films,” Thin Solid Films 175, 207–212 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Richter, F.

H. Kupfer, T. Flugel, F. Richter, P. Schlott, “Intrinsic stress in dielectric thin films for micromechanical components,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 116-117, 116–120 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rujkorakarn, R.

J. R. Sites, P. Gilstrap, R. Rujkorakarn, “Ion beam sputter deposition of optical coatings,” Opt. Eng. 22, 447–449 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Schlott, P.

H. Kupfer, T. Flugel, F. Richter, P. Schlott, “Intrinsic stress in dielectric thin films for micromechanical components,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 116-117, 116–120 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sheu, W. S.

C. C. Lee, C. L. Tien, W. S. Sheu, C. C. Jaing, “A new apparatus for the measurement of internal stress and thermal expansion coefficient of metal oxide films,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2128–2213 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sites, J. R.

J. R. Sites, P. Gilstrap, R. Rujkorakarn, “Ion beam sputter deposition of optical coatings,” Opt. Eng. 22, 447–449 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Stoney, G. G.

G. G. Stoney, “The tension of metallic films deposited by electrolysis,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 82, 172–175 (1909).
[CrossRef]

Tang, Q.

Q. Tang, “Study on the optical properties originated by the microstructures of thin oxide film,” Ph.D. dissertation (Kobe Design University, Kobe, Japan, 1997), pp. 139–141.

Tien, C. L.

C. C. Lee, C. L. Tien, W. S. Sheu, C. C. Jaing, “A new apparatus for the measurement of internal stress and thermal expansion coefficient of metal oxide films,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2128–2213 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Tien, C. C. Lee, C. C. Jaing, “The measurement of thin film stress using phase shifting interferometry,” J. Mod. Opt. 47, 839–849 (2000).

Vilms, J.

J. Vilms, D. Kerps, “Simple stress formula for multilayered thin films on a thick substrate,” J. Appl. Phys. 53, 1536–1537 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Wei, D. T.

C. C. Lee, J. C. Hsu, D. T. Wei, D. H. Wong, “Low loss niobium oxides film deposited by ion beam sputter deposition,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 32, 327–337 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Wei, “Ion beam interference coating for ultralow optical loss,” Appl. Opt. 15, 2813–2816 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Wei, H. R. Kaufman, C. C. Lee, in Thin Films for Optical Systems, F. R. Flory, ed. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1995), Chap. 6.

Wong, D. H.

C. C. Lee, J. C. Hsu, D. T. Wei, D. H. Wong, “Low loss niobium oxides film deposited by ion beam sputter deposition,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 32, 327–337 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zimone, F. T.

D. Konopka, D. E. Morton, F. T. Zimone, “Bipolar pulsed DC sputtering of optical films,” in Proceedings of 42nd Annual SVC Technical Conference (Society of Vacuum Centers, Chicago, 1999), pp. 217–222.

Appl. Opt. (2)

D. T. Wei, “Ion beam interference coating for ultralow optical loss,” Appl. Opt. 15, 2813–2816 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Ennos, “Stress developed in optical film coatings,” Appl. Opt. 5, 51–61 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. A (1)

K. H. Muller, “Modeling ion-assisted deposition of CeO2 films,” Appl. Phys. A 40, 209–213 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. Vilms, D. Kerps, “Simple stress formula for multilayered thin films on a thick substrate,” J. Appl. Phys. 53, 1536–1537 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

C. L. Tien, C. C. Lee, C. C. Jaing, “The measurement of thin film stress using phase shifting interferometry,” J. Mod. Opt. 47, 839–849 (2000).

J. Phys. E (1)

J. C. Manifacier, J. Gasiot, J. P. Fillard, “A simple method for the determination of the optical constants n, k and the thickness of a weakly absorbing thin film,” J. Phys. E 9, 1002–1004 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

J. R. Sites, P. Gilstrap, R. Rujkorakarn, “Ion beam sputter deposition of optical coatings,” Opt. Eng. 22, 447–449 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. C. Lee, J. C. Hsu, D. T. Wei, D. H. Wong, “Low loss niobium oxides film deposited by ion beam sputter deposition,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 32, 327–337 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A (1)

G. G. Stoney, “The tension of metallic films deposited by electrolysis,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 82, 172–175 (1909).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

C. C. Lee, C. L. Tien, W. S. Sheu, C. C. Jaing, “A new apparatus for the measurement of internal stress and thermal expansion coefficient of metal oxide films,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2128–2213 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. (1)

N. N. Davidenkov, “Measurement of residual stress in electrolytic deposits,” Sov. Phys. 2, 2595–2598 (1961).

Surf. Coat. Technol. (1)

H. Kupfer, T. Flugel, F. Richter, P. Schlott, “Intrinsic stress in dielectric thin films for micromechanical components,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 116-117, 116–120 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (2)

J. Edlinger, J. Ramm, H. K. Pulker, “Properties of ion-plated Nb2O5 films,” Thin Solid Films 175, 207–212 (1989).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Davis, “A simple model for formation of compressive stress in thin films by ion bombardment,” Thin Solid Films 226, 30–34 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

D. Konopka, D. E. Morton, F. T. Zimone, “Bipolar pulsed DC sputtering of optical films,” in Proceedings of 42nd Annual SVC Technical Conference (Society of Vacuum Centers, Chicago, 1999), pp. 217–222.

D. T. Wei, H. R. Kaufman, C. C. Lee, in Thin Films for Optical Systems, F. R. Flory, ed. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1995), Chap. 6.

Q. Tang, “Study on the optical properties originated by the microstructures of thin oxide film,” Ph.D. dissertation (Kobe Design University, Kobe, Japan, 1997), pp. 139–141.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Transmittance spectra of Nb2O5 films at different ion-beam voltage.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Refractive index and extinction coefficient for Nb2O5 coatings versus ion-beam voltage.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Surface roughness of Nb2O5 coatings versus ion-beam voltage.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Surface morphology of Nb2O5 films (a) V B = 850 V (b) V B = 1150 V.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

XRD spectra of Nb2O5 films for the single layer and for multilayers.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Deflection of multilayer coatings versus layer number.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Stress of Nb2O5 films versus ion-beam voltage.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Stress behavior of single-layer and multilayer coatings.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Coating Parameters of Nb2O5 and SiO2

Tables Icon

Table 2 Comparison of the Measured and the Calculated Stress of Multilayer Coatings

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

σ=Ysds2δ31-νsdfr2,
σE  Y1-νE1/2R/j+aE5/3,
σ=σ1t1+σ2t2++σntnt1+t2++tn,

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