Abstract

We investigated ammonia spectroscopy near 1.5 µm to select transitions appropriate for trace ammonia detection in air-quality and combustion emissions-monitoring applications using diode lasers. Six ammonia features were selected for these trace-gas detection applications based on their transition strengths and isolation from interfering species. The strengths, positions, and lower-state energies for the lines in each of these features were measured and compared with values published in the literature. Ammonia slip was measured in the exhaust above an atmospheric pressure premixed ethylene–air burner to demonstrate the feasibility of the in situ diode-laser sensor.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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  24. H. J. Unger, “Infrared absorption bands of ammonia,” Phys. Rev. 43, 123–128 (1933).
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  25. W. S. Benedict, E. K. Plyler, E. D. Tidwell, “Vibration-rotation bands of ammonia: 1. The combination bands ν2 + (ν1, ν3),” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. 61(3), 123–147 (1958).
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  26. W. S. Benedict, E. K. Plyler, E. D. Tidwell, “Vibration-rotation bands of ammonia: III. The region 3.2-4.3 microns,” J. Chem. Phys. 29, 829–845 (1958).
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  30. S. Sarangi, “Analysis of the ν3 + ν4 band of ammonia,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 18, 257–288 (1977).
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  31. S. Sarangi, “Analysis of line intensities in the two-micron band of ammonia,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 18, 289–293 (1977).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  34. G. Guelachvili, A. H. Abdullah, N. Tu, K. Narahari Rao, Š. Urban, D. Papoušek, “Analysis of high-resolution Fourier transform spectra of 14NH3 at 3.0 µm,” J. Mol. Spectros. 133, 345–364 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  35. Š. Urban, N. Tu, K. Narahari Rao, G. Guelachvili, “Analysis of high-resolution Fourier transform spectra of 14NH3 at 2.3 µm,” J. Mol. Spectros. 133, 312–330 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  36. B. B. Radak, J. I. Lunine, D. M. Hunten, G. H. Atkinson, “Line intensities in the 647.5-nm ammonia band at low temperatures determined by intracavity laser spectroscopy,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 53, 519–526 (1995).
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    [CrossRef]
  38. L. Lundsberg-Nielsen, F. Hegelund, F. M. Nicolaisen, “Analysis of the high-resolution spectrum of ammonia (14NH3) in the near-infrared region, 6400-6900 cm-1,” J. Mol. Spectros. 162, 230–245 (1993).
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  41. E. R. Furlong, R. M. Mihalcea, M. E. Webber, D. S. Baer, R. K. Hanson, “Diode-laser sensors for real-time control of pulsed combustion systems,” AIAA J. 37, 732–737 (1999).
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    [CrossRef]
  44. A. S. Pine, V. N. Markov, G. Buffa, O. Tarrini, “N2, O2, H2, Ar and He broadening in the ν1 band of NH3,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 50(4), 337–348 (1993).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

A. Goldman, R. R. Gamache, A. Perrin, J.-M. Flaud, C. P. Rinsland, L. S. Rothman, “HITRAN partition functions and weighted transition-moments squared,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 66, 455–486 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

E. R. Furlong, R. M. Mihalcea, M. E. Webber, D. S. Baer, R. K. Hanson, “Diode-laser sensors for real-time control of pulsed combustion systems,” AIAA J. 37, 732–737 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chrusin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J.-M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J.-M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, M. Weber, “The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 205–254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Modugno, C. Corsi, “Water vapour and carbon dioxide interference in the high sensitivity detection of NH3 with semiconductor diode lasers at 1.5 µm,” Infrared Phy. Technol. 40, 93–99 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

L. S. Rothmann, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattsin, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Juck, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchechin, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

H. Kassman, L.-E. Åmand, B. Leckner, “Secondary effects in sampling ammonia during measurements in a circulating fluidised-bed combustor,” J. Inst. Energy 70, 95–101 (1997).

P. C. D. Hobbs, “Ultrasensitive laser measurements without tears,” Appl. Opt. 36, 903–920 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (2)

V. Nagali, S. I. Chou, D. S. Baer, R. K. Hanson, J. Segall, “Tunable diode-laser absorption measurements of methane at elevated temperatures,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4026–4032 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. R. Brown, J. S. Margolis, “Empirical line parameters of NH3 from 4791 to 5294 cm-1,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 56(2), 283–294 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

B. B. Radak, J. I. Lunine, D. M. Hunten, G. H. Atkinson, “Line intensities in the 647.5-nm ammonia band at low temperatures determined by intracavity laser spectroscopy,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 53, 519–526 (1995).

1994 (2)

H. Ahlberg, S. Lundqvist, R. Tell, T. Andersson, “Laser spectroscopy for in situ ammonia monitoring,” Spectros. Eur. 6(2), 22–26 (1994).

M. Fehér, Y. Jiang, J. P. Maier, A. Miklós, “Optoacoustic trace-gas monitoring with near-infrared diode lasers,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1655–1658 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (6)

K. Hjuler, K. Dam-Johansen, “Design of a flue gas probe for ammonia measurement,” Anal. Chim. Acta 282, 703–709 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Fehér, P. A. Martin, A. Rohrbacher, A. M. Soliva, J. P. Maier, “Inexpensive near-infrared diode-laser-based detection system for ammonia,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2028–2030 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Pine, V. N. Markov, G. Buffa, O. Tarrini, “N2, O2, H2, Ar and He broadening in the ν1 band of NH3,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 50(4), 337–348 (1993).
[CrossRef]

L. Lundsberg-Nielsen, F. Hegelund, F. M. Nicolaisen, “Analysis of the high-resolution spectrum of ammonia (14NH3) in the near-infrared region, 6400-6900 cm-1,” J. Mol. Spectros. 162, 230–245 (1993).
[CrossRef]

L. I. Gurinovich, V. P. Duraev, V. A. Ivanov, N. K. Nikeenko, “Application of near IR band injection lasers for the control of ammonia content in air,” J. Appl. Spectros. 58(3–4), 240–245 (1993).

T. Wu, H. An, P. Jiang, Y. Fang, S. Tao, P. Ye, “Spectral measurements of NH3 absorption lines by a 1.5-µm grating-external-cavity semiconductor laser,” Opt. Lett. 18, 729–731 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (2)

J. A. Silver, “Frequency-modulation spectroscopy for trace species detection: theory and comparison among experimental methods,” Appl. Opt. 31, 707–717 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Urban, “High-resolution infrared spectroscopy of ammonia: a survey of theory and analyses of spectra,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 675–684 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

R. S. McDowell, “Rotational partition functions for symmetric-top molecules,” J. Chem. Phys. 93, 2801–2811 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

G. Guelachvili, A. H. Abdullah, N. Tu, K. Narahari Rao, Š. Urban, D. Papoušek, “Analysis of high-resolution Fourier transform spectra of 14NH3 at 3.0 µm,” J. Mol. Spectros. 133, 345–364 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Š. Urban, N. Tu, K. Narahari Rao, G. Guelachvili, “Analysis of high-resolution Fourier transform spectra of 14NH3 at 2.3 µm,” J. Mol. Spectros. 133, 312–330 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

R. J. Willey, M. F. Fox, “Ammonia decomposition over 430-SS etched metal catalysts,” J. Catal. 112, 590–594 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

E. Lellouch, N. Lacome, G. Guelachvili, G. Tarrago, T. Encrenaz, “Ammonia: experimental absolute linestrengths and self-broadening parameters in the 1800- to 2100-cm-1 range,” J. Mol. Spectros. 124, 333–347 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

R. K. Lyon, J. E. Hardy, “Discovery and development of the Thermal DeNOx process,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Fundam. 25, 19–24 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984 (3)

T. Yanagawa, S. Saito, Y. Yamamoto, “Frequency stabilization of 1.5-µm InGaAsP distributed feedback laser to NH3 absorption lines,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 826–828 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Š. Urban, D. Papoušek, V. Malathy Devi, B. Fridovich, R. D’Cunha, K. Narahari Rao, “Transition dipole matrix elements for 14NH3 from the line intensities of the 2ν2 and ν4 bands,” J. Mol. Spectros. 106, 38–55 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Š. Urban, R. D’Cunha, K. Narahari Rao, D. Papoušek, “The Δk = ±2 ‘forbidden band’ and inversion-rotation energy levels of ammonia,” Can. J. Phys. 62, 1775–1791 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

M. Ohtsu, H. Kotani, H. Tagawa, “Spectral measurements of NH3 and H2O for pollutant gas monitoring by 1.5-µm InGaAsP/InP lasers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phy. 22, 1553–1557 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1977 (2)

S. Sarangi, “Analysis of the ν3 + ν4 band of ammonia,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 18, 257–288 (1977).
[CrossRef]

S. Sarangi, “Analysis of line intensities in the two-micron band of ammonia,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 18, 289–293 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

J. S. Margolis, S. Sarangi, “Measurement of hydrogen- and self-broadened half-widths of ammonia at 200 and 300 °K,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 16, 405–408 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

P. Varanasi, “Shapes and widths of ammonia lines collision-broadened by hydrogen,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 12, 1283–1289 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1959 (1)

J. S. Garing, H. H. Nielsen, K. Narahari Rao, “The low-frequency vibration rotation bands of the ammonia molecule,” J. Mol. Spectros. 3, 496–527 (1959).
[CrossRef]

1958 (2)

W. S. Benedict, E. K. Plyler, E. D. Tidwell, “Vibration-rotation bands of ammonia: 1. The combination bands ν2 + (ν1, ν3),” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. 61(3), 123–147 (1958).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Benedict, E. K. Plyler, E. D. Tidwell, “Vibration-rotation bands of ammonia: III. The region 3.2-4.3 microns,” J. Chem. Phys. 29, 829–845 (1958).
[CrossRef]

1957 (1)

W. S. Benedict, E. K. Plyler, “Vibration-rotation bands of ammonia: II. The molecular dimensions and harmonic frequencies of ammonia and deuterated ammonia,” Can. J. Phys. 35, 1235–1241 (1957).
[CrossRef]

1933 (1)

H. J. Unger, “Infrared absorption bands of ammonia,” Phys. Rev. 43, 123–128 (1933).
[CrossRef]

Abdullah, A. H.

G. Guelachvili, A. H. Abdullah, N. Tu, K. Narahari Rao, Š. Urban, D. Papoušek, “Analysis of high-resolution Fourier transform spectra of 14NH3 at 3.0 µm,” J. Mol. Spectros. 133, 345–364 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ahlberg, H.

H. Ahlberg, S. Lundqvist, R. Tell, T. Andersson, “Laser spectroscopy for in situ ammonia monitoring,” Spectros. Eur. 6(2), 22–26 (1994).

H. Ahlberg, S. Lundqvist, R. Tell, T. Andersson, “Industrialized high sensitivity fiber-optic near-IR diode laser based gas analysis system,” in Tunable Diode Laser Spectroscopy, Lidar, and DIAL Techniques for Environmental and Industrial Measurements, H. I. Schiff, A. Fried, D. K. Killinger, eds., Proc. SPIE2112, 118–129 (1994).

L. Sandström, H. Ahlberg, S. Höjer, A. G. Larsson, S. Bäckström, “Near-infrared semiconductor lasers for gas analysis operating in the 2-µm range,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 9 of OSA 1996 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 239–240.

Åmand, L.-E.

H. Kassman, L.-E. Åmand, B. Leckner, “Secondary effects in sampling ammonia during measurements in a circulating fluidised-bed combustor,” J. Inst. Energy 70, 95–101 (1997).

An, H.

Andersson, T.

H. Ahlberg, S. Lundqvist, R. Tell, T. Andersson, “Laser spectroscopy for in situ ammonia monitoring,” Spectros. Eur. 6(2), 22–26 (1994).

H. Ahlberg, S. Lundqvist, R. Tell, T. Andersson, “Industrialized high sensitivity fiber-optic near-IR diode laser based gas analysis system,” in Tunable Diode Laser Spectroscopy, Lidar, and DIAL Techniques for Environmental and Industrial Measurements, H. I. Schiff, A. Fried, D. K. Killinger, eds., Proc. SPIE2112, 118–129 (1994).

Arie, E.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chrusin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J.-M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J.-M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, M. Weber, “The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 205–254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Atkinson, G. H.

B. B. Radak, J. I. Lunine, D. M. Hunten, G. H. Atkinson, “Line intensities in the 647.5-nm ammonia band at low temperatures determined by intracavity laser spectroscopy,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 53, 519–526 (1995).

Bäckström, S.

L. Sandström, H. Ahlberg, S. Höjer, A. G. Larsson, S. Bäckström, “Near-infrared semiconductor lasers for gas analysis operating in the 2-µm range,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 9 of OSA 1996 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 239–240.

Baer, D. S.

E. R. Furlong, R. M. Mihalcea, M. E. Webber, D. S. Baer, R. K. Hanson, “Diode-laser sensors for real-time control of pulsed combustion systems,” AIAA J. 37, 732–737 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. Nagali, S. I. Chou, D. S. Baer, R. K. Hanson, J. Segall, “Tunable diode-laser absorption measurements of methane at elevated temperatures,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4026–4032 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ballard, J.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chrusin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J.-M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J.-M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, M. Weber, “The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 205–254 (1999).
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Barbe, A.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chrusin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J.-M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J.-M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, M. Weber, “The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 205–254 (1999).
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Bein, F.

G. Monlux, J. A. Brand, P. Zmarzly, M. Walker, K. W. Groff, G. J. Fetzer, N. Goldstein, F. Bein, S. C. Richtsmeier, J. Lee, “In situ ammonia analyzer for process control and environmental monitoring,” in Advanced Technologies for Environmental Monitoring and Remediation, T. V.- Dinh, ed., Proc. SPIE2835, 236–247 (1996).

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N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chrusin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J.-M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J.-M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, M. Weber, “The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 205–254 (1999).
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N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chrusin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J.-M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J.-M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, M. Weber, “The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 205–254 (1999).
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Brand, J. A.

G. Monlux, J. A. Brand, P. Zmarzly, M. Walker, K. W. Groff, G. J. Fetzer, N. Goldstein, F. Bein, S. C. Richtsmeier, J. Lee, “In situ ammonia analyzer for process control and environmental monitoring,” in Advanced Technologies for Environmental Monitoring and Remediation, T. V.- Dinh, ed., Proc. SPIE2835, 236–247 (1996).

Brown, L. R.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chrusin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J.-M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J.-M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, M. Weber, “The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 205–254 (1999).
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L. S. Rothmann, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattsin, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Juck, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchechin, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
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Buffa, G.

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N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chrusin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J.-M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J.-M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, M. Weber, “The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 205–254 (1999).
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N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chrusin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J.-M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J.-M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, M. Weber, “The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 205–254 (1999).
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Chance, K. V.

L. S. Rothmann, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattsin, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Juck, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchechin, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
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Chedin, A.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chrusin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J.-M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J.-M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, M. Weber, “The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 205–254 (1999).
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Chou, S. I.

Chrusin, A.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chrusin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J.-M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J.-M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, M. Weber, “The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 205–254 (1999).
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Clerbaux, C.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chrusin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J.-M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J.-M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, M. Weber, “The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 205–254 (1999).
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Corsi, C.

G. Modugno, C. Corsi, “Water vapour and carbon dioxide interference in the high sensitivity detection of NH3 with semiconductor diode lasers at 1.5 µm,” Infrared Phy. Technol. 40, 93–99 (1999).
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D’Cunha, R.

Š. Urban, R. D’Cunha, K. Narahari Rao, D. Papoušek, “The Δk = ±2 ‘forbidden band’ and inversion-rotation energy levels of ammonia,” Can. J. Phys. 62, 1775–1791 (1984).
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Š. Urban, D. Papoušek, V. Malathy Devi, B. Fridovich, R. D’Cunha, K. Narahari Rao, “Transition dipole matrix elements for 14NH3 from the line intensities of the 2ν2 and ν4 bands,” J. Mol. Spectros. 106, 38–55 (1984).
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Dakin, J. P.

J. P. Dakin, H. O. Edwards, B. H. Weigl, “Latest developments in gas sensing using correlation spectroscopy,” in Chemical, Biochemical, and Environmental Fiber Sensors VII, A. V. Scheggi, ed., Proc. SPIE2508, 2–17 (1995).

Dam-Johansen, K.

K. Hjuler, K. Dam-Johansen, “Design of a flue gas probe for ammonia measurement,” Anal. Chim. Acta 282, 703–709 (1993).
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Duraev, V. P.

L. I. Gurinovich, V. P. Duraev, V. A. Ivanov, N. K. Nikeenko, “Application of near IR band injection lasers for the control of ammonia content in air,” J. Appl. Spectros. 58(3–4), 240–245 (1993).

Duxbury, G.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chrusin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J.-M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J.-M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, M. Weber, “The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 205–254 (1999).
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Edwards, D. P.

L. S. Rothmann, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattsin, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Juck, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchechin, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
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J. P. Dakin, H. O. Edwards, B. H. Weigl, “Latest developments in gas sensing using correlation spectroscopy,” in Chemical, Biochemical, and Environmental Fiber Sensors VII, A. V. Scheggi, ed., Proc. SPIE2508, 2–17 (1995).

Encrenaz, T.

E. Lellouch, N. Lacome, G. Guelachvili, G. Tarrago, T. Encrenaz, “Ammonia: experimental absolute linestrengths and self-broadening parameters in the 1800- to 2100-cm-1 range,” J. Mol. Spectros. 124, 333–347 (1987).
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Fayt, A.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chrusin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J.-M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J.-M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, M. Weber, “The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 205–254 (1999).
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Fehér, M.

Fetzer, G. J.

G. Monlux, J. A. Brand, P. Zmarzly, M. Walker, K. W. Groff, G. J. Fetzer, N. Goldstein, F. Bein, S. C. Richtsmeier, J. Lee, “In situ ammonia analyzer for process control and environmental monitoring,” in Advanced Technologies for Environmental Monitoring and Remediation, T. V.- Dinh, ed., Proc. SPIE2835, 236–247 (1996).

Flaud, J.-M.

A. Goldman, R. R. Gamache, A. Perrin, J.-M. Flaud, C. P. Rinsland, L. S. Rothman, “HITRAN partition functions and weighted transition-moments squared,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 66, 455–486 (2000).
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N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chrusin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J.-M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J.-M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, M. Weber, “The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 205–254 (1999).
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N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chrusin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J.-M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J.-M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, M. Weber, “The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 205–254 (1999).
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Fox, M. F.

R. J. Willey, M. F. Fox, “Ammonia decomposition over 430-SS etched metal catalysts,” J. Catal. 112, 590–594 (1988).
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Fridovich, B.

Š. Urban, D. Papoušek, V. Malathy Devi, B. Fridovich, R. D’Cunha, K. Narahari Rao, “Transition dipole matrix elements for 14NH3 from the line intensities of the 2ν2 and ν4 bands,” J. Mol. Spectros. 106, 38–55 (1984).
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Furlong, E. R.

E. R. Furlong, R. M. Mihalcea, M. E. Webber, D. S. Baer, R. K. Hanson, “Diode-laser sensors for real-time control of pulsed combustion systems,” AIAA J. 37, 732–737 (1999).
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Gamache, R.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chrusin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J.-M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J.-M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, M. Weber, “The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 205–254 (1999).
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Gamache, R. R.

A. Goldman, R. R. Gamache, A. Perrin, J.-M. Flaud, C. P. Rinsland, L. S. Rothman, “HITRAN partition functions and weighted transition-moments squared,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 66, 455–486 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothmann, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattsin, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Juck, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchechin, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
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R. R. Gamache, Center for Atmospheric Research, University of Massachusetts, Lowell, Lowell, Mass. (personal communication, 1999).

Garing, J. S.

J. S. Garing, H. H. Nielsen, K. Narahari Rao, “The low-frequency vibration rotation bands of the ammonia molecule,” J. Mol. Spectros. 3, 496–527 (1959).
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Goldman, A.

A. Goldman, R. R. Gamache, A. Perrin, J.-M. Flaud, C. P. Rinsland, L. S. Rothman, “HITRAN partition functions and weighted transition-moments squared,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 66, 455–486 (2000).
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L. I. Gurinovich, V. P. Duraev, V. A. Ivanov, N. K. Nikeenko, “Application of near IR band injection lasers for the control of ammonia content in air,” J. Appl. Spectros. 58(3–4), 240–245 (1993).

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N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chrusin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J.-M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J.-M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, M. Weber, “The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 205–254 (1999).
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L. Sandström, H. Ahlberg, S. Höjer, A. G. Larsson, S. Bäckström, “Near-infrared semiconductor lasers for gas analysis operating in the 2-µm range,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 9 of OSA 1996 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 239–240.

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G. Monlux, J. A. Brand, P. Zmarzly, M. Walker, K. W. Groff, G. J. Fetzer, N. Goldstein, F. Bein, S. C. Richtsmeier, J. Lee, “In situ ammonia analyzer for process control and environmental monitoring,” in Advanced Technologies for Environmental Monitoring and Remediation, T. V.- Dinh, ed., Proc. SPIE2835, 236–247 (1996).

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N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chrusin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J.-M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J.-M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, M. Weber, “The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 205–254 (1999).
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G. Guelachvili, A. H. Abdullah, N. Tu, K. Narahari Rao, Š. Urban, D. Papoušek, “Analysis of high-resolution Fourier transform spectra of 14NH3 at 3.0 µm,” J. Mol. Spectros. 133, 345–364 (1989).
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Tell, R.

H. Ahlberg, S. Lundqvist, R. Tell, T. Andersson, “Laser spectroscopy for in situ ammonia monitoring,” Spectros. Eur. 6(2), 22–26 (1994).

H. Ahlberg, S. Lundqvist, R. Tell, T. Andersson, “Industrialized high sensitivity fiber-optic near-IR diode laser based gas analysis system,” in Tunable Diode Laser Spectroscopy, Lidar, and DIAL Techniques for Environmental and Industrial Measurements, H. I. Schiff, A. Fried, D. K. Killinger, eds., Proc. SPIE2112, 118–129 (1994).

Tidwell, E. D.

W. S. Benedict, E. K. Plyler, E. D. Tidwell, “Vibration-rotation bands of ammonia: III. The region 3.2-4.3 microns,” J. Chem. Phys. 29, 829–845 (1958).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Benedict, E. K. Plyler, E. D. Tidwell, “Vibration-rotation bands of ammonia: 1. The combination bands ν2 + (ν1, ν3),” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. 61(3), 123–147 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Tipping, R. H.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chrusin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J.-M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J.-M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, M. Weber, “The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 205–254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tu, N.

Š. Urban, N. Tu, K. Narahari Rao, G. Guelachvili, “Analysis of high-resolution Fourier transform spectra of 14NH3 at 2.3 µm,” J. Mol. Spectros. 133, 312–330 (1989).
[CrossRef]

G. Guelachvili, A. H. Abdullah, N. Tu, K. Narahari Rao, Š. Urban, D. Papoušek, “Analysis of high-resolution Fourier transform spectra of 14NH3 at 3.0 µm,” J. Mol. Spectros. 133, 345–364 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Tyuterev, V. G.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chrusin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J.-M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J.-M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, M. Weber, “The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 205–254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Unger, H. J.

H. J. Unger, “Infrared absorption bands of ammonia,” Phys. Rev. 43, 123–128 (1933).
[CrossRef]

Urban, S.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chrusin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J.-M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J.-M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, M. Weber, “The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 205–254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Urban, “High-resolution infrared spectroscopy of ammonia: a survey of theory and analyses of spectra,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 675–684 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Urban, Š.

G. Guelachvili, A. H. Abdullah, N. Tu, K. Narahari Rao, Š. Urban, D. Papoušek, “Analysis of high-resolution Fourier transform spectra of 14NH3 at 3.0 µm,” J. Mol. Spectros. 133, 345–364 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Š. Urban, N. Tu, K. Narahari Rao, G. Guelachvili, “Analysis of high-resolution Fourier transform spectra of 14NH3 at 2.3 µm,” J. Mol. Spectros. 133, 312–330 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Š. Urban, D. Papoušek, V. Malathy Devi, B. Fridovich, R. D’Cunha, K. Narahari Rao, “Transition dipole matrix elements for 14NH3 from the line intensities of the 2ν2 and ν4 bands,” J. Mol. Spectros. 106, 38–55 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Š. Urban, R. D’Cunha, K. Narahari Rao, D. Papoušek, “The Δk = ±2 ‘forbidden band’ and inversion-rotation energy levels of ammonia,” Can. J. Phys. 62, 1775–1791 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Varanasi, P.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chrusin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J.-M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J.-M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, M. Weber, “The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 205–254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothmann, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattsin, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Juck, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchechin, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Varanasi, “Shapes and widths of ammonia lines collision-broadened by hydrogen,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 12, 1283–1289 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Walker, M.

G. Monlux, J. A. Brand, P. Zmarzly, M. Walker, K. W. Groff, G. J. Fetzer, N. Goldstein, F. Bein, S. C. Richtsmeier, J. Lee, “In situ ammonia analyzer for process control and environmental monitoring,” in Advanced Technologies for Environmental Monitoring and Remediation, T. V.- Dinh, ed., Proc. SPIE2835, 236–247 (1996).

Wattsin, R. B.

L. S. Rothmann, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattsin, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Juck, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchechin, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Webber, M. E.

E. R. Furlong, R. M. Mihalcea, M. E. Webber, D. S. Baer, R. K. Hanson, “Diode-laser sensors for real-time control of pulsed combustion systems,” AIAA J. 37, 732–737 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Weber, M.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chrusin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J.-M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J.-M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, M. Weber, “The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 205–254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Weigl, B. H.

J. P. Dakin, H. O. Edwards, B. H. Weigl, “Latest developments in gas sensing using correlation spectroscopy,” in Chemical, Biochemical, and Environmental Fiber Sensors VII, A. V. Scheggi, ed., Proc. SPIE2508, 2–17 (1995).

Willey, R. J.

R. J. Willey, M. F. Fox, “Ammonia decomposition over 430-SS etched metal catalysts,” J. Catal. 112, 590–594 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Wu, T.

Yamamoto, Y.

T. Yanagawa, S. Saito, Y. Yamamoto, “Frequency stabilization of 1.5-µm InGaAsP distributed feedback laser to NH3 absorption lines,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 826–828 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Yanagawa, T.

T. Yanagawa, S. Saito, Y. Yamamoto, “Frequency stabilization of 1.5-µm InGaAsP distributed feedback laser to NH3 absorption lines,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 826–828 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Ye, P.

Yoshino, K.

L. S. Rothmann, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattsin, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Juck, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchechin, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zmarzly, P.

G. Monlux, J. A. Brand, P. Zmarzly, M. Walker, K. W. Groff, G. J. Fetzer, N. Goldstein, F. Bein, S. C. Richtsmeier, J. Lee, “In situ ammonia analyzer for process control and environmental monitoring,” in Advanced Technologies for Environmental Monitoring and Remediation, T. V.- Dinh, ed., Proc. SPIE2835, 236–247 (1996).

AIAA J. (1)

E. R. Furlong, R. M. Mihalcea, M. E. Webber, D. S. Baer, R. K. Hanson, “Diode-laser sensors for real-time control of pulsed combustion systems,” AIAA J. 37, 732–737 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chim. Acta (1)

K. Hjuler, K. Dam-Johansen, “Design of a flue gas probe for ammonia measurement,” Anal. Chim. Acta 282, 703–709 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (5)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

T. Yanagawa, S. Saito, Y. Yamamoto, “Frequency stabilization of 1.5-µm InGaAsP distributed feedback laser to NH3 absorption lines,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 826–828 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Can. J. Phys. (2)

W. S. Benedict, E. K. Plyler, “Vibration-rotation bands of ammonia: II. The molecular dimensions and harmonic frequencies of ammonia and deuterated ammonia,” Can. J. Phys. 35, 1235–1241 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Š. Urban, R. D’Cunha, K. Narahari Rao, D. Papoušek, “The Δk = ±2 ‘forbidden band’ and inversion-rotation energy levels of ammonia,” Can. J. Phys. 62, 1775–1791 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Ind. Eng. Chem. Fundam. (1)

R. K. Lyon, J. E. Hardy, “Discovery and development of the Thermal DeNOx process,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Fundam. 25, 19–24 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Infrared Phy. Technol. (1)

G. Modugno, C. Corsi, “Water vapour and carbon dioxide interference in the high sensitivity detection of NH3 with semiconductor diode lasers at 1.5 µm,” Infrared Phy. Technol. 40, 93–99 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Spectros. (1)

L. I. Gurinovich, V. P. Duraev, V. A. Ivanov, N. K. Nikeenko, “Application of near IR band injection lasers for the control of ammonia content in air,” J. Appl. Spectros. 58(3–4), 240–245 (1993).

J. Catal. (1)

R. J. Willey, M. F. Fox, “Ammonia decomposition over 430-SS etched metal catalysts,” J. Catal. 112, 590–594 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (2)

R. S. McDowell, “Rotational partition functions for symmetric-top molecules,” J. Chem. Phys. 93, 2801–2811 (1990).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Benedict, E. K. Plyler, E. D. Tidwell, “Vibration-rotation bands of ammonia: III. The region 3.2-4.3 microns,” J. Chem. Phys. 29, 829–845 (1958).
[CrossRef]

J. Inst. Energy (1)

H. Kassman, L.-E. Åmand, B. Leckner, “Secondary effects in sampling ammonia during measurements in a circulating fluidised-bed combustor,” J. Inst. Energy 70, 95–101 (1997).

J. Mol. Spectros. (6)

J. S. Garing, H. H. Nielsen, K. Narahari Rao, “The low-frequency vibration rotation bands of the ammonia molecule,” J. Mol. Spectros. 3, 496–527 (1959).
[CrossRef]

E. Lellouch, N. Lacome, G. Guelachvili, G. Tarrago, T. Encrenaz, “Ammonia: experimental absolute linestrengths and self-broadening parameters in the 1800- to 2100-cm-1 range,” J. Mol. Spectros. 124, 333–347 (1987).
[CrossRef]

G. Guelachvili, A. H. Abdullah, N. Tu, K. Narahari Rao, Š. Urban, D. Papoušek, “Analysis of high-resolution Fourier transform spectra of 14NH3 at 3.0 µm,” J. Mol. Spectros. 133, 345–364 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Š. Urban, N. Tu, K. Narahari Rao, G. Guelachvili, “Analysis of high-resolution Fourier transform spectra of 14NH3 at 2.3 µm,” J. Mol. Spectros. 133, 312–330 (1989).
[CrossRef]

L. Lundsberg-Nielsen, F. Hegelund, F. M. Nicolaisen, “Analysis of the high-resolution spectrum of ammonia (14NH3) in the near-infrared region, 6400-6900 cm-1,” J. Mol. Spectros. 162, 230–245 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Š. Urban, D. Papoušek, V. Malathy Devi, B. Fridovich, R. D’Cunha, K. Narahari Rao, “Transition dipole matrix elements for 14NH3 from the line intensities of the 2ν2 and ν4 bands,” J. Mol. Spectros. 106, 38–55 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (11)

A. S. Pine, V. N. Markov, G. Buffa, O. Tarrini, “N2, O2, H2, Ar and He broadening in the ν1 band of NH3,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 50(4), 337–348 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Goldman, R. R. Gamache, A. Perrin, J.-M. Flaud, C. P. Rinsland, L. S. Rothman, “HITRAN partition functions and weighted transition-moments squared,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 66, 455–486 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chrusin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J.-M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J.-M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, M. Weber, “The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 205–254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothmann, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattsin, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Juck, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchechin, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. B. Radak, J. I. Lunine, D. M. Hunten, G. H. Atkinson, “Line intensities in the 647.5-nm ammonia band at low temperatures determined by intracavity laser spectroscopy,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 53, 519–526 (1995).

L. R. Brown, J. S. Margolis, “Empirical line parameters of NH3 from 4791 to 5294 cm-1,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 56(2), 283–294 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Varanasi, “Shapes and widths of ammonia lines collision-broadened by hydrogen,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 12, 1283–1289 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Margolis, S. Sarangi, “Measurement of hydrogen- and self-broadened half-widths of ammonia at 200 and 300 °K,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 16, 405–408 (1976).
[CrossRef]

S. Sarangi, “Analysis of the ν3 + ν4 band of ammonia,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 18, 257–288 (1977).
[CrossRef]

S. Sarangi, “Analysis of line intensities in the two-micron band of ammonia,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 18, 289–293 (1977).
[CrossRef]

S. Urban, “High-resolution infrared spectroscopy of ammonia: a survey of theory and analyses of spectra,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 675–684 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. (1)

W. S. Benedict, E. K. Plyler, E. D. Tidwell, “Vibration-rotation bands of ammonia: 1. The combination bands ν2 + (ν1, ν3),” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. 61(3), 123–147 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phy. (1)

M. Ohtsu, H. Kotani, H. Tagawa, “Spectral measurements of NH3 and H2O for pollutant gas monitoring by 1.5-µm InGaAsP/InP lasers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phy. 22, 1553–1557 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. (1)

H. J. Unger, “Infrared absorption bands of ammonia,” Phys. Rev. 43, 123–128 (1933).
[CrossRef]

Spectros. Eur. (1)

H. Ahlberg, S. Lundqvist, R. Tell, T. Andersson, “Laser spectroscopy for in situ ammonia monitoring,” Spectros. Eur. 6(2), 22–26 (1994).

Other (8)

J. P. Dakin, H. O. Edwards, B. H. Weigl, “Latest developments in gas sensing using correlation spectroscopy,” in Chemical, Biochemical, and Environmental Fiber Sensors VII, A. V. Scheggi, ed., Proc. SPIE2508, 2–17 (1995).

G. Monlux, J. A. Brand, P. Zmarzly, M. Walker, K. W. Groff, G. J. Fetzer, N. Goldstein, F. Bein, S. C. Richtsmeier, J. Lee, “In situ ammonia analyzer for process control and environmental monitoring,” in Advanced Technologies for Environmental Monitoring and Remediation, T. V.- Dinh, ed., Proc. SPIE2835, 236–247 (1996).

H. Ahlberg, S. Lundqvist, R. Tell, T. Andersson, “Industrialized high sensitivity fiber-optic near-IR diode laser based gas analysis system,” in Tunable Diode Laser Spectroscopy, Lidar, and DIAL Techniques for Environmental and Industrial Measurements, H. I. Schiff, A. Fried, D. K. Killinger, eds., Proc. SPIE2112, 118–129 (1994).

R. M. Mihalcea, “CO and CO2 measurements in combustion environments using external cavity diode lasers,” Ph.D. dissertation (High Temperature Gasdynamics Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif., 1999).

R. R. Gamache, Center for Atmospheric Research, University of Massachusetts, Lowell, Lowell, Mass. (personal communication, 1999).

L. Lundsberg-Nielsen, “Molecular overtone spectroscopy on ammonia,” Ph.D. dissertation (Department of Chemistry, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark, and the Danish Institute of Fundamental Metrology, Lygnby, Denmark, 1995).

L. Sandström, H. Ahlberg, S. Höjer, A. G. Larsson, S. Bäckström, “Near-infrared semiconductor lasers for gas analysis operating in the 2-µm range,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 9 of OSA 1996 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 239–240.

G. Herzberg, Molecular Spectra and Molecular Structure II: Infrared and Raman Spectra of Polyatomic Molecules (Krieger, Malabax, Fla., 1991).

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