Abstract

The high detection sensitivity available from intracavity laser spectroscopy (ILS) is extended into the near infrared by solid-state laser systems operating with relatively narrow (∼0.002 µm) bandwidths for three CO2 absorption features of importance to an understanding of planetary atmospheres. The absolute intensities and pressure-broadening properties of the P(12), P(14), and P(16) lines of the Σ–Σ band (12°1–00°0) of CO2 (at 2.0129, 2.0136, and 2.0143 µm) are measured quantitatively by ILS with a Tm:YAG laser operating near 2.0 µm. The temperature dependencies of these absolute intensities and collisional-broadening parameters for these three CO2 features are also measured over the 110–300 K range. The 3.0-km equivalent absorption path length available from the ILS Tm:YAG system is used to enhance detection sensitivity by more than a factor of 1.5 × 104 while maintaining a physical sample cell path length of ∼20 cm. The enhanced detection sensitivity of ILS permits absolute intensities and collisional-broadening parameters to be measured from <1-Torr CO2 over a series of temperatures, conditions that emulate those found in the atmospheres of Mars, Triton, and Venus.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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  14. B. B. Radak, J. I. Lunine, D. M. Hunten, G. H. Atkinson, “Line intensities in the 647.5 nm ammonia band at low temperatures determined by intracavity laser spectroscopy,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 53, 519–526 (1995).
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  21. D. C. Miller, J. J. O’Brien, G. H. Atkinson, “In situ detection of BH2 and atomic boron by intracavity laser spectroscopy in the plasma dissociation of gaseous B2H6,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 2645–2651 (1989).
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  22. S. Cheskis, “Intracavity laser absorption spectroscopy detection of HCO radicals in atmospheric pressure hydrocarbon flames,” J. Chem. Phys. 102, 1851–1854 (1995).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2001 (1)

E. Mehzidehdah, J. Lunine, G. H. Atkinson, “Intracavity laser spectroscopy with an ion-doped, solid-state Tm+3:YAG laser,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 68, 453–465 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

V. M. Baev, T. Latz, P. E. Toschek, “Laser intracavity absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 171–202 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

C. A. Griffith, T. Owen, G. A. Miller, T. Geballe, “Transient clouds in Titan’s lower atmosphere,” Nature (London) 395, 575–578 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. Chance, K. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The 1996 HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation),” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).

M. P. Frolov, Yu P. Podmarkov, “Intracavity laser spectroscopy with a Co:MgF2 laser,” Opt. Commun. 155, 313–316 (1998).

1997 (1)

C. B. Olkin, J. L. Elliot, H. B. Hammel, A. R. Cooray, S. W. McDonald, J. A. Foust, A. S. Bosh, M. W. Buie, R. L. Millis, L. H. Wasserman, E. W. Dunham, L. A. Young, R. R. Howell, W. B. Hubbard, R. Hill, R. L. Marcialis, J. S. McDonald, D. M. Rank, J. C. Holbrook, H. J. Reitsema, “The thermal structure of Triton’s atmosphere: results from the 1993 and 1995 occultations,” Icarus 129, 178–201 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

D. F. Strobel, X. Zhu, M. E. Summers, M. H. Stevens, “On the vertical thermal structure of Pluto’s atmosphere,” Icarus 120, 266–289 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (3)

S. Cheskis, “Intracavity laser absorption spectroscopy detection of HCO radicals in atmospheric pressure hydrocarbon flames,” J. Chem. Phys. 102, 1851–1854 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. B. Radak, J. I. Lunine, D. M. Hunten, G. H. Atkinson, “Line intensities in the 647.5 nm ammonia band at low temperatures determined by intracavity laser spectroscopy,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 53, 519–526 (1995).

K. Singh, J. J. O’Brien, “Laboratory measurement of absorption coefficients for the 727 nm band of methane at 77 K and comparison with results derived from spectra of the giant planets,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 54, 607–619 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

K. Singh, J. J. O’Brien, “Intensity measurements of methane lines in the 727 nm band studied by intracavity laser spectroscopy at temperatures down to 77 K,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 229, 29–34 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. B. Radak, J. I. Lunine, D. M. Hunten, G. H. Atkinson, “The intensity and pressure broadening of the 681.884 nm methane absorption line at low temperatures determined by intracavity laser spectroscopy,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 809–818 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

P. Cvijin, K. Wells, I. Mendez, J. Delaney, J. Lunine, D. Hunten, G. H. Atkinson, “Determination of line intensity and pressure broadening of the 619.68 nm methane overtone absorption line at low temperatures using intracavity laser spectroscopy,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 49, 639–650 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Gilmore, P. V. Cvijin, G. H. Atkinson, “Intracavity laser spectroscopy in the 1.38–1.55 µm spectral region using a multimode Cr4+:YAG laser,” Opt. Commun. 103, 370–374 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1990 (3)

D. A. Gilmore, P. V. Cvijin, G. H. Atkinson, “Intracavity absorption spectroscopy with a titanium:sapphire laser,” Opt. Commun. 77, 385–389 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Suarez, F. P. J. Valero, “Line intensities of CO2 at different temperatures,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 140, 407–411 (1990).
[CrossRef]

T. Encrenaz, E. Lellouch, “On the atmospheric origin of weak absorption features in the infrared spectrum of Mars,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 14589–14593 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

J. I. Lunine, “Origin and evolution of outer solar system atmospheres,” Science 245, 141–147 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Miller, J. J. O’Brien, G. H. Atkinson, “In situ detection of BH2 and atomic boron by intracavity laser spectroscopy in the plasma dissociation of gaseous B2H6,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 2645–2651 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1985 (4)

F. Stoeckel, M. D. Schuh, N. Goldstein, G. H. Atkinson, “Time-resolved intracavity laser spectroscopy: 266 nm photodissociation of acetaldehyde vapor to form HCO,” Chem. Phys. 95, 135–144 (1985).
[CrossRef]

F. Stoeckel, G. H. Atkinson, “Time evolution of a broadband quasi-cw dye laser: limitations of sensitivity in intracavity laser spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3591–3597 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Goldstein, T. Brack, G. H. Atkinson, “Quantitative absorption spectroscopy of NO2 in a supersonically cooled jet by intracavity laser technique,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 116, 223–230 (1985).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Melieres, M. Chenevier, F. Stoeckel, “Intensity measurements and self-broadening coefficients in the γ band of O2 at 628 nm using intracavity laser-absorption spectroscopy (ICLAS),” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 33, 337–345 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1980 (2)

J. B. Pollack, O. B. Toon, R. Boese, “Greenhouse models of Venus’ high surface temperature, as constrained by Pioneer Venus measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 85, 8223–8231 (1980).
[CrossRef]

F. P. J. Valero, C. B. Suarez, R. W. Boese, “Absolute intensities and pressure broadening coefficients measured at different temperatures for the 201Π ← 000 band of 12C16O2 at 4978 cm-1,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 23, 337–341 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

J. Y. Mandin, “Interpretation of CO2 absorption bands observed in the Venus infrared spectrum between 1 and 2.5 µm,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 67, 304–321 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

D. W. Peterson, M. A. Johnson, A. L. Betz, “Infrared heterodyne spectroscopy of CO2 on Mars,” Nature (London) 250, 128–130 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973 (2)

H. D. Downing, R. H. Hunt, “Line intensities of CO2 in the 2.0 micron region,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 13, 311–321 (1973).
[CrossRef]

P. Varansi, S. Sarangi, L. Pugh, “Measurements on the infrared lines of planetary gases at low temperatures. I. ν3-fundamental of methane,” Astrophys. J. 179, 977–982 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

1966 (1)

D. H. Rank, U. Fink, T. A. Wiggins, “Measurements on spectra of gases of planetary interest. II. H2, CO2, NH3, and CH4,” Astrophys. J. 143, 980–988 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

U. Fink, T. A. Wiggins, D. H. Rank, “Frequency and intensity measurements on the quadrupole spectrum of molecular hydrogen,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 18, 384–395 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1957 (1)

C. P. Courtoy, “Spectres de vibration-rotation. XII,” Can. J. Phys. 35, 608–648 (1957).

Atkinson, G. H.

E. Mehzidehdah, J. Lunine, G. H. Atkinson, “Intracavity laser spectroscopy with an ion-doped, solid-state Tm+3:YAG laser,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 68, 453–465 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. B. Radak, J. I. Lunine, D. M. Hunten, G. H. Atkinson, “Line intensities in the 647.5 nm ammonia band at low temperatures determined by intracavity laser spectroscopy,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 53, 519–526 (1995).

B. B. Radak, J. I. Lunine, D. M. Hunten, G. H. Atkinson, “The intensity and pressure broadening of the 681.884 nm methane absorption line at low temperatures determined by intracavity laser spectroscopy,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 809–818 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Cvijin, K. Wells, I. Mendez, J. Delaney, J. Lunine, D. Hunten, G. H. Atkinson, “Determination of line intensity and pressure broadening of the 619.68 nm methane overtone absorption line at low temperatures using intracavity laser spectroscopy,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 49, 639–650 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Gilmore, P. V. Cvijin, G. H. Atkinson, “Intracavity laser spectroscopy in the 1.38–1.55 µm spectral region using a multimode Cr4+:YAG laser,” Opt. Commun. 103, 370–374 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Cvijin, K. Wells, D. Gilmore, J. Wu, D. M. Hunten, G. H. Atkinson, “Fringe pattern suppression in intracavity laser spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5779–5784 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Gilmore, P. V. Cvijin, G. H. Atkinson, “Intracavity absorption spectroscopy with a titanium:sapphire laser,” Opt. Commun. 77, 385–389 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Miller, J. J. O’Brien, G. H. Atkinson, “In situ detection of BH2 and atomic boron by intracavity laser spectroscopy in the plasma dissociation of gaseous B2H6,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 2645–2651 (1989).
[CrossRef]

F. Stoeckel, M. D. Schuh, N. Goldstein, G. H. Atkinson, “Time-resolved intracavity laser spectroscopy: 266 nm photodissociation of acetaldehyde vapor to form HCO,” Chem. Phys. 95, 135–144 (1985).
[CrossRef]

F. Stoeckel, G. H. Atkinson, “Time evolution of a broadband quasi-cw dye laser: limitations of sensitivity in intracavity laser spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3591–3597 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Goldstein, T. Brack, G. H. Atkinson, “Quantitative absorption spectroscopy of NO2 in a supersonically cooled jet by intracavity laser technique,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 116, 223–230 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Baev, V. M.

V. M. Baev, T. Latz, P. E. Toschek, “Laser intracavity absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 171–202 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Betz, A. L.

D. W. Peterson, M. A. Johnson, A. L. Betz, “Infrared heterodyne spectroscopy of CO2 on Mars,” Nature (London) 250, 128–130 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Boese, R.

J. B. Pollack, O. B. Toon, R. Boese, “Greenhouse models of Venus’ high surface temperature, as constrained by Pioneer Venus measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 85, 8223–8231 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Boese, R. W.

F. P. J. Valero, C. B. Suarez, R. W. Boese, “Absolute intensities and pressure broadening coefficients measured at different temperatures for the 201Π ← 000 band of 12C16O2 at 4978 cm-1,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 23, 337–341 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Bosh, A. S.

C. B. Olkin, J. L. Elliot, H. B. Hammel, A. R. Cooray, S. W. McDonald, J. A. Foust, A. S. Bosh, M. W. Buie, R. L. Millis, L. H. Wasserman, E. W. Dunham, L. A. Young, R. R. Howell, W. B. Hubbard, R. Hill, R. L. Marcialis, J. S. McDonald, D. M. Rank, J. C. Holbrook, H. J. Reitsema, “The thermal structure of Triton’s atmosphere: results from the 1993 and 1995 occultations,” Icarus 129, 178–201 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Brack, T.

N. Goldstein, T. Brack, G. H. Atkinson, “Quantitative absorption spectroscopy of NO2 in a supersonically cooled jet by intracavity laser technique,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 116, 223–230 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. Chance, K. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The 1996 HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation),” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).

Buie, M. W.

C. B. Olkin, J. L. Elliot, H. B. Hammel, A. R. Cooray, S. W. McDonald, J. A. Foust, A. S. Bosh, M. W. Buie, R. L. Millis, L. H. Wasserman, E. W. Dunham, L. A. Young, R. R. Howell, W. B. Hubbard, R. Hill, R. L. Marcialis, J. S. McDonald, D. M. Rank, J. C. Holbrook, H. J. Reitsema, “The thermal structure of Triton’s atmosphere: results from the 1993 and 1995 occultations,” Icarus 129, 178–201 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Camy-Peyret, C.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. Chance, K. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The 1996 HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation),” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).

Chance, K.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. Chance, K. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The 1996 HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation),” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).

Chenevier, M.

M. A. Melieres, M. Chenevier, F. Stoeckel, “Intensity measurements and self-broadening coefficients in the γ band of O2 at 628 nm using intracavity laser-absorption spectroscopy (ICLAS),” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 33, 337–345 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Cheskis, S.

S. Cheskis, “Intracavity laser absorption spectroscopy detection of HCO radicals in atmospheric pressure hydrocarbon flames,” J. Chem. Phys. 102, 1851–1854 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cooray, A. R.

C. B. Olkin, J. L. Elliot, H. B. Hammel, A. R. Cooray, S. W. McDonald, J. A. Foust, A. S. Bosh, M. W. Buie, R. L. Millis, L. H. Wasserman, E. W. Dunham, L. A. Young, R. R. Howell, W. B. Hubbard, R. Hill, R. L. Marcialis, J. S. McDonald, D. M. Rank, J. C. Holbrook, H. J. Reitsema, “The thermal structure of Triton’s atmosphere: results from the 1993 and 1995 occultations,” Icarus 129, 178–201 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Courtoy, C. P.

C. P. Courtoy, “Spectres de vibration-rotation. XII,” Can. J. Phys. 35, 608–648 (1957).

Cvijin, P.

P. Cvijin, K. Wells, I. Mendez, J. Delaney, J. Lunine, D. Hunten, G. H. Atkinson, “Determination of line intensity and pressure broadening of the 619.68 nm methane overtone absorption line at low temperatures using intracavity laser spectroscopy,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 49, 639–650 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Cvijin, P. V.

D. A. Gilmore, P. V. Cvijin, G. H. Atkinson, “Intracavity laser spectroscopy in the 1.38–1.55 µm spectral region using a multimode Cr4+:YAG laser,” Opt. Commun. 103, 370–374 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Cvijin, K. Wells, D. Gilmore, J. Wu, D. M. Hunten, G. H. Atkinson, “Fringe pattern suppression in intracavity laser spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5779–5784 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Gilmore, P. V. Cvijin, G. H. Atkinson, “Intracavity absorption spectroscopy with a titanium:sapphire laser,” Opt. Commun. 77, 385–389 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Dana, V.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. Chance, K. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The 1996 HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation),” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).

Delaney, J.

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C. B. Olkin, J. L. Elliot, H. B. Hammel, A. R. Cooray, S. W. McDonald, J. A. Foust, A. S. Bosh, M. W. Buie, R. L. Millis, L. H. Wasserman, E. W. Dunham, L. A. Young, R. R. Howell, W. B. Hubbard, R. Hill, R. L. Marcialis, J. S. McDonald, D. M. Rank, J. C. Holbrook, H. J. Reitsema, “The thermal structure of Triton’s atmosphere: results from the 1993 and 1995 occultations,” Icarus 129, 178–201 (1997).
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B. B. Radak, J. I. Lunine, D. M. Hunten, G. H. Atkinson, “Line intensities in the 647.5 nm ammonia band at low temperatures determined by intracavity laser spectroscopy,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 53, 519–526 (1995).

B. B. Radak, J. I. Lunine, D. M. Hunten, G. H. Atkinson, “The intensity and pressure broadening of the 681.884 nm methane absorption line at low temperatures determined by intracavity laser spectroscopy,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 809–818 (1994).
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L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. Chance, K. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The 1996 HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation),” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).

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C. B. Olkin, J. L. Elliot, H. B. Hammel, A. R. Cooray, S. W. McDonald, J. A. Foust, A. S. Bosh, M. W. Buie, R. L. Millis, L. H. Wasserman, E. W. Dunham, L. A. Young, R. R. Howell, W. B. Hubbard, R. Hill, R. L. Marcialis, J. S. McDonald, D. M. Rank, J. C. Holbrook, H. J. Reitsema, “The thermal structure of Triton’s atmosphere: results from the 1993 and 1995 occultations,” Icarus 129, 178–201 (1997).
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L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. Chance, K. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The 1996 HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation),” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).

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C. B. Olkin, J. L. Elliot, H. B. Hammel, A. R. Cooray, S. W. McDonald, J. A. Foust, A. S. Bosh, M. W. Buie, R. L. Millis, L. H. Wasserman, E. W. Dunham, L. A. Young, R. R. Howell, W. B. Hubbard, R. Hill, R. L. Marcialis, J. S. McDonald, D. M. Rank, J. C. Holbrook, H. J. Reitsema, “The thermal structure of Triton’s atmosphere: results from the 1993 and 1995 occultations,” Icarus 129, 178–201 (1997).
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C. B. Olkin, J. L. Elliot, H. B. Hammel, A. R. Cooray, S. W. McDonald, J. A. Foust, A. S. Bosh, M. W. Buie, R. L. Millis, L. H. Wasserman, E. W. Dunham, L. A. Young, R. R. Howell, W. B. Hubbard, R. Hill, R. L. Marcialis, J. S. McDonald, D. M. Rank, J. C. Holbrook, H. J. Reitsema, “The thermal structure of Triton’s atmosphere: results from the 1993 and 1995 occultations,” Icarus 129, 178–201 (1997).
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C. B. Olkin, J. L. Elliot, H. B. Hammel, A. R. Cooray, S. W. McDonald, J. A. Foust, A. S. Bosh, M. W. Buie, R. L. Millis, L. H. Wasserman, E. W. Dunham, L. A. Young, R. R. Howell, W. B. Hubbard, R. Hill, R. L. Marcialis, J. S. McDonald, D. M. Rank, J. C. Holbrook, H. J. Reitsema, “The thermal structure of Triton’s atmosphere: results from the 1993 and 1995 occultations,” Icarus 129, 178–201 (1997).
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B. B. Radak, J. I. Lunine, D. M. Hunten, G. H. Atkinson, “The intensity and pressure broadening of the 681.884 nm methane absorption line at low temperatures determined by intracavity laser spectroscopy,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 809–818 (1994).
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C. B. Olkin, J. L. Elliot, H. B. Hammel, A. R. Cooray, S. W. McDonald, J. A. Foust, A. S. Bosh, M. W. Buie, R. L. Millis, L. H. Wasserman, E. W. Dunham, L. A. Young, R. R. Howell, W. B. Hubbard, R. Hill, R. L. Marcialis, J. S. McDonald, D. M. Rank, J. C. Holbrook, H. J. Reitsema, “The thermal structure of Triton’s atmosphere: results from the 1993 and 1995 occultations,” Icarus 129, 178–201 (1997).
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C. B. Olkin, J. L. Elliot, H. B. Hammel, A. R. Cooray, S. W. McDonald, J. A. Foust, A. S. Bosh, M. W. Buie, R. L. Millis, L. H. Wasserman, E. W. Dunham, L. A. Young, R. R. Howell, W. B. Hubbard, R. Hill, R. L. Marcialis, J. S. McDonald, D. M. Rank, J. C. Holbrook, H. J. Reitsema, “The thermal structure of Triton’s atmosphere: results from the 1993 and 1995 occultations,” Icarus 129, 178–201 (1997).
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L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. Chance, K. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The 1996 HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation),” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).

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[CrossRef]

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L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. Chance, K. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The 1996 HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation),” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).

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F. Stoeckel, M. D. Schuh, N. Goldstein, G. H. Atkinson, “Time-resolved intracavity laser spectroscopy: 266 nm photodissociation of acetaldehyde vapor to form HCO,” Chem. Phys. 95, 135–144 (1985).
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K. Singh, J. J. O’Brien, “Laboratory measurement of absorption coefficients for the 727 nm band of methane at 77 K and comparison with results derived from spectra of the giant planets,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 54, 607–619 (1995).
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K. Singh, J. J. O’Brien, “Intensity measurements of methane lines in the 727 nm band studied by intracavity laser spectroscopy at temperatures down to 77 K,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 229, 29–34 (1994).
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D. F. Strobel, X. Zhu, M. E. Summers, M. H. Stevens, “On the vertical thermal structure of Pluto’s atmosphere,” Icarus 120, 266–289 (1996).
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F. Stoeckel, M. D. Schuh, N. Goldstein, G. H. Atkinson, “Time-resolved intracavity laser spectroscopy: 266 nm photodissociation of acetaldehyde vapor to form HCO,” Chem. Phys. 95, 135–144 (1985).
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M. A. Melieres, M. Chenevier, F. Stoeckel, “Intensity measurements and self-broadening coefficients in the γ band of O2 at 628 nm using intracavity laser-absorption spectroscopy (ICLAS),” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 33, 337–345 (1985).
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V. M. Baev, T. Latz, P. E. Toschek, “Laser intracavity absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 171–202 (1999).
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C. B. Suarez, F. P. J. Valero, “Line intensities of CO2 at different temperatures,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 140, 407–411 (1990).
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F. P. J. Valero, C. B. Suarez, R. W. Boese, “Absolute intensities and pressure broadening coefficients measured at different temperatures for the 201Π ← 000 band of 12C16O2 at 4978 cm-1,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 23, 337–341 (1980).
[CrossRef]

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L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. Chance, K. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The 1996 HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation),” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).

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P. Varansi, S. Sarangi, L. Pugh, “Measurements on the infrared lines of planetary gases at low temperatures. I. ν3-fundamental of methane,” Astrophys. J. 179, 977–982 (1973).
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L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. Chance, K. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The 1996 HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation),” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).

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P. Cvijin, K. Wells, I. Mendez, J. Delaney, J. Lunine, D. Hunten, G. H. Atkinson, “Determination of line intensity and pressure broadening of the 619.68 nm methane overtone absorption line at low temperatures using intracavity laser spectroscopy,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 49, 639–650 (1993).
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Yoshino, K.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. Chance, K. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The 1996 HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation),” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).

Young, L. A.

C. B. Olkin, J. L. Elliot, H. B. Hammel, A. R. Cooray, S. W. McDonald, J. A. Foust, A. S. Bosh, M. W. Buie, R. L. Millis, L. H. Wasserman, E. W. Dunham, L. A. Young, R. R. Howell, W. B. Hubbard, R. Hill, R. L. Marcialis, J. S. McDonald, D. M. Rank, J. C. Holbrook, H. J. Reitsema, “The thermal structure of Triton’s atmosphere: results from the 1993 and 1995 occultations,” Icarus 129, 178–201 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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D. F. Strobel, X. Zhu, M. E. Summers, M. H. Stevens, “On the vertical thermal structure of Pluto’s atmosphere,” Icarus 120, 266–289 (1996).
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[CrossRef]

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C. B. Olkin, J. L. Elliot, H. B. Hammel, A. R. Cooray, S. W. McDonald, J. A. Foust, A. S. Bosh, M. W. Buie, R. L. Millis, L. H. Wasserman, E. W. Dunham, L. A. Young, R. R. Howell, W. B. Hubbard, R. Hill, R. L. Marcialis, J. S. McDonald, D. M. Rank, J. C. Holbrook, H. J. Reitsema, “The thermal structure of Triton’s atmosphere: results from the 1993 and 1995 occultations,” Icarus 129, 178–201 (1997).
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D. F. Strobel, X. Zhu, M. E. Summers, M. H. Stevens, “On the vertical thermal structure of Pluto’s atmosphere,” Icarus 120, 266–289 (1996).
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D. C. Miller, J. J. O’Brien, G. H. Atkinson, “In situ detection of BH2 and atomic boron by intracavity laser spectroscopy in the plasma dissociation of gaseous B2H6,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 2645–2651 (1989).
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P. Cvijin, K. Wells, I. Mendez, J. Delaney, J. Lunine, D. Hunten, G. H. Atkinson, “Determination of line intensity and pressure broadening of the 619.68 nm methane overtone absorption line at low temperatures using intracavity laser spectroscopy,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 49, 639–650 (1993).
[CrossRef]

B. B. Radak, J. I. Lunine, D. M. Hunten, G. H. Atkinson, “The intensity and pressure broadening of the 681.884 nm methane absorption line at low temperatures determined by intracavity laser spectroscopy,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 809–818 (1994).
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[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental apparatus for temperature-dependent measurements of infrared absorption features in CO2 by ILS. The laser resonator cavity of the Tm:YAG laser is formed by mirrors, M1, M2, and M3. The structure of the intracavity cryogenic sample cell is described in the text. An AOM (IntraAction Model AOM-404A3), driven by a rf power supply, is used to control the timing of the ILS laser output. High-resolution spectra are recorded with a 2-m double-pass spectrograph (SOPRA, Inc., Model F2000) containing a 79-line/mm echelle grating operating in the 11th order. The remaining components include an Ar+ laser (Spectra-Physics Model BeamLok-2080), a Ti:sapphire laser (Spectra-Physics Model 3900-S), a pulse generator (Stanford Research Systems Model DG-535), a lock-in amplifier (Ithaco Model 3921), and a PbS infrared photodiode detector (Electro-Optical Systems Model PS-1). PZT, piezoelectric transducer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Absorption spectrum of 1.0-Torr pure CO2 obtained from the HITRAN30 database by use of a 3.0-km absorption path length. The HITRAN spectrum is convoluted with a 0.05-cm-1 instrumental resolution that is similar to the resolution of the spectrograph used in these experiments. (b) ILS absorption spectrum obtained with 1.0-Torr pure CO2 (3.0-km effective path length) at room temperature. The three absorption features studied here are assigned as the P(12), P(14), and P(16) lines of the 12°1–00°0 Σ–Σ absorption band of CO2. (c) Emission spectrum obtained from a Tm:YAG ILS laser having pure nitrogen in the intracavity gas cell. These data are used to obtain a baseline in the analysis of all ILS spectra presented in this study.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

ILS absorption spectra obtained with the CO2–N2 mixed gas samples at room temperature and at a fixed 0.1-Torr CO2 partial pressure, but with different N2 partial pressures: A, pure CO2 at 0.1 Torr; B, 0.1-Torr CO2 with 0.1-Torr N2; C, 0.1-Torr CO2 with 1-Torr N2; D, 0.1-Torr CO2 with 10-Torr N2; and E, 0.1-Torr CO2 with 100-Torr N2. The absorption features are broadened by N2 collisions to obtain bandwidths that are compatible with the 0.05-cm-1 spectral resolution.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

ILS absorption spectra obtained with 9-mTorr CO2 in a 30-Torr N2 environment at sample temperatures of A, 110; B, 150; C, 200; and D, 300 K.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Logarithmic dependence of the intensity of the 2.0136-µm ILS absorption feature of CO2 on the CO2 pressure. The slopes in the linear fits are used to derive the absolute absorption intensities at A, 110; B, 150; C, 200; and D, 300 K. See text for a discussion of the functional relationship.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Typical result of the procedure when a Lorentzian line-shape function (solid curve) is used to fit ILS spectra (filled circles) for 9 mTorr of CO2 in 30-Torr N2 at 150 K (equivalent path length of 3.0 km). The dashed curve indicates the baseline obtained from ILS spectra (i.e., the emission spectrum of the ILS laser obtained with pure N2 in the intracavity gas cell).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Logarithmic dependence of the pressure-broadening coefficient for N2 collisions γ of the 2.0136-µm absorption feature of CO2 on the sample temperature.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Absolute Absorption Intensities S of the 2.0129-, 2.0136-, and 2.0143-µm Absorption Features of CO 2 for Five Sample Temperatures

Tables Icon

Table 2 Pressure-Broadening Coefficients of the 2.0136- and 2.0143-µm Absorption Features of CO2 for N2 Collisions (γf)

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Iν=I0νexp-ανpaLeff,
αν=SKν-ν0,
S=1/paLeff  ln1/Tdν,
γs=γL/pa,  γf=γL-γspa/p-pa,
γ  T-nγ,

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