Abstract

A cantilever-based probe is introduced for use in scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) combined with scanning atomic-force microscopy (AFM). The probes consist of silicon cantilevers with integrated 25-µm-high fused-silica tips. The probes are batch fabricated by microfabrication technology. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that the transparent quartz tips are completely covered with an opaque aluminum layer before the SNOM measurement. Static and dynamic AFM imaging was performed. SNOM imaging in transmission mode of single fluorescent molecules shows an optical resolution better than 32 nm.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  19. R. Eckert, J. M. Freyland, H. Gersen, H. Heinzelmann, G. Schürmann, W. Noell, U. Staufer, N. F. de Rooij, “Near-field optical microscopy based on microfabricated probes,” J. Microsc. (Oxford) 202, 7–11 (2001).
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  22. N. García, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, “Theory of the apertureless near-field optical microscopy: image resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3399–3400 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  23. K. Fukuzawa, Y. Tanaka, “Apertureless near-field optical microscopy with differential and close-proximity detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 169–171 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  24. L. Novotny, E. J. Sánchez, X. S. Xie, “Near-field optical imaging using metal tips illuminated by higher-order Hermite–Gaussian beams,” Ultramicroscopy 71, 21–29 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  25. U. C. Fischer, J. Koglin, H. Fuchs, “The tetrahedral tip as a probe for scanning near-field optical microscopy at 30 nm resolution,” J. Microsc. 176, 231–237 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  26. O. J. F. Martin, C. Girard, “Controlling and tuning strong optical field gradients at a local probe microscope tip apex,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 705–707 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

2001

B. J. Kim, J. W. Flamma, E. S. Ten Have, M. F. Garcia-Parajo, N. F. van Hulst, J. Brugger, “Moulded photoplastic probes for near-field optical applications,” J. Microsc. (Oxford) 202, 16–21 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Near-field Optics and Related Techniques, J. Microsc. 202 (1, 2) (2001).

R. Eckert, J. M. Freyland, H. Gersen, H. Heinzelmann, G. Schürmann, W. Noell, U. Staufer, N. F. de Rooij, “Near-field optical microscopy based on microfabricated probes,” J. Microsc. (Oxford) 202, 7–11 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

G. Schürmann, W. Noell, U. Staufer, N. F. de Rooij, “Microfabrication of a combined AFM–SNOM sensor,” Ultramicroscopy 82, 33–38 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Eckert, J. M. Freyland, H. Gersen, H. Heinzelmann, G. Schürmann, W. Noell, U. Staufer, N. F. de Rooij, “Near-field fluorescence imaging with 32 nm resolution based on microfabricated cantilevered probes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3695–3697 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

G. Schürmann, P. F. Indermühle, U. Staufer, N. F. de Rooij, “Micromachined SPM probes with sub-100 nm features at tip apex,” Surf. Interface Anal. 27, 299–301 (1999).
[CrossRef]

U. Kroll, D. Fischer, J. Meier, L. Sansonnens, A. Howling, A. Shah, “Fast deposition of a-Si:H layers and solar cells in a large-area (40 × 40 cm2) VHF-GD reactor,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 557, 121–126 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

W. Noell, M. Abraham, W. Ehrfeld, M. Lacher, K. Mayr, “Microfabrication of new sensors for scanning probe microscopy,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 8, 111–113 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhou, A. Midha, G. Mills, S. Thoms, S. K. Murad, J. M. R. Weaver, “Generic scanned-probe microscope sensors by combined micromachining and electron-beam lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 54–58 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Novotny, E. J. Sánchez, X. S. Xie, “Near-field optical imaging using metal tips illuminated by higher-order Hermite–Gaussian beams,” Ultramicroscopy 71, 21–29 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

O. J. F. Martin, C. Girard, “Controlling and tuning strong optical field gradients at a local probe microscope tip apex,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 705–707 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Fukuzawa, Y. Tanaka, “Apertureless near-field optical microscopy with differential and close-proximity detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 169–171 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

C. Mihalcea, W. Scholz, S. Werner, S. Münster, E. Oesterschulze, R. Kassing, “Multipurpose sensor tips for scanning near-field microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3531–3533 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

N. García, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, “Theory of the apertureless near-field optical microscopy: image resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3399–3400 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

U. C. Fischer, J. Koglin, H. Fuchs, “The tetrahedral tip as a probe for scanning near-field optical microscopy at 30 nm resolution,” J. Microsc. 176, 231–237 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Radmacher, P. E. Hillner, P. K. Hansma, “Scanning nearfield optical microscope using microfabricated probes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 2737–2738 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. Novotny, C. Hafner, “Light propagation in a cylindrical waveguide with a complex, metallic, dielectric function,” Phys. Rev. E 50, 4094–4106 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. Zenhausern, M. P. O’Boyle, H. K. Wickramasinghe, “Apertureless near-field optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1623–1625 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

N. F. van Hulst, M. H. P. Moers, O. F. J. Noordman, R. G. Tack, F. B. Segerink, B. Btilger, “Near-field optical microscope using a silicon-nitride probe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 461–463 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

E. Betzig, P. L. Finn, J. S. Weiner, “Combined shear force and near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2484–2486 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. Toledo-Crow, P. C. Yang, Y. Chen, M. Vaez-Iravani, “Near-field differential scanning optical microscope with atomic force regulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2957–2959 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, R. L. Kostelak, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale,” Science 251, 1468–1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, M. Lanz, “Optical stethoscopy: image recording with resolution λ/20,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651–653 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1956

1928

E. H. Synge, “A suggested method for extending microscopic resolution into the ultramicroscopic region,” Phil. Mag. 6, 356–362 (1928).

Abraham, M.

W. Noell, M. Abraham, W. Ehrfeld, M. Lacher, K. Mayr, “Microfabrication of new sensors for scanning probe microscopy,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 8, 111–113 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bernal, M.-P.

G. Genolet, T. Cueni, M.-P. Bernal, M. Despont, U. Staufer, W. Noell, P. Vettiger, F. Marquis-Weible, N. F. de Rooij, “Novel micromachined photoplastic probe for scanning near-field optical microscopy,” presented at the 14th European Conference on Solid-State Transducers, Copenhagen, Denmark, 27–30 August 2000.

Betzig, E.

E. Betzig, P. L. Finn, J. S. Weiner, “Combined shear force and near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2484–2486 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, R. L. Kostelak, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale,” Science 251, 1468–1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brugger, J.

B. J. Kim, J. W. Flamma, E. S. Ten Have, M. F. Garcia-Parajo, N. F. van Hulst, J. Brugger, “Moulded photoplastic probes for near-field optical applications,” J. Microsc. (Oxford) 202, 16–21 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Btilger, B.

N. F. van Hulst, M. H. P. Moers, O. F. J. Noordman, R. G. Tack, F. B. Segerink, B. Btilger, “Near-field optical microscope using a silicon-nitride probe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 461–463 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

R. Toledo-Crow, P. C. Yang, Y. Chen, M. Vaez-Iravani, “Near-field differential scanning optical microscope with atomic force regulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2957–2959 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Cueni, T.

G. Genolet, T. Cueni, M.-P. Bernal, M. Despont, U. Staufer, W. Noell, P. Vettiger, F. Marquis-Weible, N. F. de Rooij, “Novel micromachined photoplastic probe for scanning near-field optical microscopy,” presented at the 14th European Conference on Solid-State Transducers, Copenhagen, Denmark, 27–30 August 2000.

de Rooij, N. F.

R. Eckert, J. M. Freyland, H. Gersen, H. Heinzelmann, G. Schürmann, W. Noell, U. Staufer, N. F. de Rooij, “Near-field optical microscopy based on microfabricated probes,” J. Microsc. (Oxford) 202, 7–11 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Schürmann, W. Noell, U. Staufer, N. F. de Rooij, “Microfabrication of a combined AFM–SNOM sensor,” Ultramicroscopy 82, 33–38 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Eckert, J. M. Freyland, H. Gersen, H. Heinzelmann, G. Schürmann, W. Noell, U. Staufer, N. F. de Rooij, “Near-field fluorescence imaging with 32 nm resolution based on microfabricated cantilevered probes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3695–3697 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Schürmann, P. F. Indermühle, U. Staufer, N. F. de Rooij, “Micromachined SPM probes with sub-100 nm features at tip apex,” Surf. Interface Anal. 27, 299–301 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Genolet, T. Cueni, M.-P. Bernal, M. Despont, U. Staufer, W. Noell, P. Vettiger, F. Marquis-Weible, N. F. de Rooij, “Novel micromachined photoplastic probe for scanning near-field optical microscopy,” presented at the 14th European Conference on Solid-State Transducers, Copenhagen, Denmark, 27–30 August 2000.

Denk, W.

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, M. Lanz, “Optical stethoscopy: image recording with resolution λ/20,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651–653 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Despont, M.

G. Genolet, T. Cueni, M.-P. Bernal, M. Despont, U. Staufer, W. Noell, P. Vettiger, F. Marquis-Weible, N. F. de Rooij, “Novel micromachined photoplastic probe for scanning near-field optical microscopy,” presented at the 14th European Conference on Solid-State Transducers, Copenhagen, Denmark, 27–30 August 2000.

Eckert, R.

R. Eckert, J. M. Freyland, H. Gersen, H. Heinzelmann, G. Schürmann, W. Noell, U. Staufer, N. F. de Rooij, “Near-field optical microscopy based on microfabricated probes,” J. Microsc. (Oxford) 202, 7–11 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Eckert, J. M. Freyland, H. Gersen, H. Heinzelmann, G. Schürmann, W. Noell, U. Staufer, N. F. de Rooij, “Near-field fluorescence imaging with 32 nm resolution based on microfabricated cantilevered probes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3695–3697 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ehrfeld, W.

W. Noell, M. Abraham, W. Ehrfeld, M. Lacher, K. Mayr, “Microfabrication of new sensors for scanning probe microscopy,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 8, 111–113 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Finn, P. L.

E. Betzig, P. L. Finn, J. S. Weiner, “Combined shear force and near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2484–2486 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, D.

U. Kroll, D. Fischer, J. Meier, L. Sansonnens, A. Howling, A. Shah, “Fast deposition of a-Si:H layers and solar cells in a large-area (40 × 40 cm2) VHF-GD reactor,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 557, 121–126 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, U. C.

U. C. Fischer, J. Koglin, H. Fuchs, “The tetrahedral tip as a probe for scanning near-field optical microscopy at 30 nm resolution,” J. Microsc. 176, 231–237 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Flamma, J. W.

B. J. Kim, J. W. Flamma, E. S. Ten Have, M. F. Garcia-Parajo, N. F. van Hulst, J. Brugger, “Moulded photoplastic probes for near-field optical applications,” J. Microsc. (Oxford) 202, 16–21 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Freyland, J. M.

R. Eckert, J. M. Freyland, H. Gersen, H. Heinzelmann, G. Schürmann, W. Noell, U. Staufer, N. F. de Rooij, “Near-field optical microscopy based on microfabricated probes,” J. Microsc. (Oxford) 202, 7–11 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Eckert, J. M. Freyland, H. Gersen, H. Heinzelmann, G. Schürmann, W. Noell, U. Staufer, N. F. de Rooij, “Near-field fluorescence imaging with 32 nm resolution based on microfabricated cantilevered probes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3695–3697 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fuchs, H.

U. C. Fischer, J. Koglin, H. Fuchs, “The tetrahedral tip as a probe for scanning near-field optical microscopy at 30 nm resolution,” J. Microsc. 176, 231–237 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fukuzawa, K.

K. Fukuzawa, Y. Tanaka, “Apertureless near-field optical microscopy with differential and close-proximity detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 169–171 (1997).
[CrossRef]

García, N.

N. García, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, “Theory of the apertureless near-field optical microscopy: image resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3399–3400 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Parajo, M. F.

B. J. Kim, J. W. Flamma, E. S. Ten Have, M. F. Garcia-Parajo, N. F. van Hulst, J. Brugger, “Moulded photoplastic probes for near-field optical applications,” J. Microsc. (Oxford) 202, 16–21 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Genolet, G.

G. Genolet, T. Cueni, M.-P. Bernal, M. Despont, U. Staufer, W. Noell, P. Vettiger, F. Marquis-Weible, N. F. de Rooij, “Novel micromachined photoplastic probe for scanning near-field optical microscopy,” presented at the 14th European Conference on Solid-State Transducers, Copenhagen, Denmark, 27–30 August 2000.

Gersen, H.

R. Eckert, J. M. Freyland, H. Gersen, H. Heinzelmann, G. Schürmann, W. Noell, U. Staufer, N. F. de Rooij, “Near-field optical microscopy based on microfabricated probes,” J. Microsc. (Oxford) 202, 7–11 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Eckert, J. M. Freyland, H. Gersen, H. Heinzelmann, G. Schürmann, W. Noell, U. Staufer, N. F. de Rooij, “Near-field fluorescence imaging with 32 nm resolution based on microfabricated cantilevered probes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3695–3697 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Girard, C.

O. J. F. Martin, C. Girard, “Controlling and tuning strong optical field gradients at a local probe microscope tip apex,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 705–707 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hafner, C.

L. Novotny, C. Hafner, “Light propagation in a cylindrical waveguide with a complex, metallic, dielectric function,” Phys. Rev. E 50, 4094–4106 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hansma, P. K.

M. Radmacher, P. E. Hillner, P. K. Hansma, “Scanning nearfield optical microscope using microfabricated probes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 2737–2738 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Harris, T. D.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, R. L. Kostelak, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale,” Science 251, 1468–1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heinzelmann, H.

R. Eckert, J. M. Freyland, H. Gersen, H. Heinzelmann, G. Schürmann, W. Noell, U. Staufer, N. F. de Rooij, “Near-field optical microscopy based on microfabricated probes,” J. Microsc. (Oxford) 202, 7–11 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Eckert, J. M. Freyland, H. Gersen, H. Heinzelmann, G. Schürmann, W. Noell, U. Staufer, N. F. de Rooij, “Near-field fluorescence imaging with 32 nm resolution based on microfabricated cantilevered probes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3695–3697 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hillner, P. E.

M. Radmacher, P. E. Hillner, P. K. Hansma, “Scanning nearfield optical microscope using microfabricated probes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 2737–2738 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Howling, A.

U. Kroll, D. Fischer, J. Meier, L. Sansonnens, A. Howling, A. Shah, “Fast deposition of a-Si:H layers and solar cells in a large-area (40 × 40 cm2) VHF-GD reactor,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 557, 121–126 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Indermühle, P. F.

G. Schürmann, P. F. Indermühle, U. Staufer, N. F. de Rooij, “Micromachined SPM probes with sub-100 nm features at tip apex,” Surf. Interface Anal. 27, 299–301 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kassing, R.

C. Mihalcea, W. Scholz, S. Werner, S. Münster, E. Oesterschulze, R. Kassing, “Multipurpose sensor tips for scanning near-field microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3531–3533 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kim, B. J.

B. J. Kim, J. W. Flamma, E. S. Ten Have, M. F. Garcia-Parajo, N. F. van Hulst, J. Brugger, “Moulded photoplastic probes for near-field optical applications,” J. Microsc. (Oxford) 202, 16–21 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Koglin, J.

U. C. Fischer, J. Koglin, H. Fuchs, “The tetrahedral tip as a probe for scanning near-field optical microscopy at 30 nm resolution,” J. Microsc. 176, 231–237 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kostelak, R. L.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, R. L. Kostelak, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale,” Science 251, 1468–1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kroll, U.

U. Kroll, D. Fischer, J. Meier, L. Sansonnens, A. Howling, A. Shah, “Fast deposition of a-Si:H layers and solar cells in a large-area (40 × 40 cm2) VHF-GD reactor,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 557, 121–126 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lacher, M.

W. Noell, M. Abraham, W. Ehrfeld, M. Lacher, K. Mayr, “Microfabrication of new sensors for scanning probe microscopy,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 8, 111–113 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lanz, M.

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, M. Lanz, “Optical stethoscopy: image recording with resolution λ/20,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651–653 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Marquis-Weible, F.

G. Genolet, T. Cueni, M.-P. Bernal, M. Despont, U. Staufer, W. Noell, P. Vettiger, F. Marquis-Weible, N. F. de Rooij, “Novel micromachined photoplastic probe for scanning near-field optical microscopy,” presented at the 14th European Conference on Solid-State Transducers, Copenhagen, Denmark, 27–30 August 2000.

Martin, O. J. F.

O. J. F. Martin, C. Girard, “Controlling and tuning strong optical field gradients at a local probe microscope tip apex,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 705–707 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mayr, K.

W. Noell, M. Abraham, W. Ehrfeld, M. Lacher, K. Mayr, “Microfabrication of new sensors for scanning probe microscopy,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 8, 111–113 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Meier, J.

U. Kroll, D. Fischer, J. Meier, L. Sansonnens, A. Howling, A. Shah, “Fast deposition of a-Si:H layers and solar cells in a large-area (40 × 40 cm2) VHF-GD reactor,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 557, 121–126 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Midha, A.

H. Zhou, A. Midha, G. Mills, S. Thoms, S. K. Murad, J. M. R. Weaver, “Generic scanned-probe microscope sensors by combined micromachining and electron-beam lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 54–58 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mihalcea, C.

C. Mihalcea, W. Scholz, S. Werner, S. Münster, E. Oesterschulze, R. Kassing, “Multipurpose sensor tips for scanning near-field microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3531–3533 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mills, G.

H. Zhou, A. Midha, G. Mills, S. Thoms, S. K. Murad, J. M. R. Weaver, “Generic scanned-probe microscope sensors by combined micromachining and electron-beam lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 54–58 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Moers, M. H. P.

N. F. van Hulst, M. H. P. Moers, O. F. J. Noordman, R. G. Tack, F. B. Segerink, B. Btilger, “Near-field optical microscope using a silicon-nitride probe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 461–463 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Münster, S.

C. Mihalcea, W. Scholz, S. Werner, S. Münster, E. Oesterschulze, R. Kassing, “Multipurpose sensor tips for scanning near-field microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3531–3533 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Murad, S. K.

H. Zhou, A. Midha, G. Mills, S. Thoms, S. K. Murad, J. M. R. Weaver, “Generic scanned-probe microscope sensors by combined micromachining and electron-beam lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 54–58 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nieto-Vesperinas, M.

N. García, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, “Theory of the apertureless near-field optical microscopy: image resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3399–3400 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Noell, W.

R. Eckert, J. M. Freyland, H. Gersen, H. Heinzelmann, G. Schürmann, W. Noell, U. Staufer, N. F. de Rooij, “Near-field optical microscopy based on microfabricated probes,” J. Microsc. (Oxford) 202, 7–11 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Eckert, J. M. Freyland, H. Gersen, H. Heinzelmann, G. Schürmann, W. Noell, U. Staufer, N. F. de Rooij, “Near-field fluorescence imaging with 32 nm resolution based on microfabricated cantilevered probes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3695–3697 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Schürmann, W. Noell, U. Staufer, N. F. de Rooij, “Microfabrication of a combined AFM–SNOM sensor,” Ultramicroscopy 82, 33–38 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. Noell, M. Abraham, W. Ehrfeld, M. Lacher, K. Mayr, “Microfabrication of new sensors for scanning probe microscopy,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 8, 111–113 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Genolet, T. Cueni, M.-P. Bernal, M. Despont, U. Staufer, W. Noell, P. Vettiger, F. Marquis-Weible, N. F. de Rooij, “Novel micromachined photoplastic probe for scanning near-field optical microscopy,” presented at the 14th European Conference on Solid-State Transducers, Copenhagen, Denmark, 27–30 August 2000.

Noordman, O. F. J.

N. F. van Hulst, M. H. P. Moers, O. F. J. Noordman, R. G. Tack, F. B. Segerink, B. Btilger, “Near-field optical microscope using a silicon-nitride probe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 461–463 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Novotny, L.

L. Novotny, E. J. Sánchez, X. S. Xie, “Near-field optical imaging using metal tips illuminated by higher-order Hermite–Gaussian beams,” Ultramicroscopy 71, 21–29 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Novotny, C. Hafner, “Light propagation in a cylindrical waveguide with a complex, metallic, dielectric function,” Phys. Rev. E 50, 4094–4106 (1994).
[CrossRef]

O’Boyle, M. P.

F. Zenhausern, M. P. O’Boyle, H. K. Wickramasinghe, “Apertureless near-field optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1623–1625 (1994).
[CrossRef]

O’Keefe, J. A.

Oesterschulze, E.

C. Mihalcea, W. Scholz, S. Werner, S. Münster, E. Oesterschulze, R. Kassing, “Multipurpose sensor tips for scanning near-field microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3531–3533 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pohl, D. W.

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, M. Lanz, “Optical stethoscopy: image recording with resolution λ/20,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651–653 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Radmacher, M.

M. Radmacher, P. E. Hillner, P. K. Hansma, “Scanning nearfield optical microscope using microfabricated probes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 2737–2738 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sánchez, E. J.

L. Novotny, E. J. Sánchez, X. S. Xie, “Near-field optical imaging using metal tips illuminated by higher-order Hermite–Gaussian beams,” Ultramicroscopy 71, 21–29 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sansonnens, L.

U. Kroll, D. Fischer, J. Meier, L. Sansonnens, A. Howling, A. Shah, “Fast deposition of a-Si:H layers and solar cells in a large-area (40 × 40 cm2) VHF-GD reactor,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 557, 121–126 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Scholz, W.

C. Mihalcea, W. Scholz, S. Werner, S. Münster, E. Oesterschulze, R. Kassing, “Multipurpose sensor tips for scanning near-field microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3531–3533 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schürmann, G.

R. Eckert, J. M. Freyland, H. Gersen, H. Heinzelmann, G. Schürmann, W. Noell, U. Staufer, N. F. de Rooij, “Near-field optical microscopy based on microfabricated probes,” J. Microsc. (Oxford) 202, 7–11 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Eckert, J. M. Freyland, H. Gersen, H. Heinzelmann, G. Schürmann, W. Noell, U. Staufer, N. F. de Rooij, “Near-field fluorescence imaging with 32 nm resolution based on microfabricated cantilevered probes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3695–3697 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Schürmann, W. Noell, U. Staufer, N. F. de Rooij, “Microfabrication of a combined AFM–SNOM sensor,” Ultramicroscopy 82, 33–38 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Schürmann, P. F. Indermühle, U. Staufer, N. F. de Rooij, “Micromachined SPM probes with sub-100 nm features at tip apex,” Surf. Interface Anal. 27, 299–301 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Segerink, F. B.

N. F. van Hulst, M. H. P. Moers, O. F. J. Noordman, R. G. Tack, F. B. Segerink, B. Btilger, “Near-field optical microscope using a silicon-nitride probe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 461–463 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Shah, A.

U. Kroll, D. Fischer, J. Meier, L. Sansonnens, A. Howling, A. Shah, “Fast deposition of a-Si:H layers and solar cells in a large-area (40 × 40 cm2) VHF-GD reactor,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 557, 121–126 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Staufer, U.

R. Eckert, J. M. Freyland, H. Gersen, H. Heinzelmann, G. Schürmann, W. Noell, U. Staufer, N. F. de Rooij, “Near-field optical microscopy based on microfabricated probes,” J. Microsc. (Oxford) 202, 7–11 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Schürmann, W. Noell, U. Staufer, N. F. de Rooij, “Microfabrication of a combined AFM–SNOM sensor,” Ultramicroscopy 82, 33–38 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Eckert, J. M. Freyland, H. Gersen, H. Heinzelmann, G. Schürmann, W. Noell, U. Staufer, N. F. de Rooij, “Near-field fluorescence imaging with 32 nm resolution based on microfabricated cantilevered probes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3695–3697 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Schürmann, P. F. Indermühle, U. Staufer, N. F. de Rooij, “Micromachined SPM probes with sub-100 nm features at tip apex,” Surf. Interface Anal. 27, 299–301 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Genolet, T. Cueni, M.-P. Bernal, M. Despont, U. Staufer, W. Noell, P. Vettiger, F. Marquis-Weible, N. F. de Rooij, “Novel micromachined photoplastic probe for scanning near-field optical microscopy,” presented at the 14th European Conference on Solid-State Transducers, Copenhagen, Denmark, 27–30 August 2000.

Synge, E. H.

E. H. Synge, “A suggested method for extending microscopic resolution into the ultramicroscopic region,” Phil. Mag. 6, 356–362 (1928).

Tack, R. G.

N. F. van Hulst, M. H. P. Moers, O. F. J. Noordman, R. G. Tack, F. B. Segerink, B. Btilger, “Near-field optical microscope using a silicon-nitride probe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 461–463 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, Y.

K. Fukuzawa, Y. Tanaka, “Apertureless near-field optical microscopy with differential and close-proximity detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 169–171 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ten Have, E. S.

B. J. Kim, J. W. Flamma, E. S. Ten Have, M. F. Garcia-Parajo, N. F. van Hulst, J. Brugger, “Moulded photoplastic probes for near-field optical applications,” J. Microsc. (Oxford) 202, 16–21 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Thoms, S.

H. Zhou, A. Midha, G. Mills, S. Thoms, S. K. Murad, J. M. R. Weaver, “Generic scanned-probe microscope sensors by combined micromachining and electron-beam lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 54–58 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Toledo-Crow, R.

R. Toledo-Crow, P. C. Yang, Y. Chen, M. Vaez-Iravani, “Near-field differential scanning optical microscope with atomic force regulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2957–2959 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Trautman, J. K.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, R. L. Kostelak, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale,” Science 251, 1468–1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vaez-Iravani, M.

R. Toledo-Crow, P. C. Yang, Y. Chen, M. Vaez-Iravani, “Near-field differential scanning optical microscope with atomic force regulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2957–2959 (1992).
[CrossRef]

van Hulst, N. F.

B. J. Kim, J. W. Flamma, E. S. Ten Have, M. F. Garcia-Parajo, N. F. van Hulst, J. Brugger, “Moulded photoplastic probes for near-field optical applications,” J. Microsc. (Oxford) 202, 16–21 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. F. van Hulst, M. H. P. Moers, O. F. J. Noordman, R. G. Tack, F. B. Segerink, B. Btilger, “Near-field optical microscope using a silicon-nitride probe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 461–463 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Vettiger, P.

G. Genolet, T. Cueni, M.-P. Bernal, M. Despont, U. Staufer, W. Noell, P. Vettiger, F. Marquis-Weible, N. F. de Rooij, “Novel micromachined photoplastic probe for scanning near-field optical microscopy,” presented at the 14th European Conference on Solid-State Transducers, Copenhagen, Denmark, 27–30 August 2000.

Weaver, J. M. R.

H. Zhou, A. Midha, G. Mills, S. Thoms, S. K. Murad, J. M. R. Weaver, “Generic scanned-probe microscope sensors by combined micromachining and electron-beam lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 54–58 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Weiner, J. S.

E. Betzig, P. L. Finn, J. S. Weiner, “Combined shear force and near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2484–2486 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, R. L. Kostelak, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale,” Science 251, 1468–1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Werner, S.

C. Mihalcea, W. Scholz, S. Werner, S. Münster, E. Oesterschulze, R. Kassing, “Multipurpose sensor tips for scanning near-field microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3531–3533 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wickramasinghe, H. K.

F. Zenhausern, M. P. O’Boyle, H. K. Wickramasinghe, “Apertureless near-field optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1623–1625 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Xie, X. S.

L. Novotny, E. J. Sánchez, X. S. Xie, “Near-field optical imaging using metal tips illuminated by higher-order Hermite–Gaussian beams,” Ultramicroscopy 71, 21–29 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yang, P. C.

R. Toledo-Crow, P. C. Yang, Y. Chen, M. Vaez-Iravani, “Near-field differential scanning optical microscope with atomic force regulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2957–2959 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Zenhausern, F.

F. Zenhausern, M. P. O’Boyle, H. K. Wickramasinghe, “Apertureless near-field optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1623–1625 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, H.

H. Zhou, A. Midha, G. Mills, S. Thoms, S. K. Murad, J. M. R. Weaver, “Generic scanned-probe microscope sensors by combined micromachining and electron-beam lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 54–58 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, M. Lanz, “Optical stethoscopy: image recording with resolution λ/20,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651–653 (1984).
[CrossRef]

E. Betzig, P. L. Finn, J. S. Weiner, “Combined shear force and near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2484–2486 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. Toledo-Crow, P. C. Yang, Y. Chen, M. Vaez-Iravani, “Near-field differential scanning optical microscope with atomic force regulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2957–2959 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. Mihalcea, W. Scholz, S. Werner, S. Münster, E. Oesterschulze, R. Kassing, “Multipurpose sensor tips for scanning near-field microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3531–3533 (1996).
[CrossRef]

N. F. van Hulst, M. H. P. Moers, O. F. J. Noordman, R. G. Tack, F. B. Segerink, B. Btilger, “Near-field optical microscope using a silicon-nitride probe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 461–463 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. Zenhausern, M. P. O’Boyle, H. K. Wickramasinghe, “Apertureless near-field optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1623–1625 (1994).
[CrossRef]

N. García, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, “Theory of the apertureless near-field optical microscopy: image resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3399–3400 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Fukuzawa, Y. Tanaka, “Apertureless near-field optical microscopy with differential and close-proximity detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 169–171 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Eckert, J. M. Freyland, H. Gersen, H. Heinzelmann, G. Schürmann, W. Noell, U. Staufer, N. F. de Rooij, “Near-field fluorescence imaging with 32 nm resolution based on microfabricated cantilevered probes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3695–3697 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O. J. F. Martin, C. Girard, “Controlling and tuning strong optical field gradients at a local probe microscope tip apex,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 705–707 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Micromech. Microeng.

W. Noell, M. Abraham, W. Ehrfeld, M. Lacher, K. Mayr, “Microfabrication of new sensors for scanning probe microscopy,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 8, 111–113 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc.

Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Near-field Optics and Related Techniques, J. Microsc. 202 (1, 2) (2001).

U. C. Fischer, J. Koglin, H. Fuchs, “The tetrahedral tip as a probe for scanning near-field optical microscopy at 30 nm resolution,” J. Microsc. 176, 231–237 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc. (Oxford)

R. Eckert, J. M. Freyland, H. Gersen, H. Heinzelmann, G. Schürmann, W. Noell, U. Staufer, N. F. de Rooij, “Near-field optical microscopy based on microfabricated probes,” J. Microsc. (Oxford) 202, 7–11 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Kim, J. W. Flamma, E. S. Ten Have, M. F. Garcia-Parajo, N. F. van Hulst, J. Brugger, “Moulded photoplastic probes for near-field optical applications,” J. Microsc. (Oxford) 202, 16–21 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B

H. Zhou, A. Midha, G. Mills, S. Thoms, S. K. Murad, J. M. R. Weaver, “Generic scanned-probe microscope sensors by combined micromachining and electron-beam lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 54–58 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc.

U. Kroll, D. Fischer, J. Meier, L. Sansonnens, A. Howling, A. Shah, “Fast deposition of a-Si:H layers and solar cells in a large-area (40 × 40 cm2) VHF-GD reactor,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 557, 121–126 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phil. Mag.

E. H. Synge, “A suggested method for extending microscopic resolution into the ultramicroscopic region,” Phil. Mag. 6, 356–362 (1928).

Phys. Rev. E

L. Novotny, C. Hafner, “Light propagation in a cylindrical waveguide with a complex, metallic, dielectric function,” Phys. Rev. E 50, 4094–4106 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

M. Radmacher, P. E. Hillner, P. K. Hansma, “Scanning nearfield optical microscope using microfabricated probes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 2737–2738 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Science

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, R. L. Kostelak, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale,” Science 251, 1468–1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Surf. Interface Anal.

G. Schürmann, P. F. Indermühle, U. Staufer, N. F. de Rooij, “Micromachined SPM probes with sub-100 nm features at tip apex,” Surf. Interface Anal. 27, 299–301 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ultramicroscopy

L. Novotny, E. J. Sánchez, X. S. Xie, “Near-field optical imaging using metal tips illuminated by higher-order Hermite–Gaussian beams,” Ultramicroscopy 71, 21–29 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Schürmann, W. Noell, U. Staufer, N. F. de Rooij, “Microfabrication of a combined AFM–SNOM sensor,” Ultramicroscopy 82, 33–38 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other

G. Genolet, T. Cueni, M.-P. Bernal, M. Despont, U. Staufer, W. Noell, P. Vettiger, F. Marquis-Weible, N. F. de Rooij, “Novel micromachined photoplastic probe for scanning near-field optical microscopy,” presented at the 14th European Conference on Solid-State Transducers, Copenhagen, Denmark, 27–30 August 2000.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the fabrication of a silicon cantilever with an integrated quartz tip. (a) Growth of a SiO2 and a Si3N4 layer, back-side structuring of the nitride and the oxide; partial etching of the back side of a silicon wafer in KOH. (b) Si3N4 removal and SiO2 patterning, cantilever etching by use of deep RIE and removal of SiO2. (c) Bonding and thinning of the quartz wafer; deposition and structuring of the amorphous silicon mask that is used for etching of the tip. (d) Etching of the tip and evaporation of aluminum. (e) Final back-side etching by deep RIE and release of the cantilever.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Scanning electron-microscope image of a 400-µm-long silicon cantilever with an integrated circular quartz tip. A thin layer of quartz still covers the cantilever. (b) Detailed view of the round tip. (c) Transmission-electron microscope image of the tip apex, revealing that the polycrystalline aluminum layer completely covers the quartz-glass tip and that there is no apparent aperture. The arrow indicates the interface between aluminum and quartz.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

AFM images of a test grating (1-µm periodicity, 30-nm-high lines, gold on glass) obtained with cantilevers with integrated quartz-glass tips in static (a) and (b) dynamic mode imaging.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transmission of polarized light through fully aluminum-coated quartz tips, demonstrating both well-maintained polarization and a small light-emitting area at the tip’s apex. (a) Polarizer and analyzer are parallel and show the common Airy far-field pattern of a subwavelength-sized light source. (b) With crossed polarizers, the intensity pattern shows a fourfold symmetry. The light transmission of the tips without polarizers is 10-5.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Fluorescence image of single IgG molecules labeled with Allexa 488 on a glass cover slide substrate. (a) The complete scan image has a size of 1.5 µm × 1.5 µm. The white line indicates the section that demonstrates the actual resolution of approximately 32 nm, which was determined by multipeak fits of the measured data. (b) The distance between peaks A and B is 44 nm.

Equations (1)

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It=I0 exp-2×5I04.5×10-5,

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