Abstract

The absorption spectrum of α-pinene gas, a biogenic volatile organic compound, was directly measured with a pulsed mid-infrared laser. The maximum absorption wavelength was found to be ∼3.42 µm, and an absorption cross section of 4.8 × 10-23 m2 molec-1 was obtained. A simple theoretical calculation with the measured spectral data showed that several hundreds of parts in 1012 (ppt) of α-pinene gas in forest–mountain areas over a range of ∼10 km were detectable by a long-path-averaged hard-target absorption lidar. Requirements for system development were also discussed.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. D. Helmig, L. F. Klinger, A. Guenther, L. Vierling, C. Geron, P. Zimmerman, “Biogenic volatile organic compound emission (BVOCs). I. Identification from three continental sites in the U.S.,” Chemosphere 38, 2163–2187 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. F. Fehsenfeld, J. Calvert, R. Fall, P. Goldan, A. B. Guenther, C. N. Hewitt, B. Lamb, L. Shaw, M. Trainer, H. Wesyberg, P. Zimmerman, “Emissions of volatile organic compounds from vegetation and the implications for atmospheric chemistry,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 6, 389–430 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Laurila, R. Steinbrecher, J. Kesselmeier, R. Janson, S. Kellomaki, “Biogenic VOC emissions and photochemistry in the boreal regions of Europe,” presented at the Seventh European Symposium on Physica-Chemical Behaviour of Atmospheric Pollutants, 2–4 October 1996, Venice, Italy.
  4. J. Rinne, H. Hakola, T. Laurila, U. Rannik, “Canopy scale monoterpene emissions of Pinus sylvestris dominated forests,” Atmos. Environ. 34, 1099–1107 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Douard, R. Bacis, P. Rambaldi, A. Ross, J. P. Wolf, “Fourier-transfer lidar,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2140–2142 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. R. A. Baumgartner, R. L. Byer, “Continuously tunable IR lidar with applications to remote measurements of SO2 and CH4,” Appl. Opt. 17, 3555–3561 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. J. T. Milton, T. D. Gardiner, F. Molero, J. Galech, “Injection-seeded optical parametric oscillator for range-resolved DIAL measurements of atmospheric methane,” Opt. Commun. 142, 153–160 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. Ehret, K. P. Hoinka, J. Stein, A. Fix, C. Kiemle, G. Poberaj, “Low stratospheric water vapor measured by an airborne DIAL,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31351–31359 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. Hakola, T. Laurila, J. Rinne, K. Puhto, “The ambient concentrations of biogenic hydrocarbons at a northern European, boreal site,” Atmos. Environ. 34, 4971–4982 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Rinne, H. Hakola, T. Laurila, “Vertical fluxes of monoterpenes above a Scots pine stand in the boreal vegetation zone,” Phys. Chem. Earth B 24, 711–715 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. Weibring, J. N. Smith, H. Edner, S. Svanberg, “Differential absorption lidar system based on a frequency agile optical parameter oscillator for multi-component chemical analysis of gas mixtures,” presented at the 20th International Laser Radar Conference, 10–14 July 2000, Vichy, France.
  12. D. K. Killinger, N. Menyuk, “Remote probing of the atmosphere using a CO2 DIAL system,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1917–1929 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  13. E. J. McCartney, Absorption and Emission by Atmospheric Gases (Wiley, New York, 1983), p. 286.
  14. M. H. Lee, J. F. Holmes, “Effect of the turbulent atmosphere on the autocovariance function for a speckle field generated by a laser beam with random pointing error,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 559–565 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  15. N. Sugimoto, N. Koga, I. Matsui, Y. Sasano, A. Minato, K. Ozawa, Y. Saito, A. Nomura, T. Aoki, T. Itabe, H. Munimori, I. Murata, H. Fukunishi, “Earth–satellite–Earth laser long-path absorption experiment using the Retroreflector in Space (RIS) on the Advanced Earth Observing Satellite (ADEOS),” J. Opt. A 1, 201–209 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2000 (2)

J. Rinne, H. Hakola, T. Laurila, U. Rannik, “Canopy scale monoterpene emissions of Pinus sylvestris dominated forests,” Atmos. Environ. 34, 1099–1107 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Hakola, T. Laurila, J. Rinne, K. Puhto, “The ambient concentrations of biogenic hydrocarbons at a northern European, boreal site,” Atmos. Environ. 34, 4971–4982 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (4)

J. Rinne, H. Hakola, T. Laurila, “Vertical fluxes of monoterpenes above a Scots pine stand in the boreal vegetation zone,” Phys. Chem. Earth B 24, 711–715 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Helmig, L. F. Klinger, A. Guenther, L. Vierling, C. Geron, P. Zimmerman, “Biogenic volatile organic compound emission (BVOCs). I. Identification from three continental sites in the U.S.,” Chemosphere 38, 2163–2187 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Ehret, K. P. Hoinka, J. Stein, A. Fix, C. Kiemle, G. Poberaj, “Low stratospheric water vapor measured by an airborne DIAL,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31351–31359 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. Sugimoto, N. Koga, I. Matsui, Y. Sasano, A. Minato, K. Ozawa, Y. Saito, A. Nomura, T. Aoki, T. Itabe, H. Munimori, I. Murata, H. Fukunishi, “Earth–satellite–Earth laser long-path absorption experiment using the Retroreflector in Space (RIS) on the Advanced Earth Observing Satellite (ADEOS),” J. Opt. A 1, 201–209 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

M. J. T. Milton, T. D. Gardiner, F. Molero, J. Galech, “Injection-seeded optical parametric oscillator for range-resolved DIAL measurements of atmospheric methane,” Opt. Commun. 142, 153–160 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1992 (1)

F. Fehsenfeld, J. Calvert, R. Fall, P. Goldan, A. B. Guenther, C. N. Hewitt, B. Lamb, L. Shaw, M. Trainer, H. Wesyberg, P. Zimmerman, “Emissions of volatile organic compounds from vegetation and the implications for atmospheric chemistry,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 6, 389–430 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1981 (2)

1978 (1)

Aoki, T.

N. Sugimoto, N. Koga, I. Matsui, Y. Sasano, A. Minato, K. Ozawa, Y. Saito, A. Nomura, T. Aoki, T. Itabe, H. Munimori, I. Murata, H. Fukunishi, “Earth–satellite–Earth laser long-path absorption experiment using the Retroreflector in Space (RIS) on the Advanced Earth Observing Satellite (ADEOS),” J. Opt. A 1, 201–209 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bacis, R.

Baumgartner, R. A.

Byer, R. L.

Calvert, J.

F. Fehsenfeld, J. Calvert, R. Fall, P. Goldan, A. B. Guenther, C. N. Hewitt, B. Lamb, L. Shaw, M. Trainer, H. Wesyberg, P. Zimmerman, “Emissions of volatile organic compounds from vegetation and the implications for atmospheric chemistry,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 6, 389–430 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Douard, M.

Edner, H.

P. Weibring, J. N. Smith, H. Edner, S. Svanberg, “Differential absorption lidar system based on a frequency agile optical parameter oscillator for multi-component chemical analysis of gas mixtures,” presented at the 20th International Laser Radar Conference, 10–14 July 2000, Vichy, France.

Ehret, G.

G. Ehret, K. P. Hoinka, J. Stein, A. Fix, C. Kiemle, G. Poberaj, “Low stratospheric water vapor measured by an airborne DIAL,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31351–31359 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fall, R.

F. Fehsenfeld, J. Calvert, R. Fall, P. Goldan, A. B. Guenther, C. N. Hewitt, B. Lamb, L. Shaw, M. Trainer, H. Wesyberg, P. Zimmerman, “Emissions of volatile organic compounds from vegetation and the implications for atmospheric chemistry,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 6, 389–430 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Fehsenfeld, F.

F. Fehsenfeld, J. Calvert, R. Fall, P. Goldan, A. B. Guenther, C. N. Hewitt, B. Lamb, L. Shaw, M. Trainer, H. Wesyberg, P. Zimmerman, “Emissions of volatile organic compounds from vegetation and the implications for atmospheric chemistry,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 6, 389–430 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Fix, A.

G. Ehret, K. P. Hoinka, J. Stein, A. Fix, C. Kiemle, G. Poberaj, “Low stratospheric water vapor measured by an airborne DIAL,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31351–31359 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fukunishi, H.

N. Sugimoto, N. Koga, I. Matsui, Y. Sasano, A. Minato, K. Ozawa, Y. Saito, A. Nomura, T. Aoki, T. Itabe, H. Munimori, I. Murata, H. Fukunishi, “Earth–satellite–Earth laser long-path absorption experiment using the Retroreflector in Space (RIS) on the Advanced Earth Observing Satellite (ADEOS),” J. Opt. A 1, 201–209 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Galech, J.

M. J. T. Milton, T. D. Gardiner, F. Molero, J. Galech, “Injection-seeded optical parametric oscillator for range-resolved DIAL measurements of atmospheric methane,” Opt. Commun. 142, 153–160 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gardiner, T. D.

M. J. T. Milton, T. D. Gardiner, F. Molero, J. Galech, “Injection-seeded optical parametric oscillator for range-resolved DIAL measurements of atmospheric methane,” Opt. Commun. 142, 153–160 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Geron, C.

D. Helmig, L. F. Klinger, A. Guenther, L. Vierling, C. Geron, P. Zimmerman, “Biogenic volatile organic compound emission (BVOCs). I. Identification from three continental sites in the U.S.,” Chemosphere 38, 2163–2187 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goldan, P.

F. Fehsenfeld, J. Calvert, R. Fall, P. Goldan, A. B. Guenther, C. N. Hewitt, B. Lamb, L. Shaw, M. Trainer, H. Wesyberg, P. Zimmerman, “Emissions of volatile organic compounds from vegetation and the implications for atmospheric chemistry,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 6, 389–430 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Guenther, A.

D. Helmig, L. F. Klinger, A. Guenther, L. Vierling, C. Geron, P. Zimmerman, “Biogenic volatile organic compound emission (BVOCs). I. Identification from three continental sites in the U.S.,” Chemosphere 38, 2163–2187 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guenther, A. B.

F. Fehsenfeld, J. Calvert, R. Fall, P. Goldan, A. B. Guenther, C. N. Hewitt, B. Lamb, L. Shaw, M. Trainer, H. Wesyberg, P. Zimmerman, “Emissions of volatile organic compounds from vegetation and the implications for atmospheric chemistry,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 6, 389–430 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hakola, H.

J. Rinne, H. Hakola, T. Laurila, U. Rannik, “Canopy scale monoterpene emissions of Pinus sylvestris dominated forests,” Atmos. Environ. 34, 1099–1107 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Hakola, T. Laurila, J. Rinne, K. Puhto, “The ambient concentrations of biogenic hydrocarbons at a northern European, boreal site,” Atmos. Environ. 34, 4971–4982 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Rinne, H. Hakola, T. Laurila, “Vertical fluxes of monoterpenes above a Scots pine stand in the boreal vegetation zone,” Phys. Chem. Earth B 24, 711–715 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Helmig, D.

D. Helmig, L. F. Klinger, A. Guenther, L. Vierling, C. Geron, P. Zimmerman, “Biogenic volatile organic compound emission (BVOCs). I. Identification from three continental sites in the U.S.,” Chemosphere 38, 2163–2187 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hewitt, C. N.

F. Fehsenfeld, J. Calvert, R. Fall, P. Goldan, A. B. Guenther, C. N. Hewitt, B. Lamb, L. Shaw, M. Trainer, H. Wesyberg, P. Zimmerman, “Emissions of volatile organic compounds from vegetation and the implications for atmospheric chemistry,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 6, 389–430 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hoinka, K. P.

G. Ehret, K. P. Hoinka, J. Stein, A. Fix, C. Kiemle, G. Poberaj, “Low stratospheric water vapor measured by an airborne DIAL,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31351–31359 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Holmes, J. F.

Itabe, T.

N. Sugimoto, N. Koga, I. Matsui, Y. Sasano, A. Minato, K. Ozawa, Y. Saito, A. Nomura, T. Aoki, T. Itabe, H. Munimori, I. Murata, H. Fukunishi, “Earth–satellite–Earth laser long-path absorption experiment using the Retroreflector in Space (RIS) on the Advanced Earth Observing Satellite (ADEOS),” J. Opt. A 1, 201–209 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Janson, R.

T. Laurila, R. Steinbrecher, J. Kesselmeier, R. Janson, S. Kellomaki, “Biogenic VOC emissions and photochemistry in the boreal regions of Europe,” presented at the Seventh European Symposium on Physica-Chemical Behaviour of Atmospheric Pollutants, 2–4 October 1996, Venice, Italy.

Kellomaki, S.

T. Laurila, R. Steinbrecher, J. Kesselmeier, R. Janson, S. Kellomaki, “Biogenic VOC emissions and photochemistry in the boreal regions of Europe,” presented at the Seventh European Symposium on Physica-Chemical Behaviour of Atmospheric Pollutants, 2–4 October 1996, Venice, Italy.

Kesselmeier, J.

T. Laurila, R. Steinbrecher, J. Kesselmeier, R. Janson, S. Kellomaki, “Biogenic VOC emissions and photochemistry in the boreal regions of Europe,” presented at the Seventh European Symposium on Physica-Chemical Behaviour of Atmospheric Pollutants, 2–4 October 1996, Venice, Italy.

Kiemle, C.

G. Ehret, K. P. Hoinka, J. Stein, A. Fix, C. Kiemle, G. Poberaj, “Low stratospheric water vapor measured by an airborne DIAL,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31351–31359 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Killinger, D. K.

D. K. Killinger, N. Menyuk, “Remote probing of the atmosphere using a CO2 DIAL system,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1917–1929 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Klinger, L. F.

D. Helmig, L. F. Klinger, A. Guenther, L. Vierling, C. Geron, P. Zimmerman, “Biogenic volatile organic compound emission (BVOCs). I. Identification from three continental sites in the U.S.,” Chemosphere 38, 2163–2187 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koga, N.

N. Sugimoto, N. Koga, I. Matsui, Y. Sasano, A. Minato, K. Ozawa, Y. Saito, A. Nomura, T. Aoki, T. Itabe, H. Munimori, I. Murata, H. Fukunishi, “Earth–satellite–Earth laser long-path absorption experiment using the Retroreflector in Space (RIS) on the Advanced Earth Observing Satellite (ADEOS),” J. Opt. A 1, 201–209 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lamb, B.

F. Fehsenfeld, J. Calvert, R. Fall, P. Goldan, A. B. Guenther, C. N. Hewitt, B. Lamb, L. Shaw, M. Trainer, H. Wesyberg, P. Zimmerman, “Emissions of volatile organic compounds from vegetation and the implications for atmospheric chemistry,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 6, 389–430 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Laurila, T.

J. Rinne, H. Hakola, T. Laurila, U. Rannik, “Canopy scale monoterpene emissions of Pinus sylvestris dominated forests,” Atmos. Environ. 34, 1099–1107 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Hakola, T. Laurila, J. Rinne, K. Puhto, “The ambient concentrations of biogenic hydrocarbons at a northern European, boreal site,” Atmos. Environ. 34, 4971–4982 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Rinne, H. Hakola, T. Laurila, “Vertical fluxes of monoterpenes above a Scots pine stand in the boreal vegetation zone,” Phys. Chem. Earth B 24, 711–715 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Laurila, R. Steinbrecher, J. Kesselmeier, R. Janson, S. Kellomaki, “Biogenic VOC emissions and photochemistry in the boreal regions of Europe,” presented at the Seventh European Symposium on Physica-Chemical Behaviour of Atmospheric Pollutants, 2–4 October 1996, Venice, Italy.

Lee, M. H.

Matsui, I.

N. Sugimoto, N. Koga, I. Matsui, Y. Sasano, A. Minato, K. Ozawa, Y. Saito, A. Nomura, T. Aoki, T. Itabe, H. Munimori, I. Murata, H. Fukunishi, “Earth–satellite–Earth laser long-path absorption experiment using the Retroreflector in Space (RIS) on the Advanced Earth Observing Satellite (ADEOS),” J. Opt. A 1, 201–209 (1999).
[CrossRef]

McCartney, E. J.

E. J. McCartney, Absorption and Emission by Atmospheric Gases (Wiley, New York, 1983), p. 286.

Menyuk, N.

D. K. Killinger, N. Menyuk, “Remote probing of the atmosphere using a CO2 DIAL system,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1917–1929 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Milton, M. J. T.

M. J. T. Milton, T. D. Gardiner, F. Molero, J. Galech, “Injection-seeded optical parametric oscillator for range-resolved DIAL measurements of atmospheric methane,” Opt. Commun. 142, 153–160 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Minato, A.

N. Sugimoto, N. Koga, I. Matsui, Y. Sasano, A. Minato, K. Ozawa, Y. Saito, A. Nomura, T. Aoki, T. Itabe, H. Munimori, I. Murata, H. Fukunishi, “Earth–satellite–Earth laser long-path absorption experiment using the Retroreflector in Space (RIS) on the Advanced Earth Observing Satellite (ADEOS),” J. Opt. A 1, 201–209 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Molero, F.

M. J. T. Milton, T. D. Gardiner, F. Molero, J. Galech, “Injection-seeded optical parametric oscillator for range-resolved DIAL measurements of atmospheric methane,” Opt. Commun. 142, 153–160 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Munimori, H.

N. Sugimoto, N. Koga, I. Matsui, Y. Sasano, A. Minato, K. Ozawa, Y. Saito, A. Nomura, T. Aoki, T. Itabe, H. Munimori, I. Murata, H. Fukunishi, “Earth–satellite–Earth laser long-path absorption experiment using the Retroreflector in Space (RIS) on the Advanced Earth Observing Satellite (ADEOS),” J. Opt. A 1, 201–209 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Murata, I.

N. Sugimoto, N. Koga, I. Matsui, Y. Sasano, A. Minato, K. Ozawa, Y. Saito, A. Nomura, T. Aoki, T. Itabe, H. Munimori, I. Murata, H. Fukunishi, “Earth–satellite–Earth laser long-path absorption experiment using the Retroreflector in Space (RIS) on the Advanced Earth Observing Satellite (ADEOS),” J. Opt. A 1, 201–209 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nomura, A.

N. Sugimoto, N. Koga, I. Matsui, Y. Sasano, A. Minato, K. Ozawa, Y. Saito, A. Nomura, T. Aoki, T. Itabe, H. Munimori, I. Murata, H. Fukunishi, “Earth–satellite–Earth laser long-path absorption experiment using the Retroreflector in Space (RIS) on the Advanced Earth Observing Satellite (ADEOS),” J. Opt. A 1, 201–209 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ozawa, K.

N. Sugimoto, N. Koga, I. Matsui, Y. Sasano, A. Minato, K. Ozawa, Y. Saito, A. Nomura, T. Aoki, T. Itabe, H. Munimori, I. Murata, H. Fukunishi, “Earth–satellite–Earth laser long-path absorption experiment using the Retroreflector in Space (RIS) on the Advanced Earth Observing Satellite (ADEOS),” J. Opt. A 1, 201–209 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Poberaj, G.

G. Ehret, K. P. Hoinka, J. Stein, A. Fix, C. Kiemle, G. Poberaj, “Low stratospheric water vapor measured by an airborne DIAL,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31351–31359 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Puhto, K.

H. Hakola, T. Laurila, J. Rinne, K. Puhto, “The ambient concentrations of biogenic hydrocarbons at a northern European, boreal site,” Atmos. Environ. 34, 4971–4982 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rambaldi, P.

Rannik, U.

J. Rinne, H. Hakola, T. Laurila, U. Rannik, “Canopy scale monoterpene emissions of Pinus sylvestris dominated forests,” Atmos. Environ. 34, 1099–1107 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rinne, J.

J. Rinne, H. Hakola, T. Laurila, U. Rannik, “Canopy scale monoterpene emissions of Pinus sylvestris dominated forests,” Atmos. Environ. 34, 1099–1107 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Hakola, T. Laurila, J. Rinne, K. Puhto, “The ambient concentrations of biogenic hydrocarbons at a northern European, boreal site,” Atmos. Environ. 34, 4971–4982 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Rinne, H. Hakola, T. Laurila, “Vertical fluxes of monoterpenes above a Scots pine stand in the boreal vegetation zone,” Phys. Chem. Earth B 24, 711–715 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ross, A.

Saito, Y.

N. Sugimoto, N. Koga, I. Matsui, Y. Sasano, A. Minato, K. Ozawa, Y. Saito, A. Nomura, T. Aoki, T. Itabe, H. Munimori, I. Murata, H. Fukunishi, “Earth–satellite–Earth laser long-path absorption experiment using the Retroreflector in Space (RIS) on the Advanced Earth Observing Satellite (ADEOS),” J. Opt. A 1, 201–209 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sasano, Y.

N. Sugimoto, N. Koga, I. Matsui, Y. Sasano, A. Minato, K. Ozawa, Y. Saito, A. Nomura, T. Aoki, T. Itabe, H. Munimori, I. Murata, H. Fukunishi, “Earth–satellite–Earth laser long-path absorption experiment using the Retroreflector in Space (RIS) on the Advanced Earth Observing Satellite (ADEOS),” J. Opt. A 1, 201–209 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, L.

F. Fehsenfeld, J. Calvert, R. Fall, P. Goldan, A. B. Guenther, C. N. Hewitt, B. Lamb, L. Shaw, M. Trainer, H. Wesyberg, P. Zimmerman, “Emissions of volatile organic compounds from vegetation and the implications for atmospheric chemistry,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 6, 389–430 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Smith, J. N.

P. Weibring, J. N. Smith, H. Edner, S. Svanberg, “Differential absorption lidar system based on a frequency agile optical parameter oscillator for multi-component chemical analysis of gas mixtures,” presented at the 20th International Laser Radar Conference, 10–14 July 2000, Vichy, France.

Stein, J.

G. Ehret, K. P. Hoinka, J. Stein, A. Fix, C. Kiemle, G. Poberaj, “Low stratospheric water vapor measured by an airborne DIAL,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31351–31359 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Steinbrecher, R.

T. Laurila, R. Steinbrecher, J. Kesselmeier, R. Janson, S. Kellomaki, “Biogenic VOC emissions and photochemistry in the boreal regions of Europe,” presented at the Seventh European Symposium on Physica-Chemical Behaviour of Atmospheric Pollutants, 2–4 October 1996, Venice, Italy.

Sugimoto, N.

N. Sugimoto, N. Koga, I. Matsui, Y. Sasano, A. Minato, K. Ozawa, Y. Saito, A. Nomura, T. Aoki, T. Itabe, H. Munimori, I. Murata, H. Fukunishi, “Earth–satellite–Earth laser long-path absorption experiment using the Retroreflector in Space (RIS) on the Advanced Earth Observing Satellite (ADEOS),” J. Opt. A 1, 201–209 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Svanberg, S.

P. Weibring, J. N. Smith, H. Edner, S. Svanberg, “Differential absorption lidar system based on a frequency agile optical parameter oscillator for multi-component chemical analysis of gas mixtures,” presented at the 20th International Laser Radar Conference, 10–14 July 2000, Vichy, France.

Trainer, M.

F. Fehsenfeld, J. Calvert, R. Fall, P. Goldan, A. B. Guenther, C. N. Hewitt, B. Lamb, L. Shaw, M. Trainer, H. Wesyberg, P. Zimmerman, “Emissions of volatile organic compounds from vegetation and the implications for atmospheric chemistry,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 6, 389–430 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Vierling, L.

D. Helmig, L. F. Klinger, A. Guenther, L. Vierling, C. Geron, P. Zimmerman, “Biogenic volatile organic compound emission (BVOCs). I. Identification from three continental sites in the U.S.,” Chemosphere 38, 2163–2187 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weibring, P.

P. Weibring, J. N. Smith, H. Edner, S. Svanberg, “Differential absorption lidar system based on a frequency agile optical parameter oscillator for multi-component chemical analysis of gas mixtures,” presented at the 20th International Laser Radar Conference, 10–14 July 2000, Vichy, France.

Wesyberg, H.

F. Fehsenfeld, J. Calvert, R. Fall, P. Goldan, A. B. Guenther, C. N. Hewitt, B. Lamb, L. Shaw, M. Trainer, H. Wesyberg, P. Zimmerman, “Emissions of volatile organic compounds from vegetation and the implications for atmospheric chemistry,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 6, 389–430 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, J. P.

Zimmerman, P.

D. Helmig, L. F. Klinger, A. Guenther, L. Vierling, C. Geron, P. Zimmerman, “Biogenic volatile organic compound emission (BVOCs). I. Identification from three continental sites in the U.S.,” Chemosphere 38, 2163–2187 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Fehsenfeld, J. Calvert, R. Fall, P. Goldan, A. B. Guenther, C. N. Hewitt, B. Lamb, L. Shaw, M. Trainer, H. Wesyberg, P. Zimmerman, “Emissions of volatile organic compounds from vegetation and the implications for atmospheric chemistry,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 6, 389–430 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Atmos. Environ. (2)

H. Hakola, T. Laurila, J. Rinne, K. Puhto, “The ambient concentrations of biogenic hydrocarbons at a northern European, boreal site,” Atmos. Environ. 34, 4971–4982 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Rinne, H. Hakola, T. Laurila, U. Rannik, “Canopy scale monoterpene emissions of Pinus sylvestris dominated forests,” Atmos. Environ. 34, 1099–1107 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chemosphere (1)

D. Helmig, L. F. Klinger, A. Guenther, L. Vierling, C. Geron, P. Zimmerman, “Biogenic volatile organic compound emission (BVOCs). I. Identification from three continental sites in the U.S.,” Chemosphere 38, 2163–2187 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Global Biogeochem. Cycles (1)

F. Fehsenfeld, J. Calvert, R. Fall, P. Goldan, A. B. Guenther, C. N. Hewitt, B. Lamb, L. Shaw, M. Trainer, H. Wesyberg, P. Zimmerman, “Emissions of volatile organic compounds from vegetation and the implications for atmospheric chemistry,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 6, 389–430 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. K. Killinger, N. Menyuk, “Remote probing of the atmosphere using a CO2 DIAL system,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1917–1929 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

G. Ehret, K. P. Hoinka, J. Stein, A. Fix, C. Kiemle, G. Poberaj, “Low stratospheric water vapor measured by an airborne DIAL,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31351–31359 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A (1)

N. Sugimoto, N. Koga, I. Matsui, Y. Sasano, A. Minato, K. Ozawa, Y. Saito, A. Nomura, T. Aoki, T. Itabe, H. Munimori, I. Murata, H. Fukunishi, “Earth–satellite–Earth laser long-path absorption experiment using the Retroreflector in Space (RIS) on the Advanced Earth Observing Satellite (ADEOS),” J. Opt. A 1, 201–209 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. J. T. Milton, T. D. Gardiner, F. Molero, J. Galech, “Injection-seeded optical parametric oscillator for range-resolved DIAL measurements of atmospheric methane,” Opt. Commun. 142, 153–160 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Chem. Earth B (1)

J. Rinne, H. Hakola, T. Laurila, “Vertical fluxes of monoterpenes above a Scots pine stand in the boreal vegetation zone,” Phys. Chem. Earth B 24, 711–715 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

P. Weibring, J. N. Smith, H. Edner, S. Svanberg, “Differential absorption lidar system based on a frequency agile optical parameter oscillator for multi-component chemical analysis of gas mixtures,” presented at the 20th International Laser Radar Conference, 10–14 July 2000, Vichy, France.

T. Laurila, R. Steinbrecher, J. Kesselmeier, R. Janson, S. Kellomaki, “Biogenic VOC emissions and photochemistry in the boreal regions of Europe,” presented at the Seventh European Symposium on Physica-Chemical Behaviour of Atmospheric Pollutants, 2–4 October 1996, Venice, Italy.

E. J. McCartney, Absorption and Emission by Atmospheric Gases (Wiley, New York, 1983), p. 286.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Transmittance spectrum of α-pinene gas.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dependence of the transmittance on pressure in α-pinene gas at the maximum absorption wavelength. A, vacuum. Total cell pressure of 1.0 × 105 Pa (1 atm) containing B, 1.3 × 102 Pa of α-pinene and C, 3.3 Pa of α-pinene.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Minimum detectable concentration of long-path-averaged lidar detection of α-pinene gas as a function of range estimated by NEP limited detection and differential-return ΔP/ P′ limited detection.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

NminNEPπR2KρAPtσ exp-2βR,
NminΔP/P2σR,

Metrics