Abstract

We describe a vertically scanning infrared radiometer for measuring the air–sea temperature difference without disturbing the water skin layer. The radiometer operates with a single wavelength channel that is 1.1 µm wide, centered on 14.2 µm, on the short-wavelength edge of a CO2 atmospheric absorption band. The resulting high atmospheric absorption enables calibration of the horizontal-viewing signal with an in situ air-temperature sensor. The signal at all other scan angles is measured relative to that at the horizontal, providing a differential air–sea temperature measurement that is nearly independent of calibration offsets that can be a problem with independent air- and water-temperature sensors. We show data measured on a ship in the Tropical Western Pacific Ocean during July 1999, which exhibit important discrepancies from in situ data using bulk air- and water-temperature sensors. These discrepancies illustrate important differences between bulk versus skin water temperature.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. W. Hurrell, K. E. Trenberth, “Global sea surface temperature analyses: multiple problems and their implications for climate analysis, modeling, and reanalysis,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 80, 2661–2678 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. A. Shaw, J. H. Churnside, “Scanning-laser glint measurements of sea-surface slope statistics,” Appl. Opt. 36, 4202–4213 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. P. A. Hwang, O. H. Shemdin, “The dependence of sea surface slope on atmospheric stability and swell conditions,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 13903–13912 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. N. Pospelov, “Surface wind speed retrieval using passive microwave polarimetry: the dependence on atmospheric stability,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 34, 1166–1171 (1996).
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  5. W. C. Keller, W. J. Plant, D. E. Weissman, “The dependence of X-band microwave sea return on atmospheric stability and sea state,” J. Geophys. Res. 90, 1019–1029 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. Schluessel, W. J. Emery, H. Grassl, T. Mammen, “On the bulk-skin temperature difference and its impact on satellite remote sensing of sea surface temperature,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 13341–13356 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. A. Wick, W. J. Emery, L. H. Kantha, R. Schluessel, “The behavior of the bulk-skin sea surface temperature difference under varying wind speed and heat flux,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 26, 1969–1988 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. W. Fairall, E. F. Bradley, J. S. Godfrey, G. A. Wick, J. B. Edson, G. S. Young, “Cool-skin and warm-layer effects on sea surface temperature,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1295–1308 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. J. Minnett, R. O. Knuteson, F. A. Best, B. J. Osborne, J. A. Hanafin, O. B. Brown, “The Marine-Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer: a high-accuracy, seagoing infrared spectroradiometer,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 18, 994–1013 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. E. D. McAlister, W. McLeish, “A radiometric system for airborne measurement of the total heat flow from the sea,” Appl. Opt. 9, 2697–2705 (1970).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. E. D. McAlister, W. McLeish, “Airborne measurements of the total heat flux from the sea during Bomex,” J. Geophys. Res. 76, 4172–4180 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  12. W. McKeown, F. Bretherton, H. L. Huang, W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercomb, “Sounding the skin of water: sensing air–water interface temperature gradients with interferometry,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 12, 1313–1327 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  13. T. C. Mammen, N. von Bosse, “STEP—a temperature profiler for measuring the oceanic thermal boundary layer at the ocean-air interface,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 7, 312–322 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. G. Trokhimovski, E. R. Westwater, Y. Han, V. Y. Leuski, “Air and sea surface temperature measurements using a 60-GHz microwave rotating radiometer,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 3–15 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  15. E. R. Westwater, Y. Han, V. G. Irisov, V. Y. Leuskiy, “Sea–air and boundary layer temperatures measured by a scanning 5-mm wavelength radiometer: recent results,” Radio Sci. 33, 291–302 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  16. E. R. Westwater, Y. Han, V. G. Irisov, V. Y. Leuskiy, E. N. Kadygrov, S. A. Viazankin, “Remote sensing of boundary layer temperature profiles by a scanning 5-mm microwave radiometer and RASS: comparison experiments,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 16, 805–818 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. A. Shaw, D. Cimini, E. R. Westwater, Y. Han, H. Zorn, J. H. Churnside, “Air–sea temperature differences measured with scanning radiometers during Nauru99,” in Proceedings of the International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium 2000 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2000), pp. 111–113.
  18. M. J. Post, C. W. Fairall, “Early results from the Nauru99 campaign on NOAA ship Ronald H. Brown,” in Proceedings of the International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium 2000 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2000), pp. 1151–1153.
  19. G. P. Anderson, S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, J. H. Chetwynd, E. P. Shettle, “AFGL atmospheric constituent profiles (0–120 km),” (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1986).
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    [CrossRef]
  23. Y. Han, J. A. Shaw, J. H. Churnside, P. D. Brown, S. A. Clough, “Infrared spectral radiance measurements in the tropical Pacific atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 4353–4356 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  24. C. Cox, W. Munk, “Measurement of the roughness of the sea surface from photographs of the sun’s glitter,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 838–850 (1954).
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  25. J. A. Shaw, C. Marston, “Polarized infrared emissivity for a rough water surface,” Opt. Exp. 7, 375–380 (2000), http://www.opticsexpress.org/oearchive/pdf/25342.pdf .
    [CrossRef]
  26. J. A. Shaw, D. Cimini, E. R. Westwater, Y. Han, “Air-sea temperatures measured with scanning microwave and infrared radiometers in Nauru99,” in Proceedings of the Eleventh ARM Science Team Meeting (U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C., 2001), http://www.arm.gov/docs/documents/technical/conf_0103/index.html .

2001

P. J. Minnett, R. O. Knuteson, F. A. Best, B. J. Osborne, J. A. Hanafin, O. B. Brown, “The Marine-Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer: a high-accuracy, seagoing infrared spectroradiometer,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 18, 994–1013 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

J. A. Shaw, C. Marston, “Polarized infrared emissivity for a rough water surface,” Opt. Exp. 7, 375–380 (2000), http://www.opticsexpress.org/oearchive/pdf/25342.pdf .
[CrossRef]

1999

J. A. Shaw, H. M. Zorn, J. J. Bates, J. H. Churnside, “Observations of downwelling infrared spectral radiance at Mauna Loa, Hawaii during the 1997–1998 ENSO event,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 1727–1730 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Hurrell, K. E. Trenberth, “Global sea surface temperature analyses: multiple problems and their implications for climate analysis, modeling, and reanalysis,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 80, 2661–2678 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. R. Westwater, Y. Han, V. G. Irisov, V. Y. Leuskiy, E. N. Kadygrov, S. A. Viazankin, “Remote sensing of boundary layer temperature profiles by a scanning 5-mm microwave radiometer and RASS: comparison experiments,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 16, 805–818 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

Y. G. Trokhimovski, E. R. Westwater, Y. Han, V. Y. Leuski, “Air and sea surface temperature measurements using a 60-GHz microwave rotating radiometer,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 3–15 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. R. Westwater, Y. Han, V. G. Irisov, V. Y. Leuskiy, “Sea–air and boundary layer temperatures measured by a scanning 5-mm wavelength radiometer: recent results,” Radio Sci. 33, 291–302 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

J. A. Shaw, J. H. Churnside, “Scanning-laser glint measurements of sea-surface slope statistics,” Appl. Opt. 36, 4202–4213 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Han, J. A. Shaw, J. H. Churnside, P. D. Brown, S. A. Clough, “Infrared spectral radiance measurements in the tropical Pacific atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 4353–4356 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

M. N. Pospelov, “Surface wind speed retrieval using passive microwave polarimetry: the dependence on atmospheric stability,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 34, 1166–1171 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Wick, W. J. Emery, L. H. Kantha, R. Schluessel, “The behavior of the bulk-skin sea surface temperature difference under varying wind speed and heat flux,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 26, 1969–1988 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Fairall, E. F. Bradley, J. S. Godfrey, G. A. Wick, J. B. Edson, G. S. Young, “Cool-skin and warm-layer effects on sea surface temperature,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1295–1308 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

W. McKeown, F. Bretherton, H. L. Huang, W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercomb, “Sounding the skin of water: sensing air–water interface temperature gradients with interferometry,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 12, 1313–1327 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1990

T. C. Mammen, N. von Bosse, “STEP—a temperature profiler for measuring the oceanic thermal boundary layer at the ocean-air interface,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 7, 312–322 (1990).
[CrossRef]

P. Schluessel, W. J. Emery, H. Grassl, T. Mammen, “On the bulk-skin temperature difference and its impact on satellite remote sensing of sea surface temperature,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 13341–13356 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988

P. A. Hwang, O. H. Shemdin, “The dependence of sea surface slope on atmospheric stability and swell conditions,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 13903–13912 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1985

W. C. Keller, W. J. Plant, D. E. Weissman, “The dependence of X-band microwave sea return on atmospheric stability and sea state,” J. Geophys. Res. 90, 1019–1029 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1973

1971

E. D. McAlister, W. McLeish, “Airborne measurements of the total heat flux from the sea during Bomex,” J. Geophys. Res. 76, 4172–4180 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1970

1954

Anderson, G. P.

G. P. Anderson, S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, J. H. Chetwynd, E. P. Shettle, “AFGL atmospheric constituent profiles (0–120 km),” (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1986).

Bates, J. J.

J. A. Shaw, H. M. Zorn, J. J. Bates, J. H. Churnside, “Observations of downwelling infrared spectral radiance at Mauna Loa, Hawaii during the 1997–1998 ENSO event,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 1727–1730 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Best, F. A.

P. J. Minnett, R. O. Knuteson, F. A. Best, B. J. Osborne, J. A. Hanafin, O. B. Brown, “The Marine-Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer: a high-accuracy, seagoing infrared spectroradiometer,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 18, 994–1013 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, E. F.

C. W. Fairall, E. F. Bradley, J. S. Godfrey, G. A. Wick, J. B. Edson, G. S. Young, “Cool-skin and warm-layer effects on sea surface temperature,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1295–1308 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bretherton, F.

W. McKeown, F. Bretherton, H. L. Huang, W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercomb, “Sounding the skin of water: sensing air–water interface temperature gradients with interferometry,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 12, 1313–1327 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Brown, O. B.

P. J. Minnett, R. O. Knuteson, F. A. Best, B. J. Osborne, J. A. Hanafin, O. B. Brown, “The Marine-Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer: a high-accuracy, seagoing infrared spectroradiometer,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 18, 994–1013 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Brown, P. D.

Y. Han, J. A. Shaw, J. H. Churnside, P. D. Brown, S. A. Clough, “Infrared spectral radiance measurements in the tropical Pacific atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 4353–4356 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chetwynd, J. H.

G. P. Anderson, S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, J. H. Chetwynd, E. P. Shettle, “AFGL atmospheric constituent profiles (0–120 km),” (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1986).

Churnside, J. H.

J. A. Shaw, H. M. Zorn, J. J. Bates, J. H. Churnside, “Observations of downwelling infrared spectral radiance at Mauna Loa, Hawaii during the 1997–1998 ENSO event,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 1727–1730 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Shaw, J. H. Churnside, “Scanning-laser glint measurements of sea-surface slope statistics,” Appl. Opt. 36, 4202–4213 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Han, J. A. Shaw, J. H. Churnside, P. D. Brown, S. A. Clough, “Infrared spectral radiance measurements in the tropical Pacific atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 4353–4356 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Shaw, D. Cimini, E. R. Westwater, Y. Han, H. Zorn, J. H. Churnside, “Air–sea temperature differences measured with scanning radiometers during Nauru99,” in Proceedings of the International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium 2000 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2000), pp. 111–113.

Cimini, D.

J. A. Shaw, D. Cimini, E. R. Westwater, Y. Han, H. Zorn, J. H. Churnside, “Air–sea temperature differences measured with scanning radiometers during Nauru99,” in Proceedings of the International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium 2000 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2000), pp. 111–113.

J. A. Shaw, D. Cimini, E. R. Westwater, Y. Han, “Air-sea temperatures measured with scanning microwave and infrared radiometers in Nauru99,” in Proceedings of the Eleventh ARM Science Team Meeting (U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C., 2001), http://www.arm.gov/docs/documents/technical/conf_0103/index.html .

Clough, S. A.

Y. Han, J. A. Shaw, J. H. Churnside, P. D. Brown, S. A. Clough, “Infrared spectral radiance measurements in the tropical Pacific atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 4353–4356 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Anderson, S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, J. H. Chetwynd, E. P. Shettle, “AFGL atmospheric constituent profiles (0–120 km),” (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1986).

Cox, C.

Edson, J. B.

C. W. Fairall, E. F. Bradley, J. S. Godfrey, G. A. Wick, J. B. Edson, G. S. Young, “Cool-skin and warm-layer effects on sea surface temperature,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1295–1308 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Emery, W. J.

G. A. Wick, W. J. Emery, L. H. Kantha, R. Schluessel, “The behavior of the bulk-skin sea surface temperature difference under varying wind speed and heat flux,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 26, 1969–1988 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Schluessel, W. J. Emery, H. Grassl, T. Mammen, “On the bulk-skin temperature difference and its impact on satellite remote sensing of sea surface temperature,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 13341–13356 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Fairall, C. W.

C. W. Fairall, E. F. Bradley, J. S. Godfrey, G. A. Wick, J. B. Edson, G. S. Young, “Cool-skin and warm-layer effects on sea surface temperature,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1295–1308 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Post, C. W. Fairall, “Early results from the Nauru99 campaign on NOAA ship Ronald H. Brown,” in Proceedings of the International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium 2000 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2000), pp. 1151–1153.

Godfrey, J. S.

C. W. Fairall, E. F. Bradley, J. S. Godfrey, G. A. Wick, J. B. Edson, G. S. Young, “Cool-skin and warm-layer effects on sea surface temperature,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1295–1308 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Grassl, H.

P. Schluessel, W. J. Emery, H. Grassl, T. Mammen, “On the bulk-skin temperature difference and its impact on satellite remote sensing of sea surface temperature,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 13341–13356 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hale, G. M.

Han, Y.

E. R. Westwater, Y. Han, V. G. Irisov, V. Y. Leuskiy, E. N. Kadygrov, S. A. Viazankin, “Remote sensing of boundary layer temperature profiles by a scanning 5-mm microwave radiometer and RASS: comparison experiments,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 16, 805–818 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. R. Westwater, Y. Han, V. G. Irisov, V. Y. Leuskiy, “Sea–air and boundary layer temperatures measured by a scanning 5-mm wavelength radiometer: recent results,” Radio Sci. 33, 291–302 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. G. Trokhimovski, E. R. Westwater, Y. Han, V. Y. Leuski, “Air and sea surface temperature measurements using a 60-GHz microwave rotating radiometer,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 3–15 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Han, J. A. Shaw, J. H. Churnside, P. D. Brown, S. A. Clough, “Infrared spectral radiance measurements in the tropical Pacific atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 4353–4356 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Shaw, D. Cimini, E. R. Westwater, Y. Han, H. Zorn, J. H. Churnside, “Air–sea temperature differences measured with scanning radiometers during Nauru99,” in Proceedings of the International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium 2000 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2000), pp. 111–113.

J. A. Shaw, D. Cimini, E. R. Westwater, Y. Han, “Air-sea temperatures measured with scanning microwave and infrared radiometers in Nauru99,” in Proceedings of the Eleventh ARM Science Team Meeting (U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C., 2001), http://www.arm.gov/docs/documents/technical/conf_0103/index.html .

Hanafin, J. A.

P. J. Minnett, R. O. Knuteson, F. A. Best, B. J. Osborne, J. A. Hanafin, O. B. Brown, “The Marine-Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer: a high-accuracy, seagoing infrared spectroradiometer,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 18, 994–1013 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hecht, E.

E. Hecht, Optics, 2nd ed. (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1982), p. 110.

Huang, H. L.

W. McKeown, F. Bretherton, H. L. Huang, W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercomb, “Sounding the skin of water: sensing air–water interface temperature gradients with interferometry,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 12, 1313–1327 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hurrell, J. W.

J. W. Hurrell, K. E. Trenberth, “Global sea surface temperature analyses: multiple problems and their implications for climate analysis, modeling, and reanalysis,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 80, 2661–2678 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, P. A.

P. A. Hwang, O. H. Shemdin, “The dependence of sea surface slope on atmospheric stability and swell conditions,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 13903–13912 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Irisov, V. G.

E. R. Westwater, Y. Han, V. G. Irisov, V. Y. Leuskiy, E. N. Kadygrov, S. A. Viazankin, “Remote sensing of boundary layer temperature profiles by a scanning 5-mm microwave radiometer and RASS: comparison experiments,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 16, 805–818 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. R. Westwater, Y. Han, V. G. Irisov, V. Y. Leuskiy, “Sea–air and boundary layer temperatures measured by a scanning 5-mm wavelength radiometer: recent results,” Radio Sci. 33, 291–302 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kadygrov, E. N.

E. R. Westwater, Y. Han, V. G. Irisov, V. Y. Leuskiy, E. N. Kadygrov, S. A. Viazankin, “Remote sensing of boundary layer temperature profiles by a scanning 5-mm microwave radiometer and RASS: comparison experiments,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 16, 805–818 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kantha, L. H.

G. A. Wick, W. J. Emery, L. H. Kantha, R. Schluessel, “The behavior of the bulk-skin sea surface temperature difference under varying wind speed and heat flux,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 26, 1969–1988 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Keller, W. C.

W. C. Keller, W. J. Plant, D. E. Weissman, “The dependence of X-band microwave sea return on atmospheric stability and sea state,” J. Geophys. Res. 90, 1019–1029 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Kneizys, F. X.

G. P. Anderson, S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, J. H. Chetwynd, E. P. Shettle, “AFGL atmospheric constituent profiles (0–120 km),” (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1986).

Knuteson, R. O.

P. J. Minnett, R. O. Knuteson, F. A. Best, B. J. Osborne, J. A. Hanafin, O. B. Brown, “The Marine-Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer: a high-accuracy, seagoing infrared spectroradiometer,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 18, 994–1013 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Leuski, V. Y.

Y. G. Trokhimovski, E. R. Westwater, Y. Han, V. Y. Leuski, “Air and sea surface temperature measurements using a 60-GHz microwave rotating radiometer,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 3–15 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Leuskiy, V. Y.

E. R. Westwater, Y. Han, V. G. Irisov, V. Y. Leuskiy, E. N. Kadygrov, S. A. Viazankin, “Remote sensing of boundary layer temperature profiles by a scanning 5-mm microwave radiometer and RASS: comparison experiments,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 16, 805–818 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. R. Westwater, Y. Han, V. G. Irisov, V. Y. Leuskiy, “Sea–air and boundary layer temperatures measured by a scanning 5-mm wavelength radiometer: recent results,” Radio Sci. 33, 291–302 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mammen, T.

P. Schluessel, W. J. Emery, H. Grassl, T. Mammen, “On the bulk-skin temperature difference and its impact on satellite remote sensing of sea surface temperature,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 13341–13356 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Mammen, T. C.

T. C. Mammen, N. von Bosse, “STEP—a temperature profiler for measuring the oceanic thermal boundary layer at the ocean-air interface,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 7, 312–322 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Marston, C.

J. A. Shaw, C. Marston, “Polarized infrared emissivity for a rough water surface,” Opt. Exp. 7, 375–380 (2000), http://www.opticsexpress.org/oearchive/pdf/25342.pdf .
[CrossRef]

McAlister, E. D.

E. D. McAlister, W. McLeish, “Airborne measurements of the total heat flux from the sea during Bomex,” J. Geophys. Res. 76, 4172–4180 (1971).
[CrossRef]

E. D. McAlister, W. McLeish, “A radiometric system for airborne measurement of the total heat flow from the sea,” Appl. Opt. 9, 2697–2705 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McKeown, W.

W. McKeown, F. Bretherton, H. L. Huang, W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercomb, “Sounding the skin of water: sensing air–water interface temperature gradients with interferometry,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 12, 1313–1327 (1995).
[CrossRef]

McLeish, W.

E. D. McAlister, W. McLeish, “Airborne measurements of the total heat flux from the sea during Bomex,” J. Geophys. Res. 76, 4172–4180 (1971).
[CrossRef]

E. D. McAlister, W. McLeish, “A radiometric system for airborne measurement of the total heat flow from the sea,” Appl. Opt. 9, 2697–2705 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Minnett, P. J.

P. J. Minnett, R. O. Knuteson, F. A. Best, B. J. Osborne, J. A. Hanafin, O. B. Brown, “The Marine-Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer: a high-accuracy, seagoing infrared spectroradiometer,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 18, 994–1013 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Munk, W.

Osborne, B. J.

P. J. Minnett, R. O. Knuteson, F. A. Best, B. J. Osborne, J. A. Hanafin, O. B. Brown, “The Marine-Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer: a high-accuracy, seagoing infrared spectroradiometer,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 18, 994–1013 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Plant, W. J.

W. C. Keller, W. J. Plant, D. E. Weissman, “The dependence of X-band microwave sea return on atmospheric stability and sea state,” J. Geophys. Res. 90, 1019–1029 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Pospelov, M. N.

M. N. Pospelov, “Surface wind speed retrieval using passive microwave polarimetry: the dependence on atmospheric stability,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 34, 1166–1171 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Post, M. J.

M. J. Post, C. W. Fairall, “Early results from the Nauru99 campaign on NOAA ship Ronald H. Brown,” in Proceedings of the International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium 2000 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2000), pp. 1151–1153.

Querry, M. R.

Revercomb, H. E.

W. McKeown, F. Bretherton, H. L. Huang, W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercomb, “Sounding the skin of water: sensing air–water interface temperature gradients with interferometry,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 12, 1313–1327 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schluessel, P.

P. Schluessel, W. J. Emery, H. Grassl, T. Mammen, “On the bulk-skin temperature difference and its impact on satellite remote sensing of sea surface temperature,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 13341–13356 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Schluessel, R.

G. A. Wick, W. J. Emery, L. H. Kantha, R. Schluessel, “The behavior of the bulk-skin sea surface temperature difference under varying wind speed and heat flux,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 26, 1969–1988 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, J. A.

J. A. Shaw, C. Marston, “Polarized infrared emissivity for a rough water surface,” Opt. Exp. 7, 375–380 (2000), http://www.opticsexpress.org/oearchive/pdf/25342.pdf .
[CrossRef]

J. A. Shaw, H. M. Zorn, J. J. Bates, J. H. Churnside, “Observations of downwelling infrared spectral radiance at Mauna Loa, Hawaii during the 1997–1998 ENSO event,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 1727–1730 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Shaw, J. H. Churnside, “Scanning-laser glint measurements of sea-surface slope statistics,” Appl. Opt. 36, 4202–4213 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Han, J. A. Shaw, J. H. Churnside, P. D. Brown, S. A. Clough, “Infrared spectral radiance measurements in the tropical Pacific atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 4353–4356 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Shaw, D. Cimini, E. R. Westwater, Y. Han, H. Zorn, J. H. Churnside, “Air–sea temperature differences measured with scanning radiometers during Nauru99,” in Proceedings of the International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium 2000 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2000), pp. 111–113.

J. A. Shaw, D. Cimini, E. R. Westwater, Y. Han, “Air-sea temperatures measured with scanning microwave and infrared radiometers in Nauru99,” in Proceedings of the Eleventh ARM Science Team Meeting (U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C., 2001), http://www.arm.gov/docs/documents/technical/conf_0103/index.html .

Shemdin, O. H.

P. A. Hwang, O. H. Shemdin, “The dependence of sea surface slope on atmospheric stability and swell conditions,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 13903–13912 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Shettle, E. P.

G. P. Anderson, S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, J. H. Chetwynd, E. P. Shettle, “AFGL atmospheric constituent profiles (0–120 km),” (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1986).

Smith, W. L.

W. McKeown, F. Bretherton, H. L. Huang, W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercomb, “Sounding the skin of water: sensing air–water interface temperature gradients with interferometry,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 12, 1313–1327 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Trenberth, K. E.

J. W. Hurrell, K. E. Trenberth, “Global sea surface temperature analyses: multiple problems and their implications for climate analysis, modeling, and reanalysis,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 80, 2661–2678 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Trokhimovski, Y. G.

Y. G. Trokhimovski, E. R. Westwater, Y. Han, V. Y. Leuski, “Air and sea surface temperature measurements using a 60-GHz microwave rotating radiometer,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 3–15 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Viazankin, S. A.

E. R. Westwater, Y. Han, V. G. Irisov, V. Y. Leuskiy, E. N. Kadygrov, S. A. Viazankin, “Remote sensing of boundary layer temperature profiles by a scanning 5-mm microwave radiometer and RASS: comparison experiments,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 16, 805–818 (1999).
[CrossRef]

von Bosse, N.

T. C. Mammen, N. von Bosse, “STEP—a temperature profiler for measuring the oceanic thermal boundary layer at the ocean-air interface,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 7, 312–322 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Weissman, D. E.

W. C. Keller, W. J. Plant, D. E. Weissman, “The dependence of X-band microwave sea return on atmospheric stability and sea state,” J. Geophys. Res. 90, 1019–1029 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Westwater, E. R.

E. R. Westwater, Y. Han, V. G. Irisov, V. Y. Leuskiy, E. N. Kadygrov, S. A. Viazankin, “Remote sensing of boundary layer temperature profiles by a scanning 5-mm microwave radiometer and RASS: comparison experiments,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 16, 805–818 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. R. Westwater, Y. Han, V. G. Irisov, V. Y. Leuskiy, “Sea–air and boundary layer temperatures measured by a scanning 5-mm wavelength radiometer: recent results,” Radio Sci. 33, 291–302 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. G. Trokhimovski, E. R. Westwater, Y. Han, V. Y. Leuski, “Air and sea surface temperature measurements using a 60-GHz microwave rotating radiometer,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 3–15 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Shaw, D. Cimini, E. R. Westwater, Y. Han, “Air-sea temperatures measured with scanning microwave and infrared radiometers in Nauru99,” in Proceedings of the Eleventh ARM Science Team Meeting (U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C., 2001), http://www.arm.gov/docs/documents/technical/conf_0103/index.html .

J. A. Shaw, D. Cimini, E. R. Westwater, Y. Han, H. Zorn, J. H. Churnside, “Air–sea temperature differences measured with scanning radiometers during Nauru99,” in Proceedings of the International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium 2000 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2000), pp. 111–113.

Wick, G. A.

C. W. Fairall, E. F. Bradley, J. S. Godfrey, G. A. Wick, J. B. Edson, G. S. Young, “Cool-skin and warm-layer effects on sea surface temperature,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1295–1308 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Wick, W. J. Emery, L. H. Kantha, R. Schluessel, “The behavior of the bulk-skin sea surface temperature difference under varying wind speed and heat flux,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 26, 1969–1988 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Young, G. S.

C. W. Fairall, E. F. Bradley, J. S. Godfrey, G. A. Wick, J. B. Edson, G. S. Young, “Cool-skin and warm-layer effects on sea surface temperature,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1295–1308 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zorn, H.

J. A. Shaw, D. Cimini, E. R. Westwater, Y. Han, H. Zorn, J. H. Churnside, “Air–sea temperature differences measured with scanning radiometers during Nauru99,” in Proceedings of the International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium 2000 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2000), pp. 111–113.

Zorn, H. M.

J. A. Shaw, H. M. Zorn, J. J. Bates, J. H. Churnside, “Observations of downwelling infrared spectral radiance at Mauna Loa, Hawaii during the 1997–1998 ENSO event,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 1727–1730 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc.

J. W. Hurrell, K. E. Trenberth, “Global sea surface temperature analyses: multiple problems and their implications for climate analysis, modeling, and reanalysis,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 80, 2661–2678 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett.

J. A. Shaw, H. M. Zorn, J. J. Bates, J. H. Churnside, “Observations of downwelling infrared spectral radiance at Mauna Loa, Hawaii during the 1997–1998 ENSO event,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 1727–1730 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens.

M. N. Pospelov, “Surface wind speed retrieval using passive microwave polarimetry: the dependence on atmospheric stability,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 34, 1166–1171 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. G. Trokhimovski, E. R. Westwater, Y. Han, V. Y. Leuski, “Air and sea surface temperature measurements using a 60-GHz microwave rotating radiometer,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 3–15 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol.

W. McKeown, F. Bretherton, H. L. Huang, W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercomb, “Sounding the skin of water: sensing air–water interface temperature gradients with interferometry,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 12, 1313–1327 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Mammen, N. von Bosse, “STEP—a temperature profiler for measuring the oceanic thermal boundary layer at the ocean-air interface,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 7, 312–322 (1990).
[CrossRef]

E. R. Westwater, Y. Han, V. G. Irisov, V. Y. Leuskiy, E. N. Kadygrov, S. A. Viazankin, “Remote sensing of boundary layer temperature profiles by a scanning 5-mm microwave radiometer and RASS: comparison experiments,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 16, 805–818 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Minnett, R. O. Knuteson, F. A. Best, B. J. Osborne, J. A. Hanafin, O. B. Brown, “The Marine-Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer: a high-accuracy, seagoing infrared spectroradiometer,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 18, 994–1013 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

E. D. McAlister, W. McLeish, “Airborne measurements of the total heat flux from the sea during Bomex,” J. Geophys. Res. 76, 4172–4180 (1971).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Hwang, O. H. Shemdin, “The dependence of sea surface slope on atmospheric stability and swell conditions,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 13903–13912 (1988).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Fairall, E. F. Bradley, J. S. Godfrey, G. A. Wick, J. B. Edson, G. S. Young, “Cool-skin and warm-layer effects on sea surface temperature,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1295–1308 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Keller, W. J. Plant, D. E. Weissman, “The dependence of X-band microwave sea return on atmospheric stability and sea state,” J. Geophys. Res. 90, 1019–1029 (1985).
[CrossRef]

P. Schluessel, W. J. Emery, H. Grassl, T. Mammen, “On the bulk-skin temperature difference and its impact on satellite remote sensing of sea surface temperature,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 13341–13356 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Y. Han, J. A. Shaw, J. H. Churnside, P. D. Brown, S. A. Clough, “Infrared spectral radiance measurements in the tropical Pacific atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 4353–4356 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Phys. Oceanogr.

G. A. Wick, W. J. Emery, L. H. Kantha, R. Schluessel, “The behavior of the bulk-skin sea surface temperature difference under varying wind speed and heat flux,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 26, 1969–1988 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Exp.

J. A. Shaw, C. Marston, “Polarized infrared emissivity for a rough water surface,” Opt. Exp. 7, 375–380 (2000), http://www.opticsexpress.org/oearchive/pdf/25342.pdf .
[CrossRef]

Radio Sci.

E. R. Westwater, Y. Han, V. G. Irisov, V. Y. Leuskiy, “Sea–air and boundary layer temperatures measured by a scanning 5-mm wavelength radiometer: recent results,” Radio Sci. 33, 291–302 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. A. Shaw, D. Cimini, E. R. Westwater, Y. Han, H. Zorn, J. H. Churnside, “Air–sea temperature differences measured with scanning radiometers during Nauru99,” in Proceedings of the International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium 2000 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2000), pp. 111–113.

M. J. Post, C. W. Fairall, “Early results from the Nauru99 campaign on NOAA ship Ronald H. Brown,” in Proceedings of the International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium 2000 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2000), pp. 1151–1153.

G. P. Anderson, S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, J. H. Chetwynd, E. P. Shettle, “AFGL atmospheric constituent profiles (0–120 km),” (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1986).

E. Hecht, Optics, 2nd ed. (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1982), p. 110.

J. A. Shaw, D. Cimini, E. R. Westwater, Y. Han, “Air-sea temperatures measured with scanning microwave and infrared radiometers in Nauru99,” in Proceedings of the Eleventh ARM Science Team Meeting (U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C., 2001), http://www.arm.gov/docs/documents/technical/conf_0103/index.html .

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic layout of the scanning infrared radiometer. E is the angle encoder, M is the scan mirror stepper motor, SM is the scan mirror, L is the objective lens, F is the optical filter, D is the detector inside a liquid-nitrogen Dewar, and PA is the preamplifier. The signal from the preamplifier is digitized and processed by a computer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Scanning radiometer filter response function (in percent), plotted with a Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) measurement of downwelling atmospheric spectral radiance in the same spectral region. The relatively smooth radiance curve between approximately 14.0 and 15.9 µm is the highly absorbing CO2 band. At shorter wavelengths, the atmosphere becomes more transmissive, and the spectrum shows absorption features of atmospheric water vapor and other gases.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Atmospheric penetration depth (distance for which the optical depth is 1 and the transmissivity is equal to e -1) versus wavelength within the radiometer filter half-power bandwidth.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Skin depth of water versus wavelength. The scanning infrared radiometer operates in the spectral range 13.63–14.76 µm where the skin depth is approximately 3 µm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Photograph of the scanning radiometer package deployed on the NOAA research vessel RHB in the South Pacific during June–July 1999. The scanning infrared radiometer is visible in the front, a scanning microwave radiometer is on the backside of the trolley, and the in situ temperature probe (met sensor) is on the top. The trolley moves back and forth along the boom, which is mounted on the roof of a sea container on the forward deck of the ship. The boom extends approximately 5 m beyond the port side of the ship.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Uncalibrated radiometer signal versus scanning angle averaged over 6 min.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Six-minute average of the radiometer signal in units of brightness temperature versus scan angle after angle and radiometric calibrations.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Retrieved air–sea temperature differences from the scanning infrared radiometer (filled circles) and in situ air- and water-temperature sensors (solid curve) for 4–6 July 1999, near Nauru Island.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Solar irradiance, wind speed, and wind direction for the three-day period shown in Fig. 8.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

d=c2ωk,
Lθ=L0+GVθ,
L=εsλLbbλ, Tsτλ+Laλ+1-εsλLraλτλfλdλ,

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