Abstract

The holographic properties of dichromated gelatin (DCG) sensitized with various xanthene dyes were studied, and results are reported. The sensitivity of dyed DCG in the green part of the spectrum compared with that of pure DCG (215 mJ/cm2) was significantly improved by addition of Rhodamine 6G (140 mJ/cm2) or Erythrosin B (90 mJ/cm2). Diffraction gratings were recorded with a He–Ne laser at 543.5 nm. The maximum diffraction efficiency was found to be 32% at normal incidence of the readout beam; it was 80% at the Bragg angle.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. B. J. Chang, C. D. Leonard, “Dichromated gelatin for the fabrication of holographic optical elements,” Appl. Opt. 18, 2407–2417 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  3. T. Mizuno, T. Goto, M. Goto, K. Matsui, T. Kubota, “Methylene Blue sensitized dichromated gelatin holograms: influence of the moisture on their exposure and diffraction efficiency,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4757–4760 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. Sun, J. Wang, J. Zhao, M. Li, “Methylene-Blue-sensitized gelatin holograms,” Appl. Opt. 35, 5776–5779 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. T. Kubota, T. Ose, “Methods of increasing the sensitivity of Methylene Blue sensitized dichromated gelatin,” Appl. Opt. 18, 2538–2539 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. A. Myers, T. L. Helg, T. H. Barnes, A. D. Woolhouse, T. G. Haskell, “Characterization of dye-doped media for real-time holography,” Opt. Commun. 137, 223–228 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. Manivannan, R. Changkakoti, R. A. Lessard, G. Maihot, M. Bolte, “Dichromated poly(vinyl alchohol)–xanthene dye systems: holographic characterization and electron spin resonance spectroscopic study,” in Photopolymers and Applications in Holography, Optical Data Storage, Optical Sensors, and Interconnects, R. A. Lessard, ed., Proc. SPIE2042, 87–97 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. S. Pennington, J. S. Harper, “New phototechnology for recording phase holograms and similar information in hardened gelatin,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 80–84 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  9. L. Stroebel, J. Compton, I. Current, R. Zaria, Photographic Materials and Processes (Focal, Boston, Mass., 1985).
  10. S. Sjöllender, “Dichromated gelatin and light sensitivity,” J. Imaging Sci. 30, 151–154 (1986).
  11. C. Lafond, C. Pizzocaro, R. A. Lessard, M. Bolte, “Primary photochemical process in films of dichromated gelatin: a quantitative approach,” Opt. Eng. 39, 610–615 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  12. T. Keinonen, P. Riihola, K. Huttu, S. Parkkonen, “Dye films for optical demonstrations in the undergraduate laboratory,” Opt. Mater. 11, 79–86 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Maeda, Laser Dyes (Academic, London, 1984), p. 22.
  14. K. P. B. Moosad, T. M. A. Rasheed, V. P. N. Nampoori, “Optical phase conjugation in dyes embedded in polymer films,” Opt. Eng. 29, 47–51 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. Graube, C. Park, “Dye sensitized dichromated gelatin holographic materials,” U.S. patent3,963,490 (15June1976).
  16. R. J. Collier, C. B. Burchhart, L. H. Lin, Optical Holography (Academic, New York, 1971), p. 295.
  17. R. R. A. Syms, Practical Volume Holography (Clarendon, Oxford, 1990), p. 49.
  18. R. Magnusson, T. K. Gaylord, “Diffraction regimes of transmission gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 809–814 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  20. M. G. Moharam, T. K. Gaylord, R. Magnusson, “Criteria for Bragg regime diffraction by phase gratings,” Opt. Commun. 32, 14–18 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. V. M. Rzhevski, N. G. Rupchev, “Influence of photochemistry processes on the refractive index and thickness on layers of dichromated gelatin,” Opt. Spectrosc. USSR 68, 1378–1380 (1980), in Russian.
  24. L. H. Lin, “Hologram formation in hardened dichromated gelatin films,” Appl. Opt. 8, 963–966 (1969).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. K. Kurokawa, S. Koike, S. Samba, T. Mizuno, T. Kubota, “Simplified method for preparing Methylene-Blue-sensitized dichromated gelatin,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3038–3043 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  26. V. A. Baracevski, New Recording Materials for Holography (Nauka, Leningrad, 1983), in Russian, p. 22.

2000

C. Lafond, C. Pizzocaro, R. A. Lessard, M. Bolte, “Primary photochemical process in films of dichromated gelatin: a quantitative approach,” Opt. Eng. 39, 610–615 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

T. Keinonen, P. Riihola, K. Huttu, S. Parkkonen, “Dye films for optical demonstrations in the undergraduate laboratory,” Opt. Mater. 11, 79–86 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Kurokawa, S. Koike, S. Samba, T. Mizuno, T. Kubota, “Simplified method for preparing Methylene-Blue-sensitized dichromated gelatin,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3038–3043 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

R. A. Myers, T. L. Helg, T. H. Barnes, A. D. Woolhouse, T. G. Haskell, “Characterization of dye-doped media for real-time holography,” Opt. Commun. 137, 223–228 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

1995

1990

1986

S. Sjöllender, “Dichromated gelatin and light sensitivity,” J. Imaging Sci. 30, 151–154 (1986).

1980

M. G. Moharam, T. K. Gaylord, R. Magnusson, “Criteria for Raman–Nath regime diffraction by phase gratings,” Opt. Commun. 32, 19–23 (1980).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Moharam, T. K. Gaylord, R. Magnusson, “Criteria for Bragg regime diffraction by phase gratings,” Opt. Commun. 32, 14–18 (1980).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Rzhevski, N. G. Rupchev, “Influence of photochemistry processes on the refractive index and thickness on layers of dichromated gelatin,” Opt. Spectrosc. USSR 68, 1378–1380 (1980), in Russian.

1979

1978

1971

K. S. Pennington, J. S. Harper, “New phototechnology for recording phase holograms and similar information in hardened gelatin,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 80–84 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1969

1968

Baracevski, V. A.

V. A. Baracevski, New Recording Materials for Holography (Nauka, Leningrad, 1983), in Russian, p. 22.

Barnes, T. H.

R. A. Myers, T. L. Helg, T. H. Barnes, A. D. Woolhouse, T. G. Haskell, “Characterization of dye-doped media for real-time holography,” Opt. Commun. 137, 223–228 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bolte, M.

C. Lafond, C. Pizzocaro, R. A. Lessard, M. Bolte, “Primary photochemical process in films of dichromated gelatin: a quantitative approach,” Opt. Eng. 39, 610–615 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Manivannan, R. Changkakoti, R. A. Lessard, G. Maihot, M. Bolte, “Dichromated poly(vinyl alchohol)–xanthene dye systems: holographic characterization and electron spin resonance spectroscopic study,” in Photopolymers and Applications in Holography, Optical Data Storage, Optical Sensors, and Interconnects, R. A. Lessard, ed., Proc. SPIE2042, 87–97 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Brasseur, O.

C. G. Stojanoff, O. Brasseur, S. Tropartz, H. Schuette, “Conceptual design and practical implementation of dichromated gelatin films as an optimal holographic recording material for large-format holograms,” in Photopolymers and Applications in Holography: Optical Data Storage, Optical Sensors, and Interconnects, R. A. Lessard, ed., Proc. SPIE2042, 301–311 (1993).

Burchhart, C. B.

R. J. Collier, C. B. Burchhart, L. H. Lin, Optical Holography (Academic, New York, 1971), p. 295.

Campbell, G.

Chang, B. J.

Changkakoti, R.

G. Manivannan, R. Changkakoti, R. A. Lessard, G. Maihot, M. Bolte, “Dichromated poly(vinyl alchohol)–xanthene dye systems: holographic characterization and electron spin resonance spectroscopic study,” in Photopolymers and Applications in Holography, Optical Data Storage, Optical Sensors, and Interconnects, R. A. Lessard, ed., Proc. SPIE2042, 87–97 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Collier, R. J.

R. J. Collier, C. B. Burchhart, L. H. Lin, Optical Holography (Academic, New York, 1971), p. 295.

Compton, J.

L. Stroebel, J. Compton, I. Current, R. Zaria, Photographic Materials and Processes (Focal, Boston, Mass., 1985).

Current, I.

L. Stroebel, J. Compton, I. Current, R. Zaria, Photographic Materials and Processes (Focal, Boston, Mass., 1985).

Gaylord, T. K.

M. G. Moharam, T. K. Gaylord, R. Magnusson, “Criteria for Bragg regime diffraction by phase gratings,” Opt. Commun. 32, 14–18 (1980).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Moharam, T. K. Gaylord, R. Magnusson, “Criteria for Raman–Nath regime diffraction by phase gratings,” Opt. Commun. 32, 19–23 (1980).
[CrossRef]

R. Magnusson, T. K. Gaylord, “Diffraction regimes of transmission gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 809–814 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Goto, M.

Goto, T.

Graube, A.

A. Graube, C. Park, “Dye sensitized dichromated gelatin holographic materials,” U.S. patent3,963,490 (15June1976).

Harper, J. S.

K. S. Pennington, J. S. Harper, “New phototechnology for recording phase holograms and similar information in hardened gelatin,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 80–84 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Haskell, T. G.

R. A. Myers, T. L. Helg, T. H. Barnes, A. D. Woolhouse, T. G. Haskell, “Characterization of dye-doped media for real-time holography,” Opt. Commun. 137, 223–228 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Helg, T. L.

R. A. Myers, T. L. Helg, T. H. Barnes, A. D. Woolhouse, T. G. Haskell, “Characterization of dye-doped media for real-time holography,” Opt. Commun. 137, 223–228 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Huttu, K.

T. Keinonen, P. Riihola, K. Huttu, S. Parkkonen, “Dye films for optical demonstrations in the undergraduate laboratory,” Opt. Mater. 11, 79–86 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Keinonen, T.

T. Keinonen, P. Riihola, K. Huttu, S. Parkkonen, “Dye films for optical demonstrations in the undergraduate laboratory,” Opt. Mater. 11, 79–86 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kim, T. J.

Koike, S.

Kostok, R. K.

Kubota, T.

Kurokawa, K.

Lafond, C.

C. Lafond, C. Pizzocaro, R. A. Lessard, M. Bolte, “Primary photochemical process in films of dichromated gelatin: a quantitative approach,” Opt. Eng. 39, 610–615 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Leonard, C. D.

Lessard, R. A.

C. Lafond, C. Pizzocaro, R. A. Lessard, M. Bolte, “Primary photochemical process in films of dichromated gelatin: a quantitative approach,” Opt. Eng. 39, 610–615 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Manivannan, R. Changkakoti, R. A. Lessard, G. Maihot, M. Bolte, “Dichromated poly(vinyl alchohol)–xanthene dye systems: holographic characterization and electron spin resonance spectroscopic study,” in Photopolymers and Applications in Holography, Optical Data Storage, Optical Sensors, and Interconnects, R. A. Lessard, ed., Proc. SPIE2042, 87–97 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Li, M.

Lin, L. H.

L. H. Lin, “Hologram formation in hardened dichromated gelatin films,” Appl. Opt. 8, 963–966 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Collier, C. B. Burchhart, L. H. Lin, Optical Holography (Academic, New York, 1971), p. 295.

Maeda, M.

M. Maeda, Laser Dyes (Academic, London, 1984), p. 22.

Magnusson, R.

M. G. Moharam, T. K. Gaylord, R. Magnusson, “Criteria for Raman–Nath regime diffraction by phase gratings,” Opt. Commun. 32, 19–23 (1980).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Moharam, T. K. Gaylord, R. Magnusson, “Criteria for Bragg regime diffraction by phase gratings,” Opt. Commun. 32, 14–18 (1980).
[CrossRef]

R. Magnusson, T. K. Gaylord, “Diffraction regimes of transmission gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 809–814 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Maihot, G.

G. Manivannan, R. Changkakoti, R. A. Lessard, G. Maihot, M. Bolte, “Dichromated poly(vinyl alchohol)–xanthene dye systems: holographic characterization and electron spin resonance spectroscopic study,” in Photopolymers and Applications in Holography, Optical Data Storage, Optical Sensors, and Interconnects, R. A. Lessard, ed., Proc. SPIE2042, 87–97 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Manivannan, G.

G. Manivannan, R. Changkakoti, R. A. Lessard, G. Maihot, M. Bolte, “Dichromated poly(vinyl alchohol)–xanthene dye systems: holographic characterization and electron spin resonance spectroscopic study,” in Photopolymers and Applications in Holography, Optical Data Storage, Optical Sensors, and Interconnects, R. A. Lessard, ed., Proc. SPIE2042, 87–97 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Matsui, K.

Mizuno, T.

Moharam, M. G.

M. G. Moharam, T. K. Gaylord, R. Magnusson, “Criteria for Bragg regime diffraction by phase gratings,” Opt. Commun. 32, 14–18 (1980).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Moharam, T. K. Gaylord, R. Magnusson, “Criteria for Raman–Nath regime diffraction by phase gratings,” Opt. Commun. 32, 19–23 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Moosad, K. P. B.

K. P. B. Moosad, T. M. A. Rasheed, V. P. N. Nampoori, “Optical phase conjugation in dyes embedded in polymer films,” Opt. Eng. 29, 47–51 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Myers, R. A.

R. A. Myers, T. L. Helg, T. H. Barnes, A. D. Woolhouse, T. G. Haskell, “Characterization of dye-doped media for real-time holography,” Opt. Commun. 137, 223–228 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nampoori, V. P. N.

K. P. B. Moosad, T. M. A. Rasheed, V. P. N. Nampoori, “Optical phase conjugation in dyes embedded in polymer films,” Opt. Eng. 29, 47–51 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ose, T.

Park, C.

A. Graube, C. Park, “Dye sensitized dichromated gelatin holographic materials,” U.S. patent3,963,490 (15June1976).

Parkkonen, S.

T. Keinonen, P. Riihola, K. Huttu, S. Parkkonen, “Dye films for optical demonstrations in the undergraduate laboratory,” Opt. Mater. 11, 79–86 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pennington, K. S.

K. S. Pennington, J. S. Harper, “New phototechnology for recording phase holograms and similar information in hardened gelatin,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 80–84 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Pizzocaro, C.

C. Lafond, C. Pizzocaro, R. A. Lessard, M. Bolte, “Primary photochemical process in films of dichromated gelatin: a quantitative approach,” Opt. Eng. 39, 610–615 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rasheed, T. M. A.

K. P. B. Moosad, T. M. A. Rasheed, V. P. N. Nampoori, “Optical phase conjugation in dyes embedded in polymer films,” Opt. Eng. 29, 47–51 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Riihola, P.

T. Keinonen, P. Riihola, K. Huttu, S. Parkkonen, “Dye films for optical demonstrations in the undergraduate laboratory,” Opt. Mater. 11, 79–86 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rupchev, N. G.

V. M. Rzhevski, N. G. Rupchev, “Influence of photochemistry processes on the refractive index and thickness on layers of dichromated gelatin,” Opt. Spectrosc. USSR 68, 1378–1380 (1980), in Russian.

Rzhevski, V. M.

V. M. Rzhevski, N. G. Rupchev, “Influence of photochemistry processes on the refractive index and thickness on layers of dichromated gelatin,” Opt. Spectrosc. USSR 68, 1378–1380 (1980), in Russian.

Samba, S.

Schuette, H.

C. G. Stojanoff, O. Brasseur, S. Tropartz, H. Schuette, “Conceptual design and practical implementation of dichromated gelatin films as an optimal holographic recording material for large-format holograms,” in Photopolymers and Applications in Holography: Optical Data Storage, Optical Sensors, and Interconnects, R. A. Lessard, ed., Proc. SPIE2042, 301–311 (1993).

Shankoff, T. A.

Sjöllender, S.

S. Sjöllender, “Dichromated gelatin and light sensitivity,” J. Imaging Sci. 30, 151–154 (1986).

Stojanoff, C. G.

C. G. Stojanoff, O. Brasseur, S. Tropartz, H. Schuette, “Conceptual design and practical implementation of dichromated gelatin films as an optimal holographic recording material for large-format holograms,” in Photopolymers and Applications in Holography: Optical Data Storage, Optical Sensors, and Interconnects, R. A. Lessard, ed., Proc. SPIE2042, 301–311 (1993).

Stroebel, L.

L. Stroebel, J. Compton, I. Current, R. Zaria, Photographic Materials and Processes (Focal, Boston, Mass., 1985).

Sun, M.

Syms, R. R. A.

R. R. A. Syms, Practical Volume Holography (Clarendon, Oxford, 1990), p. 49.

Tropartz, S.

C. G. Stojanoff, O. Brasseur, S. Tropartz, H. Schuette, “Conceptual design and practical implementation of dichromated gelatin films as an optimal holographic recording material for large-format holograms,” in Photopolymers and Applications in Holography: Optical Data Storage, Optical Sensors, and Interconnects, R. A. Lessard, ed., Proc. SPIE2042, 301–311 (1993).

Wang, J.

Woolhouse, A. D.

R. A. Myers, T. L. Helg, T. H. Barnes, A. D. Woolhouse, T. G. Haskell, “Characterization of dye-doped media for real-time holography,” Opt. Commun. 137, 223–228 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zaria, R.

L. Stroebel, J. Compton, I. Current, R. Zaria, Photographic Materials and Processes (Focal, Boston, Mass., 1985).

Zhao, J.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

K. S. Pennington, J. S. Harper, “New phototechnology for recording phase holograms and similar information in hardened gelatin,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 80–84 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. Imaging Sci.

S. Sjöllender, “Dichromated gelatin and light sensitivity,” J. Imaging Sci. 30, 151–154 (1986).

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Opt. Commun.

R. A. Myers, T. L. Helg, T. H. Barnes, A. D. Woolhouse, T. G. Haskell, “Characterization of dye-doped media for real-time holography,” Opt. Commun. 137, 223–228 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Moharam, T. K. Gaylord, R. Magnusson, “Criteria for Raman–Nath regime diffraction by phase gratings,” Opt. Commun. 32, 19–23 (1980).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Moharam, T. K. Gaylord, R. Magnusson, “Criteria for Bragg regime diffraction by phase gratings,” Opt. Commun. 32, 14–18 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

K. P. B. Moosad, T. M. A. Rasheed, V. P. N. Nampoori, “Optical phase conjugation in dyes embedded in polymer films,” Opt. Eng. 29, 47–51 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. Lafond, C. Pizzocaro, R. A. Lessard, M. Bolte, “Primary photochemical process in films of dichromated gelatin: a quantitative approach,” Opt. Eng. 39, 610–615 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Mater.

T. Keinonen, P. Riihola, K. Huttu, S. Parkkonen, “Dye films for optical demonstrations in the undergraduate laboratory,” Opt. Mater. 11, 79–86 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Spectrosc. USSR

V. M. Rzhevski, N. G. Rupchev, “Influence of photochemistry processes on the refractive index and thickness on layers of dichromated gelatin,” Opt. Spectrosc. USSR 68, 1378–1380 (1980), in Russian.

Other

V. A. Baracevski, New Recording Materials for Holography (Nauka, Leningrad, 1983), in Russian, p. 22.

A. Graube, C. Park, “Dye sensitized dichromated gelatin holographic materials,” U.S. patent3,963,490 (15June1976).

R. J. Collier, C. B. Burchhart, L. H. Lin, Optical Holography (Academic, New York, 1971), p. 295.

R. R. A. Syms, Practical Volume Holography (Clarendon, Oxford, 1990), p. 49.

C. G. Stojanoff, O. Brasseur, S. Tropartz, H. Schuette, “Conceptual design and practical implementation of dichromated gelatin films as an optimal holographic recording material for large-format holograms,” in Photopolymers and Applications in Holography: Optical Data Storage, Optical Sensors, and Interconnects, R. A. Lessard, ed., Proc. SPIE2042, 301–311 (1993).

M. Maeda, Laser Dyes (Academic, London, 1984), p. 22.

G. Manivannan, R. Changkakoti, R. A. Lessard, G. Maihot, M. Bolte, “Dichromated poly(vinyl alchohol)–xanthene dye systems: holographic characterization and electron spin resonance spectroscopic study,” in Photopolymers and Applications in Holography, Optical Data Storage, Optical Sensors, and Interconnects, R. A. Lessard, ed., Proc. SPIE2042, 87–97 (1993).
[CrossRef]

L. Stroebel, J. Compton, I. Current, R. Zaria, Photographic Materials and Processes (Focal, Boston, Mass., 1985).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Absorption spectra of pure DCG film and dyed DCG films.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Real-time holographic experimental setup: B.S., beam splitter; MS, mirrors; Ls, lenses.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Relation of diffraction efficiency to concentration of Rhodamine 6G for a 30-µm-thick film with a constant exposure density of 140 mJ/cm2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Relation of diffraction efficiency to exposure for a 30-µm-thick film with a constant concentration of Rhodamine 6G of 7.5 mg/L.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Relation of diffraction efficiency to exposure for a 30-µm-thick film with a constant concentration of Erythrosin B of 7.5 mg/l.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Energy distribution among various diffraction orders at normal incidence and at the Bragg angle. Distribution was measured on the same DCG film, optimally exposed and processed.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Sensitivity (filled squares, reported values24-26; open square, circle, and triangle, our results) of DCG as a function of wavelength.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Real-time diffraction efficiency as a function of exposure.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Procedure for Preparing Dyed DCG Film

Tables Icon

Table 2 Procedure for Developing a Dyed DCG Platea

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