Abstract

We report on steady-state measurements on the anisotropy of autofluorescence from malignant and normal breast tissue as a function of tissue thickness. For thin tissue sections the anisotropy from normal tissue was found to be smaller compared with that from malignant tissue. However, the opposite result was obtained for thicker tissues. A phenomenological model was also developed to simulate the dependence of anisotropy on tissue thickness.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. Kincade, “Optical diagnostics images tissues and tumors,” Laser Focus World (February1996), pp. 71–79.
  2. E. Servick-Muraca, D. Benaron, eds., Biomedical Optical Spectroscopy and Diagnostics, Vol. 3 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996).
  3. R. Richards Kortum, E. Servick-Muraca, “Quantitative optical spectroscopy for tissue diagnosis,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 47, 556–606 (1996).
  4. G. A. Wagnieres, W. M. Star, B. C. Wilson, “In-vivo fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging for oncological applications,” Photochem. Photobiol. 68, 603–632 (1998).
  5. D. B. Tata, M. Foresti, J. Cordero, P. Tomashefsky, M. A. Alfano, R. R. Alfano, “Fluorescence polarization spectroscopy and time-resolved fluorescence kinetics of native cancerous and normal rat kidney tissues,” Biophys. J. 50, 463–469 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. Pradhan, S. S. Jena, B. V. Laxmi, A. Agarwal, “Fluorescence depolarization of normal and diseased skin tissues,” in Optical Biopsy II, R. R. Alfano, A. Katzir, eds., Proc. SPIE3250, 78–82 (1998).
  7. J. Lackowicz, Principles of Fluorescence Spectroscopy (Plenum, New York, 1983).
  8. F. W. J. Teale, “Fluorescence depolarization by light scattering in turbid solutions,” Photochem. Photobiol. 10, 363–374 (1969).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. A. Ishimaru, Wave Propagation and Scattering in Random Media (Academic, New York, 1978), Vol. 1, pp. 182–183.
  10. C. F. Bohren, D. R. Hoffman, “Absorption and scattering of light by small particles,” (Wiley, New York, 1983).
  11. N. Ghosh, S. K. Mohanty, S. K. Majumder, P. K. Gupta, “Measurement of optical parameters of human breast tissue,” in Proceedings of the National Laser Symposium (Center for Laser Technology and Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur, India, 1998), pp. 217–218.
  12. N. Ghosh, S. K. Mohanty, S. K. Majumder, P. K. Gupta, “Measurement of optical transport properties of normal and malignant human breast tissues,” Appl. Opt. 40, 176–184 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. K. Gupta, S. K. Majumder, A. Uppal, “Breast cancer diagnosis using N2 laser excited autofluorescence spectroscopy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 21, 417–422 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. K. Majumder, P. K. Gupta, B. Jain, A. Uppal, “UV excited autofluorescence spectroscopy of human breast tissues for discriminating cancerous tissue from benign tumor and normal tissue,” Lasers Life Sci. 8, 249–264 (1998).
  15. W. F. Cheong, “Summary of optical properties,” in Optical-Thermal Response of Laser-Irradiated Tissue, A. J. Welch, M. J. C. Van Gemert, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1995), Chap. 8.
  16. D. Bicont, C. Brosseau, A. S. Martinez, J. M. Schmitt, “Depolarization of multiply scattered waves by spherical diffusers: influence of the size parameter,” Phys. Rev. E 49, 1767–1770 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  17. F. C. Mackintosh, J. X. Zhu, D. J. Pine, D. A. Weitz, “Polarization memory of multiply scattered light,” Phys. Rev. B 40, 9342–9345 (1989).
    [CrossRef]

2001

1998

S. K. Majumder, P. K. Gupta, B. Jain, A. Uppal, “UV excited autofluorescence spectroscopy of human breast tissues for discriminating cancerous tissue from benign tumor and normal tissue,” Lasers Life Sci. 8, 249–264 (1998).

G. A. Wagnieres, W. M. Star, B. C. Wilson, “In-vivo fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging for oncological applications,” Photochem. Photobiol. 68, 603–632 (1998).

1997

P. K. Gupta, S. K. Majumder, A. Uppal, “Breast cancer diagnosis using N2 laser excited autofluorescence spectroscopy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 21, 417–422 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

K. Kincade, “Optical diagnostics images tissues and tumors,” Laser Focus World (February1996), pp. 71–79.

R. Richards Kortum, E. Servick-Muraca, “Quantitative optical spectroscopy for tissue diagnosis,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 47, 556–606 (1996).

1994

D. Bicont, C. Brosseau, A. S. Martinez, J. M. Schmitt, “Depolarization of multiply scattered waves by spherical diffusers: influence of the size parameter,” Phys. Rev. E 49, 1767–1770 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1989

F. C. Mackintosh, J. X. Zhu, D. J. Pine, D. A. Weitz, “Polarization memory of multiply scattered light,” Phys. Rev. B 40, 9342–9345 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986

D. B. Tata, M. Foresti, J. Cordero, P. Tomashefsky, M. A. Alfano, R. R. Alfano, “Fluorescence polarization spectroscopy and time-resolved fluorescence kinetics of native cancerous and normal rat kidney tissues,” Biophys. J. 50, 463–469 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1969

F. W. J. Teale, “Fluorescence depolarization by light scattering in turbid solutions,” Photochem. Photobiol. 10, 363–374 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Agarwal, A.

A. Pradhan, S. S. Jena, B. V. Laxmi, A. Agarwal, “Fluorescence depolarization of normal and diseased skin tissues,” in Optical Biopsy II, R. R. Alfano, A. Katzir, eds., Proc. SPIE3250, 78–82 (1998).

Alfano, M. A.

D. B. Tata, M. Foresti, J. Cordero, P. Tomashefsky, M. A. Alfano, R. R. Alfano, “Fluorescence polarization spectroscopy and time-resolved fluorescence kinetics of native cancerous and normal rat kidney tissues,” Biophys. J. 50, 463–469 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alfano, R. R.

D. B. Tata, M. Foresti, J. Cordero, P. Tomashefsky, M. A. Alfano, R. R. Alfano, “Fluorescence polarization spectroscopy and time-resolved fluorescence kinetics of native cancerous and normal rat kidney tissues,” Biophys. J. 50, 463–469 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bicont, D.

D. Bicont, C. Brosseau, A. S. Martinez, J. M. Schmitt, “Depolarization of multiply scattered waves by spherical diffusers: influence of the size parameter,” Phys. Rev. E 49, 1767–1770 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bohren, C. F.

C. F. Bohren, D. R. Hoffman, “Absorption and scattering of light by small particles,” (Wiley, New York, 1983).

Brosseau, C.

D. Bicont, C. Brosseau, A. S. Martinez, J. M. Schmitt, “Depolarization of multiply scattered waves by spherical diffusers: influence of the size parameter,” Phys. Rev. E 49, 1767–1770 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cheong, W. F.

W. F. Cheong, “Summary of optical properties,” in Optical-Thermal Response of Laser-Irradiated Tissue, A. J. Welch, M. J. C. Van Gemert, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1995), Chap. 8.

Cordero, J.

D. B. Tata, M. Foresti, J. Cordero, P. Tomashefsky, M. A. Alfano, R. R. Alfano, “Fluorescence polarization spectroscopy and time-resolved fluorescence kinetics of native cancerous and normal rat kidney tissues,” Biophys. J. 50, 463–469 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foresti, M.

D. B. Tata, M. Foresti, J. Cordero, P. Tomashefsky, M. A. Alfano, R. R. Alfano, “Fluorescence polarization spectroscopy and time-resolved fluorescence kinetics of native cancerous and normal rat kidney tissues,” Biophys. J. 50, 463–469 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghosh, N.

N. Ghosh, S. K. Mohanty, S. K. Majumder, P. K. Gupta, “Measurement of optical transport properties of normal and malignant human breast tissues,” Appl. Opt. 40, 176–184 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. Ghosh, S. K. Mohanty, S. K. Majumder, P. K. Gupta, “Measurement of optical parameters of human breast tissue,” in Proceedings of the National Laser Symposium (Center for Laser Technology and Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur, India, 1998), pp. 217–218.

Gupta, P. K.

N. Ghosh, S. K. Mohanty, S. K. Majumder, P. K. Gupta, “Measurement of optical transport properties of normal and malignant human breast tissues,” Appl. Opt. 40, 176–184 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Majumder, P. K. Gupta, B. Jain, A. Uppal, “UV excited autofluorescence spectroscopy of human breast tissues for discriminating cancerous tissue from benign tumor and normal tissue,” Lasers Life Sci. 8, 249–264 (1998).

P. K. Gupta, S. K. Majumder, A. Uppal, “Breast cancer diagnosis using N2 laser excited autofluorescence spectroscopy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 21, 417–422 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. Ghosh, S. K. Mohanty, S. K. Majumder, P. K. Gupta, “Measurement of optical parameters of human breast tissue,” in Proceedings of the National Laser Symposium (Center for Laser Technology and Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur, India, 1998), pp. 217–218.

Hoffman, D. R.

C. F. Bohren, D. R. Hoffman, “Absorption and scattering of light by small particles,” (Wiley, New York, 1983).

Ishimaru, A.

A. Ishimaru, Wave Propagation and Scattering in Random Media (Academic, New York, 1978), Vol. 1, pp. 182–183.

Jain, B.

S. K. Majumder, P. K. Gupta, B. Jain, A. Uppal, “UV excited autofluorescence spectroscopy of human breast tissues for discriminating cancerous tissue from benign tumor and normal tissue,” Lasers Life Sci. 8, 249–264 (1998).

Jena, S. S.

A. Pradhan, S. S. Jena, B. V. Laxmi, A. Agarwal, “Fluorescence depolarization of normal and diseased skin tissues,” in Optical Biopsy II, R. R. Alfano, A. Katzir, eds., Proc. SPIE3250, 78–82 (1998).

Kincade, K.

K. Kincade, “Optical diagnostics images tissues and tumors,” Laser Focus World (February1996), pp. 71–79.

Lackowicz, J.

J. Lackowicz, Principles of Fluorescence Spectroscopy (Plenum, New York, 1983).

Laxmi, B. V.

A. Pradhan, S. S. Jena, B. V. Laxmi, A. Agarwal, “Fluorescence depolarization of normal and diseased skin tissues,” in Optical Biopsy II, R. R. Alfano, A. Katzir, eds., Proc. SPIE3250, 78–82 (1998).

Mackintosh, F. C.

F. C. Mackintosh, J. X. Zhu, D. J. Pine, D. A. Weitz, “Polarization memory of multiply scattered light,” Phys. Rev. B 40, 9342–9345 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Majumder, S. K.

N. Ghosh, S. K. Mohanty, S. K. Majumder, P. K. Gupta, “Measurement of optical transport properties of normal and malignant human breast tissues,” Appl. Opt. 40, 176–184 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Majumder, P. K. Gupta, B. Jain, A. Uppal, “UV excited autofluorescence spectroscopy of human breast tissues for discriminating cancerous tissue from benign tumor and normal tissue,” Lasers Life Sci. 8, 249–264 (1998).

P. K. Gupta, S. K. Majumder, A. Uppal, “Breast cancer diagnosis using N2 laser excited autofluorescence spectroscopy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 21, 417–422 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. Ghosh, S. K. Mohanty, S. K. Majumder, P. K. Gupta, “Measurement of optical parameters of human breast tissue,” in Proceedings of the National Laser Symposium (Center for Laser Technology and Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur, India, 1998), pp. 217–218.

Martinez, A. S.

D. Bicont, C. Brosseau, A. S. Martinez, J. M. Schmitt, “Depolarization of multiply scattered waves by spherical diffusers: influence of the size parameter,” Phys. Rev. E 49, 1767–1770 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mohanty, S. K.

N. Ghosh, S. K. Mohanty, S. K. Majumder, P. K. Gupta, “Measurement of optical transport properties of normal and malignant human breast tissues,” Appl. Opt. 40, 176–184 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. Ghosh, S. K. Mohanty, S. K. Majumder, P. K. Gupta, “Measurement of optical parameters of human breast tissue,” in Proceedings of the National Laser Symposium (Center for Laser Technology and Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur, India, 1998), pp. 217–218.

Pine, D. J.

F. C. Mackintosh, J. X. Zhu, D. J. Pine, D. A. Weitz, “Polarization memory of multiply scattered light,” Phys. Rev. B 40, 9342–9345 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Pradhan, A.

A. Pradhan, S. S. Jena, B. V. Laxmi, A. Agarwal, “Fluorescence depolarization of normal and diseased skin tissues,” in Optical Biopsy II, R. R. Alfano, A. Katzir, eds., Proc. SPIE3250, 78–82 (1998).

Richards Kortum, R.

R. Richards Kortum, E. Servick-Muraca, “Quantitative optical spectroscopy for tissue diagnosis,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 47, 556–606 (1996).

Schmitt, J. M.

D. Bicont, C. Brosseau, A. S. Martinez, J. M. Schmitt, “Depolarization of multiply scattered waves by spherical diffusers: influence of the size parameter,” Phys. Rev. E 49, 1767–1770 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Servick-Muraca, E.

R. Richards Kortum, E. Servick-Muraca, “Quantitative optical spectroscopy for tissue diagnosis,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 47, 556–606 (1996).

Star, W. M.

G. A. Wagnieres, W. M. Star, B. C. Wilson, “In-vivo fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging for oncological applications,” Photochem. Photobiol. 68, 603–632 (1998).

Tata, D. B.

D. B. Tata, M. Foresti, J. Cordero, P. Tomashefsky, M. A. Alfano, R. R. Alfano, “Fluorescence polarization spectroscopy and time-resolved fluorescence kinetics of native cancerous and normal rat kidney tissues,” Biophys. J. 50, 463–469 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Teale, F. W. J.

F. W. J. Teale, “Fluorescence depolarization by light scattering in turbid solutions,” Photochem. Photobiol. 10, 363–374 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tomashefsky, P.

D. B. Tata, M. Foresti, J. Cordero, P. Tomashefsky, M. A. Alfano, R. R. Alfano, “Fluorescence polarization spectroscopy and time-resolved fluorescence kinetics of native cancerous and normal rat kidney tissues,” Biophys. J. 50, 463–469 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uppal, A.

S. K. Majumder, P. K. Gupta, B. Jain, A. Uppal, “UV excited autofluorescence spectroscopy of human breast tissues for discriminating cancerous tissue from benign tumor and normal tissue,” Lasers Life Sci. 8, 249–264 (1998).

P. K. Gupta, S. K. Majumder, A. Uppal, “Breast cancer diagnosis using N2 laser excited autofluorescence spectroscopy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 21, 417–422 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wagnieres, G. A.

G. A. Wagnieres, W. M. Star, B. C. Wilson, “In-vivo fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging for oncological applications,” Photochem. Photobiol. 68, 603–632 (1998).

Weitz, D. A.

F. C. Mackintosh, J. X. Zhu, D. J. Pine, D. A. Weitz, “Polarization memory of multiply scattered light,” Phys. Rev. B 40, 9342–9345 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, B. C.

G. A. Wagnieres, W. M. Star, B. C. Wilson, “In-vivo fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging for oncological applications,” Photochem. Photobiol. 68, 603–632 (1998).

Zhu, J. X.

F. C. Mackintosh, J. X. Zhu, D. J. Pine, D. A. Weitz, “Polarization memory of multiply scattered light,” Phys. Rev. B 40, 9342–9345 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem.

R. Richards Kortum, E. Servick-Muraca, “Quantitative optical spectroscopy for tissue diagnosis,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 47, 556–606 (1996).

Appl. Opt.

Biophys. J.

D. B. Tata, M. Foresti, J. Cordero, P. Tomashefsky, M. A. Alfano, R. R. Alfano, “Fluorescence polarization spectroscopy and time-resolved fluorescence kinetics of native cancerous and normal rat kidney tissues,” Biophys. J. 50, 463–469 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laser Focus World

K. Kincade, “Optical diagnostics images tissues and tumors,” Laser Focus World (February1996), pp. 71–79.

Lasers Life Sci.

S. K. Majumder, P. K. Gupta, B. Jain, A. Uppal, “UV excited autofluorescence spectroscopy of human breast tissues for discriminating cancerous tissue from benign tumor and normal tissue,” Lasers Life Sci. 8, 249–264 (1998).

Lasers Surg. Med.

P. K. Gupta, S. K. Majumder, A. Uppal, “Breast cancer diagnosis using N2 laser excited autofluorescence spectroscopy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 21, 417–422 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Photochem. Photobiol.

G. A. Wagnieres, W. M. Star, B. C. Wilson, “In-vivo fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging for oncological applications,” Photochem. Photobiol. 68, 603–632 (1998).

F. W. J. Teale, “Fluorescence depolarization by light scattering in turbid solutions,” Photochem. Photobiol. 10, 363–374 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B

F. C. Mackintosh, J. X. Zhu, D. J. Pine, D. A. Weitz, “Polarization memory of multiply scattered light,” Phys. Rev. B 40, 9342–9345 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E

D. Bicont, C. Brosseau, A. S. Martinez, J. M. Schmitt, “Depolarization of multiply scattered waves by spherical diffusers: influence of the size parameter,” Phys. Rev. E 49, 1767–1770 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other

W. F. Cheong, “Summary of optical properties,” in Optical-Thermal Response of Laser-Irradiated Tissue, A. J. Welch, M. J. C. Van Gemert, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1995), Chap. 8.

A. Pradhan, S. S. Jena, B. V. Laxmi, A. Agarwal, “Fluorescence depolarization of normal and diseased skin tissues,” in Optical Biopsy II, R. R. Alfano, A. Katzir, eds., Proc. SPIE3250, 78–82 (1998).

J. Lackowicz, Principles of Fluorescence Spectroscopy (Plenum, New York, 1983).

A. Ishimaru, Wave Propagation and Scattering in Random Media (Academic, New York, 1978), Vol. 1, pp. 182–183.

C. F. Bohren, D. R. Hoffman, “Absorption and scattering of light by small particles,” (Wiley, New York, 1983).

N. Ghosh, S. K. Mohanty, S. K. Majumder, P. K. Gupta, “Measurement of optical parameters of human breast tissue,” in Proceedings of the National Laser Symposium (Center for Laser Technology and Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur, India, 1998), pp. 217–218.

E. Servick-Muraca, D. Benaron, eds., Biomedical Optical Spectroscopy and Diagnostics, Vol. 3 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996).

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