Abstract

The balloonborne instrument AMON (which is a French acronym for Absorption par les Minoritaires Ozone et NOx) has been modified to record chromatic scintillation during stellar occultation by the Earth’s atmosphere. A 14-channel spectrophotometer with a sampling rate of 10 Hz was added, and the modified instrument, AMON-RA, performed successful measurements of the setting star Alnilam during the third European Stratospheric Experiment on Ozone (THESEO) project. Unambiguous records of the chromatic scintillation were obtained, to our knowledge for the first time from above the atmosphere, and some of its basic properties are reported. The properties of atmospheric structures that are responsible for this chromatic scintillation were found to be consistent with those of previous monochromatic measurements performed from space. A maximum chromatic delay of 2.5 s was observed for widely different wavelengths.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. P. Aleksandrov, G. M. Grechko, A. S. Gurvich, V. Kan, M. Kh. Manarov, A. I. Pakomov, A. I. Romanenko, S. A. Savchenko, S. I. Serova, V. G. Titov, “Spectra of temperature variations in the stratosphere as indicated by satellite-borne observation of the twinkling of stars,” Atmos. Ocean. Phys. 26, 1–8 (1990).
  2. G. M. Grechko, A. S. Gurvich, V. Kan, A. I. Pakhomov, Ya. P. Podvyaznyi, S. A. Savchenko, “Observations of atmospheric turbulence at altitudes of 20–70 km,” Trans. Russ. Acad. Sci. Earth Sci. Sec. A 357, 1382–1385 (1997).
  3. A. S. Gurvich, V. Kan, “Radio wave fluctuations in satellite–atmosphere–satellite links: estimates from stellar scintillation observations and their comparison with experimental data,” Atmos. Ocean. Phys. 33, 284–292 (1997).
  4. A. S. Gurvich, S. V. Sokolovskiy, “Two-wavelength observations of stellar scintillation for autonomous satellite navigation,” Navigation 38, 359–366 (1992).
  5. J. L. Bertaux, G. Mégie, T. Widemann, E. Chassefière, R. Pellinen, E. Kyrola, S. Korpela, P. Simon, “Monitoring of ozone trend by stellar occultations: the GOMOS instrument,” Adv. Space Res. 11, 237–242 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. F. Popescu, T. Paulsen, G. Ratier, G. Uguen, I. Asseman, R. Wilson, K. D. Mau, “The Global Ozone Monitoring by Occultation of Stars (GOMOS) instrument on ENVISAT: requirements, design and development status,” in Advanced and Next-Generation Satellites II, H. Fujisada, G. Calamai, M. N. Sweeting, eds., Proc. SPIE2957, 42–53 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, C. Robert, G. Moreau, D. Huguenin, J. M. Russell, “Nocturnal vertical distribution of stratospheric O3, NO2 and NO3 from balloon measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 28,793–28,804 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. Huguenin, “Design and performance of stratospheric balloon-borne platforms for infrared astrophysical observations,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 35, 195–202 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  9. B. Edlen, “The refractive index of air,” Metrologia 2, 71–80 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  10. F. Dalaudier, V. Kan, A. S. Gurvich, “Chromatic refraction with global ozone monitoring by occultation of stars. 1. Description and scintillation correction,” Appl. Opt. 40, 866–877 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. B. Hays, R. G. Roble, “Stellar spectra and atmospheric composition,” J. Atmos. Sci. 25, 1141–1153 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  12. B. Sicardy, F. Ferri, F. Roques, J. Lecacheux, S. Pau, N. Brosch, Y. Nevo, W. B. Hubbard, H. J. Reitsema, C. Blanco, E. Carreira, W. Beisker, C. Bittner, H. J. Bode, M. Bruns, H. Denzau, M. Nezel, E. Riedel, H. Struckmann, G. Appleby, R. W. Forrest, I. K. M. Nicolson, A. J. Hollis, R. Miles, “The structure of Titan’s stratosphere from the 28 Sgr occultation,” Icarus 142, 357–390 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  13. F. Dalaudier, A. S. Gurvich, V. Kan, C. Sidi, “Middle stratosphere temperature spectra observed with stellar scintillation and in-situ techniques,” Adv. Space Res. 14, 61–64 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. M. Rytov, Y. A. Kravtsov, V. I. Tatarskii, Principles of Statistical Radiophysics: Wave Propagation through Random Media, Vol. 4 (Springer-/Verlag, Berlin, 1989).

2001 (1)

1999 (1)

B. Sicardy, F. Ferri, F. Roques, J. Lecacheux, S. Pau, N. Brosch, Y. Nevo, W. B. Hubbard, H. J. Reitsema, C. Blanco, E. Carreira, W. Beisker, C. Bittner, H. J. Bode, M. Bruns, H. Denzau, M. Nezel, E. Riedel, H. Struckmann, G. Appleby, R. W. Forrest, I. K. M. Nicolson, A. J. Hollis, R. Miles, “The structure of Titan’s stratosphere from the 28 Sgr occultation,” Icarus 142, 357–390 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

G. M. Grechko, A. S. Gurvich, V. Kan, A. I. Pakhomov, Ya. P. Podvyaznyi, S. A. Savchenko, “Observations of atmospheric turbulence at altitudes of 20–70 km,” Trans. Russ. Acad. Sci. Earth Sci. Sec. A 357, 1382–1385 (1997).

A. S. Gurvich, V. Kan, “Radio wave fluctuations in satellite–atmosphere–satellite links: estimates from stellar scintillation observations and their comparison with experimental data,” Atmos. Ocean. Phys. 33, 284–292 (1997).

1996 (1)

J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, C. Robert, G. Moreau, D. Huguenin, J. M. Russell, “Nocturnal vertical distribution of stratospheric O3, NO2 and NO3 from balloon measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 28,793–28,804 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

D. Huguenin, “Design and performance of stratospheric balloon-borne platforms for infrared astrophysical observations,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 35, 195–202 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. Dalaudier, A. S. Gurvich, V. Kan, C. Sidi, “Middle stratosphere temperature spectra observed with stellar scintillation and in-situ techniques,” Adv. Space Res. 14, 61–64 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

A. S. Gurvich, S. V. Sokolovskiy, “Two-wavelength observations of stellar scintillation for autonomous satellite navigation,” Navigation 38, 359–366 (1992).

1991 (1)

J. L. Bertaux, G. Mégie, T. Widemann, E. Chassefière, R. Pellinen, E. Kyrola, S. Korpela, P. Simon, “Monitoring of ozone trend by stellar occultations: the GOMOS instrument,” Adv. Space Res. 11, 237–242 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

A. P. Aleksandrov, G. M. Grechko, A. S. Gurvich, V. Kan, M. Kh. Manarov, A. I. Pakomov, A. I. Romanenko, S. A. Savchenko, S. I. Serova, V. G. Titov, “Spectra of temperature variations in the stratosphere as indicated by satellite-borne observation of the twinkling of stars,” Atmos. Ocean. Phys. 26, 1–8 (1990).

1968 (1)

P. B. Hays, R. G. Roble, “Stellar spectra and atmospheric composition,” J. Atmos. Sci. 25, 1141–1153 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

B. Edlen, “The refractive index of air,” Metrologia 2, 71–80 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Aleksandrov, A. P.

A. P. Aleksandrov, G. M. Grechko, A. S. Gurvich, V. Kan, M. Kh. Manarov, A. I. Pakomov, A. I. Romanenko, S. A. Savchenko, S. I. Serova, V. G. Titov, “Spectra of temperature variations in the stratosphere as indicated by satellite-borne observation of the twinkling of stars,” Atmos. Ocean. Phys. 26, 1–8 (1990).

Appleby, G.

B. Sicardy, F. Ferri, F. Roques, J. Lecacheux, S. Pau, N. Brosch, Y. Nevo, W. B. Hubbard, H. J. Reitsema, C. Blanco, E. Carreira, W. Beisker, C. Bittner, H. J. Bode, M. Bruns, H. Denzau, M. Nezel, E. Riedel, H. Struckmann, G. Appleby, R. W. Forrest, I. K. M. Nicolson, A. J. Hollis, R. Miles, “The structure of Titan’s stratosphere from the 28 Sgr occultation,” Icarus 142, 357–390 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Asseman, I.

A. F. Popescu, T. Paulsen, G. Ratier, G. Uguen, I. Asseman, R. Wilson, K. D. Mau, “The Global Ozone Monitoring by Occultation of Stars (GOMOS) instrument on ENVISAT: requirements, design and development status,” in Advanced and Next-Generation Satellites II, H. Fujisada, G. Calamai, M. N. Sweeting, eds., Proc. SPIE2957, 42–53 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Beisker, W.

B. Sicardy, F. Ferri, F. Roques, J. Lecacheux, S. Pau, N. Brosch, Y. Nevo, W. B. Hubbard, H. J. Reitsema, C. Blanco, E. Carreira, W. Beisker, C. Bittner, H. J. Bode, M. Bruns, H. Denzau, M. Nezel, E. Riedel, H. Struckmann, G. Appleby, R. W. Forrest, I. K. M. Nicolson, A. J. Hollis, R. Miles, “The structure of Titan’s stratosphere from the 28 Sgr occultation,” Icarus 142, 357–390 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bertaux, J. L.

J. L. Bertaux, G. Mégie, T. Widemann, E. Chassefière, R. Pellinen, E. Kyrola, S. Korpela, P. Simon, “Monitoring of ozone trend by stellar occultations: the GOMOS instrument,” Adv. Space Res. 11, 237–242 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Bittner, C.

B. Sicardy, F. Ferri, F. Roques, J. Lecacheux, S. Pau, N. Brosch, Y. Nevo, W. B. Hubbard, H. J. Reitsema, C. Blanco, E. Carreira, W. Beisker, C. Bittner, H. J. Bode, M. Bruns, H. Denzau, M. Nezel, E. Riedel, H. Struckmann, G. Appleby, R. W. Forrest, I. K. M. Nicolson, A. J. Hollis, R. Miles, “The structure of Titan’s stratosphere from the 28 Sgr occultation,” Icarus 142, 357–390 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Blanco, C.

B. Sicardy, F. Ferri, F. Roques, J. Lecacheux, S. Pau, N. Brosch, Y. Nevo, W. B. Hubbard, H. J. Reitsema, C. Blanco, E. Carreira, W. Beisker, C. Bittner, H. J. Bode, M. Bruns, H. Denzau, M. Nezel, E. Riedel, H. Struckmann, G. Appleby, R. W. Forrest, I. K. M. Nicolson, A. J. Hollis, R. Miles, “The structure of Titan’s stratosphere from the 28 Sgr occultation,” Icarus 142, 357–390 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bode, H. J.

B. Sicardy, F. Ferri, F. Roques, J. Lecacheux, S. Pau, N. Brosch, Y. Nevo, W. B. Hubbard, H. J. Reitsema, C. Blanco, E. Carreira, W. Beisker, C. Bittner, H. J. Bode, M. Bruns, H. Denzau, M. Nezel, E. Riedel, H. Struckmann, G. Appleby, R. W. Forrest, I. K. M. Nicolson, A. J. Hollis, R. Miles, “The structure of Titan’s stratosphere from the 28 Sgr occultation,” Icarus 142, 357–390 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brosch, N.

B. Sicardy, F. Ferri, F. Roques, J. Lecacheux, S. Pau, N. Brosch, Y. Nevo, W. B. Hubbard, H. J. Reitsema, C. Blanco, E. Carreira, W. Beisker, C. Bittner, H. J. Bode, M. Bruns, H. Denzau, M. Nezel, E. Riedel, H. Struckmann, G. Appleby, R. W. Forrest, I. K. M. Nicolson, A. J. Hollis, R. Miles, “The structure of Titan’s stratosphere from the 28 Sgr occultation,” Icarus 142, 357–390 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bruns, M.

B. Sicardy, F. Ferri, F. Roques, J. Lecacheux, S. Pau, N. Brosch, Y. Nevo, W. B. Hubbard, H. J. Reitsema, C. Blanco, E. Carreira, W. Beisker, C. Bittner, H. J. Bode, M. Bruns, H. Denzau, M. Nezel, E. Riedel, H. Struckmann, G. Appleby, R. W. Forrest, I. K. M. Nicolson, A. J. Hollis, R. Miles, “The structure of Titan’s stratosphere from the 28 Sgr occultation,” Icarus 142, 357–390 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Carreira, E.

B. Sicardy, F. Ferri, F. Roques, J. Lecacheux, S. Pau, N. Brosch, Y. Nevo, W. B. Hubbard, H. J. Reitsema, C. Blanco, E. Carreira, W. Beisker, C. Bittner, H. J. Bode, M. Bruns, H. Denzau, M. Nezel, E. Riedel, H. Struckmann, G. Appleby, R. W. Forrest, I. K. M. Nicolson, A. J. Hollis, R. Miles, “The structure of Titan’s stratosphere from the 28 Sgr occultation,” Icarus 142, 357–390 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chassefière, E.

J. L. Bertaux, G. Mégie, T. Widemann, E. Chassefière, R. Pellinen, E. Kyrola, S. Korpela, P. Simon, “Monitoring of ozone trend by stellar occultations: the GOMOS instrument,” Adv. Space Res. 11, 237–242 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Dalaudier, F.

F. Dalaudier, V. Kan, A. S. Gurvich, “Chromatic refraction with global ozone monitoring by occultation of stars. 1. Description and scintillation correction,” Appl. Opt. 40, 866–877 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Dalaudier, A. S. Gurvich, V. Kan, C. Sidi, “Middle stratosphere temperature spectra observed with stellar scintillation and in-situ techniques,” Adv. Space Res. 14, 61–64 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Denzau, H.

B. Sicardy, F. Ferri, F. Roques, J. Lecacheux, S. Pau, N. Brosch, Y. Nevo, W. B. Hubbard, H. J. Reitsema, C. Blanco, E. Carreira, W. Beisker, C. Bittner, H. J. Bode, M. Bruns, H. Denzau, M. Nezel, E. Riedel, H. Struckmann, G. Appleby, R. W. Forrest, I. K. M. Nicolson, A. J. Hollis, R. Miles, “The structure of Titan’s stratosphere from the 28 Sgr occultation,” Icarus 142, 357–390 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Edlen, B.

B. Edlen, “The refractive index of air,” Metrologia 2, 71–80 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Ferri, F.

B. Sicardy, F. Ferri, F. Roques, J. Lecacheux, S. Pau, N. Brosch, Y. Nevo, W. B. Hubbard, H. J. Reitsema, C. Blanco, E. Carreira, W. Beisker, C. Bittner, H. J. Bode, M. Bruns, H. Denzau, M. Nezel, E. Riedel, H. Struckmann, G. Appleby, R. W. Forrest, I. K. M. Nicolson, A. J. Hollis, R. Miles, “The structure of Titan’s stratosphere from the 28 Sgr occultation,” Icarus 142, 357–390 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Forrest, R. W.

B. Sicardy, F. Ferri, F. Roques, J. Lecacheux, S. Pau, N. Brosch, Y. Nevo, W. B. Hubbard, H. J. Reitsema, C. Blanco, E. Carreira, W. Beisker, C. Bittner, H. J. Bode, M. Bruns, H. Denzau, M. Nezel, E. Riedel, H. Struckmann, G. Appleby, R. W. Forrest, I. K. M. Nicolson, A. J. Hollis, R. Miles, “The structure of Titan’s stratosphere from the 28 Sgr occultation,” Icarus 142, 357–390 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Grechko, G. M.

G. M. Grechko, A. S. Gurvich, V. Kan, A. I. Pakhomov, Ya. P. Podvyaznyi, S. A. Savchenko, “Observations of atmospheric turbulence at altitudes of 20–70 km,” Trans. Russ. Acad. Sci. Earth Sci. Sec. A 357, 1382–1385 (1997).

A. P. Aleksandrov, G. M. Grechko, A. S. Gurvich, V. Kan, M. Kh. Manarov, A. I. Pakomov, A. I. Romanenko, S. A. Savchenko, S. I. Serova, V. G. Titov, “Spectra of temperature variations in the stratosphere as indicated by satellite-borne observation of the twinkling of stars,” Atmos. Ocean. Phys. 26, 1–8 (1990).

Gurvich, A. S.

F. Dalaudier, V. Kan, A. S. Gurvich, “Chromatic refraction with global ozone monitoring by occultation of stars. 1. Description and scintillation correction,” Appl. Opt. 40, 866–877 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Grechko, A. S. Gurvich, V. Kan, A. I. Pakhomov, Ya. P. Podvyaznyi, S. A. Savchenko, “Observations of atmospheric turbulence at altitudes of 20–70 km,” Trans. Russ. Acad. Sci. Earth Sci. Sec. A 357, 1382–1385 (1997).

A. S. Gurvich, V. Kan, “Radio wave fluctuations in satellite–atmosphere–satellite links: estimates from stellar scintillation observations and their comparison with experimental data,” Atmos. Ocean. Phys. 33, 284–292 (1997).

F. Dalaudier, A. S. Gurvich, V. Kan, C. Sidi, “Middle stratosphere temperature spectra observed with stellar scintillation and in-situ techniques,” Adv. Space Res. 14, 61–64 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Gurvich, S. V. Sokolovskiy, “Two-wavelength observations of stellar scintillation for autonomous satellite navigation,” Navigation 38, 359–366 (1992).

A. P. Aleksandrov, G. M. Grechko, A. S. Gurvich, V. Kan, M. Kh. Manarov, A. I. Pakomov, A. I. Romanenko, S. A. Savchenko, S. I. Serova, V. G. Titov, “Spectra of temperature variations in the stratosphere as indicated by satellite-borne observation of the twinkling of stars,” Atmos. Ocean. Phys. 26, 1–8 (1990).

Hays, P. B.

P. B. Hays, R. G. Roble, “Stellar spectra and atmospheric composition,” J. Atmos. Sci. 25, 1141–1153 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Hollis, A. J.

B. Sicardy, F. Ferri, F. Roques, J. Lecacheux, S. Pau, N. Brosch, Y. Nevo, W. B. Hubbard, H. J. Reitsema, C. Blanco, E. Carreira, W. Beisker, C. Bittner, H. J. Bode, M. Bruns, H. Denzau, M. Nezel, E. Riedel, H. Struckmann, G. Appleby, R. W. Forrest, I. K. M. Nicolson, A. J. Hollis, R. Miles, “The structure of Titan’s stratosphere from the 28 Sgr occultation,” Icarus 142, 357–390 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hubbard, W. B.

B. Sicardy, F. Ferri, F. Roques, J. Lecacheux, S. Pau, N. Brosch, Y. Nevo, W. B. Hubbard, H. J. Reitsema, C. Blanco, E. Carreira, W. Beisker, C. Bittner, H. J. Bode, M. Bruns, H. Denzau, M. Nezel, E. Riedel, H. Struckmann, G. Appleby, R. W. Forrest, I. K. M. Nicolson, A. J. Hollis, R. Miles, “The structure of Titan’s stratosphere from the 28 Sgr occultation,” Icarus 142, 357–390 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Huguenin, D.

J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, C. Robert, G. Moreau, D. Huguenin, J. M. Russell, “Nocturnal vertical distribution of stratospheric O3, NO2 and NO3 from balloon measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 28,793–28,804 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. Huguenin, “Design and performance of stratospheric balloon-borne platforms for infrared astrophysical observations,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 35, 195–202 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kan, V.

F. Dalaudier, V. Kan, A. S. Gurvich, “Chromatic refraction with global ozone monitoring by occultation of stars. 1. Description and scintillation correction,” Appl. Opt. 40, 866–877 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Gurvich, V. Kan, “Radio wave fluctuations in satellite–atmosphere–satellite links: estimates from stellar scintillation observations and their comparison with experimental data,” Atmos. Ocean. Phys. 33, 284–292 (1997).

G. M. Grechko, A. S. Gurvich, V. Kan, A. I. Pakhomov, Ya. P. Podvyaznyi, S. A. Savchenko, “Observations of atmospheric turbulence at altitudes of 20–70 km,” Trans. Russ. Acad. Sci. Earth Sci. Sec. A 357, 1382–1385 (1997).

F. Dalaudier, A. S. Gurvich, V. Kan, C. Sidi, “Middle stratosphere temperature spectra observed with stellar scintillation and in-situ techniques,” Adv. Space Res. 14, 61–64 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Aleksandrov, G. M. Grechko, A. S. Gurvich, V. Kan, M. Kh. Manarov, A. I. Pakomov, A. I. Romanenko, S. A. Savchenko, S. I. Serova, V. G. Titov, “Spectra of temperature variations in the stratosphere as indicated by satellite-borne observation of the twinkling of stars,” Atmos. Ocean. Phys. 26, 1–8 (1990).

Korpela, S.

J. L. Bertaux, G. Mégie, T. Widemann, E. Chassefière, R. Pellinen, E. Kyrola, S. Korpela, P. Simon, “Monitoring of ozone trend by stellar occultations: the GOMOS instrument,” Adv. Space Res. 11, 237–242 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kravtsov, Y. A.

S. M. Rytov, Y. A. Kravtsov, V. I. Tatarskii, Principles of Statistical Radiophysics: Wave Propagation through Random Media, Vol. 4 (Springer-/Verlag, Berlin, 1989).

Kyrola, E.

J. L. Bertaux, G. Mégie, T. Widemann, E. Chassefière, R. Pellinen, E. Kyrola, S. Korpela, P. Simon, “Monitoring of ozone trend by stellar occultations: the GOMOS instrument,” Adv. Space Res. 11, 237–242 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lecacheux, J.

B. Sicardy, F. Ferri, F. Roques, J. Lecacheux, S. Pau, N. Brosch, Y. Nevo, W. B. Hubbard, H. J. Reitsema, C. Blanco, E. Carreira, W. Beisker, C. Bittner, H. J. Bode, M. Bruns, H. Denzau, M. Nezel, E. Riedel, H. Struckmann, G. Appleby, R. W. Forrest, I. K. M. Nicolson, A. J. Hollis, R. Miles, “The structure of Titan’s stratosphere from the 28 Sgr occultation,” Icarus 142, 357–390 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Manarov, M. Kh.

A. P. Aleksandrov, G. M. Grechko, A. S. Gurvich, V. Kan, M. Kh. Manarov, A. I. Pakomov, A. I. Romanenko, S. A. Savchenko, S. I. Serova, V. G. Titov, “Spectra of temperature variations in the stratosphere as indicated by satellite-borne observation of the twinkling of stars,” Atmos. Ocean. Phys. 26, 1–8 (1990).

Mau, K. D.

A. F. Popescu, T. Paulsen, G. Ratier, G. Uguen, I. Asseman, R. Wilson, K. D. Mau, “The Global Ozone Monitoring by Occultation of Stars (GOMOS) instrument on ENVISAT: requirements, design and development status,” in Advanced and Next-Generation Satellites II, H. Fujisada, G. Calamai, M. N. Sweeting, eds., Proc. SPIE2957, 42–53 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mégie, G.

J. L. Bertaux, G. Mégie, T. Widemann, E. Chassefière, R. Pellinen, E. Kyrola, S. Korpela, P. Simon, “Monitoring of ozone trend by stellar occultations: the GOMOS instrument,” Adv. Space Res. 11, 237–242 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Miles, R.

B. Sicardy, F. Ferri, F. Roques, J. Lecacheux, S. Pau, N. Brosch, Y. Nevo, W. B. Hubbard, H. J. Reitsema, C. Blanco, E. Carreira, W. Beisker, C. Bittner, H. J. Bode, M. Bruns, H. Denzau, M. Nezel, E. Riedel, H. Struckmann, G. Appleby, R. W. Forrest, I. K. M. Nicolson, A. J. Hollis, R. Miles, “The structure of Titan’s stratosphere from the 28 Sgr occultation,” Icarus 142, 357–390 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Moreau, G.

J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, C. Robert, G. Moreau, D. Huguenin, J. M. Russell, “Nocturnal vertical distribution of stratospheric O3, NO2 and NO3 from balloon measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 28,793–28,804 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nevo, Y.

B. Sicardy, F. Ferri, F. Roques, J. Lecacheux, S. Pau, N. Brosch, Y. Nevo, W. B. Hubbard, H. J. Reitsema, C. Blanco, E. Carreira, W. Beisker, C. Bittner, H. J. Bode, M. Bruns, H. Denzau, M. Nezel, E. Riedel, H. Struckmann, G. Appleby, R. W. Forrest, I. K. M. Nicolson, A. J. Hollis, R. Miles, “The structure of Titan’s stratosphere from the 28 Sgr occultation,” Icarus 142, 357–390 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nezel, M.

B. Sicardy, F. Ferri, F. Roques, J. Lecacheux, S. Pau, N. Brosch, Y. Nevo, W. B. Hubbard, H. J. Reitsema, C. Blanco, E. Carreira, W. Beisker, C. Bittner, H. J. Bode, M. Bruns, H. Denzau, M. Nezel, E. Riedel, H. Struckmann, G. Appleby, R. W. Forrest, I. K. M. Nicolson, A. J. Hollis, R. Miles, “The structure of Titan’s stratosphere from the 28 Sgr occultation,” Icarus 142, 357–390 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nicolson, I. K. M.

B. Sicardy, F. Ferri, F. Roques, J. Lecacheux, S. Pau, N. Brosch, Y. Nevo, W. B. Hubbard, H. J. Reitsema, C. Blanco, E. Carreira, W. Beisker, C. Bittner, H. J. Bode, M. Bruns, H. Denzau, M. Nezel, E. Riedel, H. Struckmann, G. Appleby, R. W. Forrest, I. K. M. Nicolson, A. J. Hollis, R. Miles, “The structure of Titan’s stratosphere from the 28 Sgr occultation,” Icarus 142, 357–390 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pakhomov, A. I.

G. M. Grechko, A. S. Gurvich, V. Kan, A. I. Pakhomov, Ya. P. Podvyaznyi, S. A. Savchenko, “Observations of atmospheric turbulence at altitudes of 20–70 km,” Trans. Russ. Acad. Sci. Earth Sci. Sec. A 357, 1382–1385 (1997).

Pakomov, A. I.

A. P. Aleksandrov, G. M. Grechko, A. S. Gurvich, V. Kan, M. Kh. Manarov, A. I. Pakomov, A. I. Romanenko, S. A. Savchenko, S. I. Serova, V. G. Titov, “Spectra of temperature variations in the stratosphere as indicated by satellite-borne observation of the twinkling of stars,” Atmos. Ocean. Phys. 26, 1–8 (1990).

Pau, S.

B. Sicardy, F. Ferri, F. Roques, J. Lecacheux, S. Pau, N. Brosch, Y. Nevo, W. B. Hubbard, H. J. Reitsema, C. Blanco, E. Carreira, W. Beisker, C. Bittner, H. J. Bode, M. Bruns, H. Denzau, M. Nezel, E. Riedel, H. Struckmann, G. Appleby, R. W. Forrest, I. K. M. Nicolson, A. J. Hollis, R. Miles, “The structure of Titan’s stratosphere from the 28 Sgr occultation,” Icarus 142, 357–390 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Paulsen, T.

A. F. Popescu, T. Paulsen, G. Ratier, G. Uguen, I. Asseman, R. Wilson, K. D. Mau, “The Global Ozone Monitoring by Occultation of Stars (GOMOS) instrument on ENVISAT: requirements, design and development status,” in Advanced and Next-Generation Satellites II, H. Fujisada, G. Calamai, M. N. Sweeting, eds., Proc. SPIE2957, 42–53 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pellinen, R.

J. L. Bertaux, G. Mégie, T. Widemann, E. Chassefière, R. Pellinen, E. Kyrola, S. Korpela, P. Simon, “Monitoring of ozone trend by stellar occultations: the GOMOS instrument,” Adv. Space Res. 11, 237–242 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Pirre, M.

J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, C. Robert, G. Moreau, D. Huguenin, J. M. Russell, “Nocturnal vertical distribution of stratospheric O3, NO2 and NO3 from balloon measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 28,793–28,804 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Podvyaznyi, Ya. P.

G. M. Grechko, A. S. Gurvich, V. Kan, A. I. Pakhomov, Ya. P. Podvyaznyi, S. A. Savchenko, “Observations of atmospheric turbulence at altitudes of 20–70 km,” Trans. Russ. Acad. Sci. Earth Sci. Sec. A 357, 1382–1385 (1997).

Popescu, A. F.

A. F. Popescu, T. Paulsen, G. Ratier, G. Uguen, I. Asseman, R. Wilson, K. D. Mau, “The Global Ozone Monitoring by Occultation of Stars (GOMOS) instrument on ENVISAT: requirements, design and development status,” in Advanced and Next-Generation Satellites II, H. Fujisada, G. Calamai, M. N. Sweeting, eds., Proc. SPIE2957, 42–53 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ratier, G.

A. F. Popescu, T. Paulsen, G. Ratier, G. Uguen, I. Asseman, R. Wilson, K. D. Mau, “The Global Ozone Monitoring by Occultation of Stars (GOMOS) instrument on ENVISAT: requirements, design and development status,” in Advanced and Next-Generation Satellites II, H. Fujisada, G. Calamai, M. N. Sweeting, eds., Proc. SPIE2957, 42–53 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Reitsema, H. J.

B. Sicardy, F. Ferri, F. Roques, J. Lecacheux, S. Pau, N. Brosch, Y. Nevo, W. B. Hubbard, H. J. Reitsema, C. Blanco, E. Carreira, W. Beisker, C. Bittner, H. J. Bode, M. Bruns, H. Denzau, M. Nezel, E. Riedel, H. Struckmann, G. Appleby, R. W. Forrest, I. K. M. Nicolson, A. J. Hollis, R. Miles, “The structure of Titan’s stratosphere from the 28 Sgr occultation,” Icarus 142, 357–390 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Renard, J.-B.

J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, C. Robert, G. Moreau, D. Huguenin, J. M. Russell, “Nocturnal vertical distribution of stratospheric O3, NO2 and NO3 from balloon measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 28,793–28,804 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Riedel, E.

B. Sicardy, F. Ferri, F. Roques, J. Lecacheux, S. Pau, N. Brosch, Y. Nevo, W. B. Hubbard, H. J. Reitsema, C. Blanco, E. Carreira, W. Beisker, C. Bittner, H. J. Bode, M. Bruns, H. Denzau, M. Nezel, E. Riedel, H. Struckmann, G. Appleby, R. W. Forrest, I. K. M. Nicolson, A. J. Hollis, R. Miles, “The structure of Titan’s stratosphere from the 28 Sgr occultation,” Icarus 142, 357–390 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Robert, C.

J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, C. Robert, G. Moreau, D. Huguenin, J. M. Russell, “Nocturnal vertical distribution of stratospheric O3, NO2 and NO3 from balloon measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 28,793–28,804 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Roble, R. G.

P. B. Hays, R. G. Roble, “Stellar spectra and atmospheric composition,” J. Atmos. Sci. 25, 1141–1153 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Romanenko, A. I.

A. P. Aleksandrov, G. M. Grechko, A. S. Gurvich, V. Kan, M. Kh. Manarov, A. I. Pakomov, A. I. Romanenko, S. A. Savchenko, S. I. Serova, V. G. Titov, “Spectra of temperature variations in the stratosphere as indicated by satellite-borne observation of the twinkling of stars,” Atmos. Ocean. Phys. 26, 1–8 (1990).

Roques, F.

B. Sicardy, F. Ferri, F. Roques, J. Lecacheux, S. Pau, N. Brosch, Y. Nevo, W. B. Hubbard, H. J. Reitsema, C. Blanco, E. Carreira, W. Beisker, C. Bittner, H. J. Bode, M. Bruns, H. Denzau, M. Nezel, E. Riedel, H. Struckmann, G. Appleby, R. W. Forrest, I. K. M. Nicolson, A. J. Hollis, R. Miles, “The structure of Titan’s stratosphere from the 28 Sgr occultation,” Icarus 142, 357–390 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Russell, J. M.

J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, C. Robert, G. Moreau, D. Huguenin, J. M. Russell, “Nocturnal vertical distribution of stratospheric O3, NO2 and NO3 from balloon measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 28,793–28,804 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rytov, S. M.

S. M. Rytov, Y. A. Kravtsov, V. I. Tatarskii, Principles of Statistical Radiophysics: Wave Propagation through Random Media, Vol. 4 (Springer-/Verlag, Berlin, 1989).

Savchenko, S. A.

G. M. Grechko, A. S. Gurvich, V. Kan, A. I. Pakhomov, Ya. P. Podvyaznyi, S. A. Savchenko, “Observations of atmospheric turbulence at altitudes of 20–70 km,” Trans. Russ. Acad. Sci. Earth Sci. Sec. A 357, 1382–1385 (1997).

A. P. Aleksandrov, G. M. Grechko, A. S. Gurvich, V. Kan, M. Kh. Manarov, A. I. Pakomov, A. I. Romanenko, S. A. Savchenko, S. I. Serova, V. G. Titov, “Spectra of temperature variations in the stratosphere as indicated by satellite-borne observation of the twinkling of stars,” Atmos. Ocean. Phys. 26, 1–8 (1990).

Serova, S. I.

A. P. Aleksandrov, G. M. Grechko, A. S. Gurvich, V. Kan, M. Kh. Manarov, A. I. Pakomov, A. I. Romanenko, S. A. Savchenko, S. I. Serova, V. G. Titov, “Spectra of temperature variations in the stratosphere as indicated by satellite-borne observation of the twinkling of stars,” Atmos. Ocean. Phys. 26, 1–8 (1990).

Sicardy, B.

B. Sicardy, F. Ferri, F. Roques, J. Lecacheux, S. Pau, N. Brosch, Y. Nevo, W. B. Hubbard, H. J. Reitsema, C. Blanco, E. Carreira, W. Beisker, C. Bittner, H. J. Bode, M. Bruns, H. Denzau, M. Nezel, E. Riedel, H. Struckmann, G. Appleby, R. W. Forrest, I. K. M. Nicolson, A. J. Hollis, R. Miles, “The structure of Titan’s stratosphere from the 28 Sgr occultation,” Icarus 142, 357–390 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sidi, C.

F. Dalaudier, A. S. Gurvich, V. Kan, C. Sidi, “Middle stratosphere temperature spectra observed with stellar scintillation and in-situ techniques,” Adv. Space Res. 14, 61–64 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Simon, P.

J. L. Bertaux, G. Mégie, T. Widemann, E. Chassefière, R. Pellinen, E. Kyrola, S. Korpela, P. Simon, “Monitoring of ozone trend by stellar occultations: the GOMOS instrument,” Adv. Space Res. 11, 237–242 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sokolovskiy, S. V.

A. S. Gurvich, S. V. Sokolovskiy, “Two-wavelength observations of stellar scintillation for autonomous satellite navigation,” Navigation 38, 359–366 (1992).

Struckmann, H.

B. Sicardy, F. Ferri, F. Roques, J. Lecacheux, S. Pau, N. Brosch, Y. Nevo, W. B. Hubbard, H. J. Reitsema, C. Blanco, E. Carreira, W. Beisker, C. Bittner, H. J. Bode, M. Bruns, H. Denzau, M. Nezel, E. Riedel, H. Struckmann, G. Appleby, R. W. Forrest, I. K. M. Nicolson, A. J. Hollis, R. Miles, “The structure of Titan’s stratosphere from the 28 Sgr occultation,” Icarus 142, 357–390 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tatarskii, V. I.

S. M. Rytov, Y. A. Kravtsov, V. I. Tatarskii, Principles of Statistical Radiophysics: Wave Propagation through Random Media, Vol. 4 (Springer-/Verlag, Berlin, 1989).

Titov, V. G.

A. P. Aleksandrov, G. M. Grechko, A. S. Gurvich, V. Kan, M. Kh. Manarov, A. I. Pakomov, A. I. Romanenko, S. A. Savchenko, S. I. Serova, V. G. Titov, “Spectra of temperature variations in the stratosphere as indicated by satellite-borne observation of the twinkling of stars,” Atmos. Ocean. Phys. 26, 1–8 (1990).

Uguen, G.

A. F. Popescu, T. Paulsen, G. Ratier, G. Uguen, I. Asseman, R. Wilson, K. D. Mau, “The Global Ozone Monitoring by Occultation of Stars (GOMOS) instrument on ENVISAT: requirements, design and development status,” in Advanced and Next-Generation Satellites II, H. Fujisada, G. Calamai, M. N. Sweeting, eds., Proc. SPIE2957, 42–53 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Widemann, T.

J. L. Bertaux, G. Mégie, T. Widemann, E. Chassefière, R. Pellinen, E. Kyrola, S. Korpela, P. Simon, “Monitoring of ozone trend by stellar occultations: the GOMOS instrument,” Adv. Space Res. 11, 237–242 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, R.

A. F. Popescu, T. Paulsen, G. Ratier, G. Uguen, I. Asseman, R. Wilson, K. D. Mau, “The Global Ozone Monitoring by Occultation of Stars (GOMOS) instrument on ENVISAT: requirements, design and development status,” in Advanced and Next-Generation Satellites II, H. Fujisada, G. Calamai, M. N. Sweeting, eds., Proc. SPIE2957, 42–53 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Space Res. (2)

J. L. Bertaux, G. Mégie, T. Widemann, E. Chassefière, R. Pellinen, E. Kyrola, S. Korpela, P. Simon, “Monitoring of ozone trend by stellar occultations: the GOMOS instrument,” Adv. Space Res. 11, 237–242 (1991).
[CrossRef]

F. Dalaudier, A. S. Gurvich, V. Kan, C. Sidi, “Middle stratosphere temperature spectra observed with stellar scintillation and in-situ techniques,” Adv. Space Res. 14, 61–64 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Atmos. Ocean. Phys. (2)

A. P. Aleksandrov, G. M. Grechko, A. S. Gurvich, V. Kan, M. Kh. Manarov, A. I. Pakomov, A. I. Romanenko, S. A. Savchenko, S. I. Serova, V. G. Titov, “Spectra of temperature variations in the stratosphere as indicated by satellite-borne observation of the twinkling of stars,” Atmos. Ocean. Phys. 26, 1–8 (1990).

A. S. Gurvich, V. Kan, “Radio wave fluctuations in satellite–atmosphere–satellite links: estimates from stellar scintillation observations and their comparison with experimental data,” Atmos. Ocean. Phys. 33, 284–292 (1997).

Icarus (1)

B. Sicardy, F. Ferri, F. Roques, J. Lecacheux, S. Pau, N. Brosch, Y. Nevo, W. B. Hubbard, H. J. Reitsema, C. Blanco, E. Carreira, W. Beisker, C. Bittner, H. J. Bode, M. Bruns, H. Denzau, M. Nezel, E. Riedel, H. Struckmann, G. Appleby, R. W. Forrest, I. K. M. Nicolson, A. J. Hollis, R. Miles, “The structure of Titan’s stratosphere from the 28 Sgr occultation,” Icarus 142, 357–390 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Infrared Phys. Technol. (1)

D. Huguenin, “Design and performance of stratospheric balloon-borne platforms for infrared astrophysical observations,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 35, 195–202 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci. (1)

P. B. Hays, R. G. Roble, “Stellar spectra and atmospheric composition,” J. Atmos. Sci. 25, 1141–1153 (1968).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, C. Robert, G. Moreau, D. Huguenin, J. M. Russell, “Nocturnal vertical distribution of stratospheric O3, NO2 and NO3 from balloon measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 28,793–28,804 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Metrologia (1)

B. Edlen, “The refractive index of air,” Metrologia 2, 71–80 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Navigation (1)

A. S. Gurvich, S. V. Sokolovskiy, “Two-wavelength observations of stellar scintillation for autonomous satellite navigation,” Navigation 38, 359–366 (1992).

Trans. Russ. Acad. Sci. Earth Sci. Sec. A (1)

G. M. Grechko, A. S. Gurvich, V. Kan, A. I. Pakhomov, Ya. P. Podvyaznyi, S. A. Savchenko, “Observations of atmospheric turbulence at altitudes of 20–70 km,” Trans. Russ. Acad. Sci. Earth Sci. Sec. A 357, 1382–1385 (1997).

Other (2)

A. F. Popescu, T. Paulsen, G. Ratier, G. Uguen, I. Asseman, R. Wilson, K. D. Mau, “The Global Ozone Monitoring by Occultation of Stars (GOMOS) instrument on ENVISAT: requirements, design and development status,” in Advanced and Next-Generation Satellites II, H. Fujisada, G. Calamai, M. N. Sweeting, eds., Proc. SPIE2957, 42–53 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Rytov, Y. A. Kravtsov, V. I. Tatarskii, Principles of Statistical Radiophysics: Wave Propagation through Random Media, Vol. 4 (Springer-/Verlag, Berlin, 1989).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Evolution of the flux (in arbitrary units) of the 14 spectral channels for the Alnilam occultation. The elevation figures on the x axis do not take the refraction into account. Shaded bands correspond to regions shown in Fig. 2. The evolution of the signal level comes from the shape of the star spectrum, the CCD response, and the Rayleigh and atmospheric ozone attenuation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Intensity maps for selected sections of Alnilam observations. The numbers at right give the elevation intervals. The maps with negative elevations correspond to tangent altitudes of 28.5, 25, 18, and 14.5 km, respectively. The linear gray scale used is darker for brighter intensities (like a negative film), and the mapped relative intensities range from 0 (white) to 5 (black).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Sequence of propagation of flux enhancements (after normalization) from red to UV. The Alnilam elevation is -3.5°; the gray scale ranges from 0 (white) to 10 (black). The variation of the relative intensity is shown on the right-hand axis for channel 8 (575–600 nm).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Cross correlation between the 425–450-nm (so-called blue channel) and the 725–750-nm (so-called red channel) bands for Alnilam occultation. The time delay corresponds to the propagation of the chromatic scintillation from the red to the blue domain (see Fig. 3). The drop in the cross-correlation value observed for elevation near 0.6°, marked with an arrow, corresponds to the loss of the signal for delays of 75–100 ms caused by the operation of the mechanical shutter.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Normalized Refractivity Width (multiplied by 1000) of the 14 Channelsa

Metrics