Abstract

Holographic studies in azobenzene side-chain polymers reveal light-induced periodic surface reliefs at temperatures far below the glass transition temperature. We performed experiments with two-color holography on an azobenzene polymer. An intensive and linear polarized homogeneous blue pump beam illuminated the sample, and two red beams—outside the trans-azobenzene absorption—were used to inscribe the grating. A surface relief was obtained only with the pump beam on and only if its polarization was perpendicular to the writing beams. The findings are discussed in the frame of a recent mean-field model.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. S. J. Zilker, T. Bieringer, D. Haarer, R. S. Stein, J. W. van Egmond, S. G. Kostromine, “Holographic data storage in amorphous polymers,” Adv. Mater. 10, 855–859 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Eickmans, T. Bieringer, S. Kostromine, H. Berneth, R. Thoma, “Photoaddressable polymers: a new class of materials for optical data storage and holographic memories,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 1835–1836 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. Y. Kim, S. K. Tripathy, L. Li, J. Kumar, “Laser-induced holographic surface relief gratings on nonlinear optical polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1166–1168 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. Rochon, E. Batella, A. Natansohn, “Optically induced surface gratings on azoaromatic polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 136–138 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. X. L. Liang, L. Li, J. Kumar, D. Y. Kim, V. Shivshankar, S. K. Tripathy, “Polarization dependent recording of surface relief gratings on azobenzene containing polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2618–2620 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  6. N. K. Viswanathan, D. Y. Kim, S. Bian, J. Williams, W. Liu, L. Li, L. Samuelson, J. Kumar, S. K. Tripathy, “Surface relief structures on azo polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem. 9, 1941–1955 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Kumar, L. Li, X. L. Liang, D. Y. Kim, T. S. Lee, S. K. Tripathy, “Gradient force: the mechanism for surface relief grating formation in azobenzene functionalized chromophores,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2096–2098 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. N. C. R. Holme, L. Nikolova, S. Hvilsted, P. H. Rasmussen, R. H. Berg, P. S. Ramanujam, “Optically induced surface relief phenomena in azobenzene polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 519–521 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. G. Pedersen, P. M. Johansen, N. C. R. Holme, P. S. Ramanujam, S. Hvilsted, “Mean-field theory of photoinduced formation of surface reliefs in side-chain azobenzene polymers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 89–92 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. Y. Kim, T.-S. Lee, S. K. Tripathy, X. L. Jian, L. Li, J. Kumar, “Photo fabrication of surface relief gratings on polymer films,” Macromol. Symp. 116, 127–134 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. J. Zilker, M. R. Huber, T. Bieringer, D. Haarer, “Holographic recording in amorphous sidechain polymers: a comparison of two different design philosophies,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 893–897 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Leopold, J. Wolff, O. Baldus, M. R. Huber, T. Bieringer, S. J. Zilker, “Thermally induced surface relief gratings in azobenzene polymers,” J. Chem. Phys. 113, 833–837 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. Wu, L. Wang, J. Xu, B. Zou, X. Gong, G. Zhang, G. Tang, W. Chen, W. Huang, “Transient biphotonic holographic grating in photoisomerizative azo materials,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 3874–3880 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  14. P. Wu, D. V. G. L. N. Rao, B. R. Kimball, M. Nakashima, B. S. DeCristofano, “Transient optical modulation with a disperse-red-1-doped polymer film,” Appl. Opt. 39, 814–817 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C. A. Walsh, W. E. Moerner, “Two-beam coupling measurement of grating phase in a photorefractive polymer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1642–1647 (1992).
    [CrossRef]

2000

A. Leopold, J. Wolff, O. Baldus, M. R. Huber, T. Bieringer, S. J. Zilker, “Thermally induced surface relief gratings in azobenzene polymers,” J. Chem. Phys. 113, 833–837 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Wu, D. V. G. L. N. Rao, B. R. Kimball, M. Nakashima, B. S. DeCristofano, “Transient optical modulation with a disperse-red-1-doped polymer film,” Appl. Opt. 39, 814–817 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

S. J. Zilker, M. R. Huber, T. Bieringer, D. Haarer, “Holographic recording in amorphous sidechain polymers: a comparison of two different design philosophies,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 893–897 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Eickmans, T. Bieringer, S. Kostromine, H. Berneth, R. Thoma, “Photoaddressable polymers: a new class of materials for optical data storage and holographic memories,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 1835–1836 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. K. Viswanathan, D. Y. Kim, S. Bian, J. Williams, W. Liu, L. Li, L. Samuelson, J. Kumar, S. K. Tripathy, “Surface relief structures on azo polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem. 9, 1941–1955 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. C. R. Holme, L. Nikolova, S. Hvilsted, P. H. Rasmussen, R. H. Berg, P. S. Ramanujam, “Optically induced surface relief phenomena in azobenzene polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 519–521 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

T. G. Pedersen, P. M. Johansen, N. C. R. Holme, P. S. Ramanujam, S. Hvilsted, “Mean-field theory of photoinduced formation of surface reliefs in side-chain azobenzene polymers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 89–92 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Kumar, L. Li, X. L. Liang, D. Y. Kim, T. S. Lee, S. K. Tripathy, “Gradient force: the mechanism for surface relief grating formation in azobenzene functionalized chromophores,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2096–2098 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Zilker, T. Bieringer, D. Haarer, R. S. Stein, J. W. van Egmond, S. G. Kostromine, “Holographic data storage in amorphous polymers,” Adv. Mater. 10, 855–859 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Wu, L. Wang, J. Xu, B. Zou, X. Gong, G. Zhang, G. Tang, W. Chen, W. Huang, “Transient biphotonic holographic grating in photoisomerizative azo materials,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 3874–3880 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

D. Y. Kim, T.-S. Lee, S. K. Tripathy, X. L. Jian, L. Li, J. Kumar, “Photo fabrication of surface relief gratings on polymer films,” Macromol. Symp. 116, 127–134 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

X. L. Liang, L. Li, J. Kumar, D. Y. Kim, V. Shivshankar, S. K. Tripathy, “Polarization dependent recording of surface relief gratings on azobenzene containing polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2618–2620 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

D. Y. Kim, S. K. Tripathy, L. Li, J. Kumar, “Laser-induced holographic surface relief gratings on nonlinear optical polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1166–1168 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Rochon, E. Batella, A. Natansohn, “Optically induced surface gratings on azoaromatic polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 136–138 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992

Baldus, O.

A. Leopold, J. Wolff, O. Baldus, M. R. Huber, T. Bieringer, S. J. Zilker, “Thermally induced surface relief gratings in azobenzene polymers,” J. Chem. Phys. 113, 833–837 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Batella, E.

P. Rochon, E. Batella, A. Natansohn, “Optically induced surface gratings on azoaromatic polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 136–138 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Berg, R. H.

N. C. R. Holme, L. Nikolova, S. Hvilsted, P. H. Rasmussen, R. H. Berg, P. S. Ramanujam, “Optically induced surface relief phenomena in azobenzene polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 519–521 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Berneth, H.

J. Eickmans, T. Bieringer, S. Kostromine, H. Berneth, R. Thoma, “Photoaddressable polymers: a new class of materials for optical data storage and holographic memories,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 1835–1836 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bian, S.

N. K. Viswanathan, D. Y. Kim, S. Bian, J. Williams, W. Liu, L. Li, L. Samuelson, J. Kumar, S. K. Tripathy, “Surface relief structures on azo polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem. 9, 1941–1955 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bieringer, T.

A. Leopold, J. Wolff, O. Baldus, M. R. Huber, T. Bieringer, S. J. Zilker, “Thermally induced surface relief gratings in azobenzene polymers,” J. Chem. Phys. 113, 833–837 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Zilker, M. R. Huber, T. Bieringer, D. Haarer, “Holographic recording in amorphous sidechain polymers: a comparison of two different design philosophies,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 893–897 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Eickmans, T. Bieringer, S. Kostromine, H. Berneth, R. Thoma, “Photoaddressable polymers: a new class of materials for optical data storage and holographic memories,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 1835–1836 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Zilker, T. Bieringer, D. Haarer, R. S. Stein, J. W. van Egmond, S. G. Kostromine, “Holographic data storage in amorphous polymers,” Adv. Mater. 10, 855–859 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.

P. Wu, L. Wang, J. Xu, B. Zou, X. Gong, G. Zhang, G. Tang, W. Chen, W. Huang, “Transient biphotonic holographic grating in photoisomerizative azo materials,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 3874–3880 (1998).
[CrossRef]

DeCristofano, B. S.

Eickmans, J.

J. Eickmans, T. Bieringer, S. Kostromine, H. Berneth, R. Thoma, “Photoaddressable polymers: a new class of materials for optical data storage and holographic memories,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 1835–1836 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gong, X.

P. Wu, L. Wang, J. Xu, B. Zou, X. Gong, G. Zhang, G. Tang, W. Chen, W. Huang, “Transient biphotonic holographic grating in photoisomerizative azo materials,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 3874–3880 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Haarer, D.

S. J. Zilker, M. R. Huber, T. Bieringer, D. Haarer, “Holographic recording in amorphous sidechain polymers: a comparison of two different design philosophies,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 893–897 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Zilker, T. Bieringer, D. Haarer, R. S. Stein, J. W. van Egmond, S. G. Kostromine, “Holographic data storage in amorphous polymers,” Adv. Mater. 10, 855–859 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Holme, N. C. R.

N. C. R. Holme, L. Nikolova, S. Hvilsted, P. H. Rasmussen, R. H. Berg, P. S. Ramanujam, “Optically induced surface relief phenomena in azobenzene polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 519–521 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. G. Pedersen, P. M. Johansen, N. C. R. Holme, P. S. Ramanujam, S. Hvilsted, “Mean-field theory of photoinduced formation of surface reliefs in side-chain azobenzene polymers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 89–92 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Huang, W.

P. Wu, L. Wang, J. Xu, B. Zou, X. Gong, G. Zhang, G. Tang, W. Chen, W. Huang, “Transient biphotonic holographic grating in photoisomerizative azo materials,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 3874–3880 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Huber, M. R.

A. Leopold, J. Wolff, O. Baldus, M. R. Huber, T. Bieringer, S. J. Zilker, “Thermally induced surface relief gratings in azobenzene polymers,” J. Chem. Phys. 113, 833–837 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Zilker, M. R. Huber, T. Bieringer, D. Haarer, “Holographic recording in amorphous sidechain polymers: a comparison of two different design philosophies,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 893–897 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hvilsted, S.

N. C. R. Holme, L. Nikolova, S. Hvilsted, P. H. Rasmussen, R. H. Berg, P. S. Ramanujam, “Optically induced surface relief phenomena in azobenzene polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 519–521 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. G. Pedersen, P. M. Johansen, N. C. R. Holme, P. S. Ramanujam, S. Hvilsted, “Mean-field theory of photoinduced formation of surface reliefs in side-chain azobenzene polymers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 89–92 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jian, X. L.

D. Y. Kim, T.-S. Lee, S. K. Tripathy, X. L. Jian, L. Li, J. Kumar, “Photo fabrication of surface relief gratings on polymer films,” Macromol. Symp. 116, 127–134 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Johansen, P. M.

T. G. Pedersen, P. M. Johansen, N. C. R. Holme, P. S. Ramanujam, S. Hvilsted, “Mean-field theory of photoinduced formation of surface reliefs in side-chain azobenzene polymers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 89–92 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. Y.

N. K. Viswanathan, D. Y. Kim, S. Bian, J. Williams, W. Liu, L. Li, L. Samuelson, J. Kumar, S. K. Tripathy, “Surface relief structures on azo polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem. 9, 1941–1955 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Kumar, L. Li, X. L. Liang, D. Y. Kim, T. S. Lee, S. K. Tripathy, “Gradient force: the mechanism for surface relief grating formation in azobenzene functionalized chromophores,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2096–2098 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Kim, T.-S. Lee, S. K. Tripathy, X. L. Jian, L. Li, J. Kumar, “Photo fabrication of surface relief gratings on polymer films,” Macromol. Symp. 116, 127–134 (1997).
[CrossRef]

X. L. Liang, L. Li, J. Kumar, D. Y. Kim, V. Shivshankar, S. K. Tripathy, “Polarization dependent recording of surface relief gratings on azobenzene containing polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2618–2620 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Kim, S. K. Tripathy, L. Li, J. Kumar, “Laser-induced holographic surface relief gratings on nonlinear optical polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1166–1168 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kimball, B. R.

Kostromine, S.

J. Eickmans, T. Bieringer, S. Kostromine, H. Berneth, R. Thoma, “Photoaddressable polymers: a new class of materials for optical data storage and holographic memories,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 1835–1836 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kostromine, S. G.

S. J. Zilker, T. Bieringer, D. Haarer, R. S. Stein, J. W. van Egmond, S. G. Kostromine, “Holographic data storage in amorphous polymers,” Adv. Mater. 10, 855–859 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, J.

N. K. Viswanathan, D. Y. Kim, S. Bian, J. Williams, W. Liu, L. Li, L. Samuelson, J. Kumar, S. K. Tripathy, “Surface relief structures on azo polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem. 9, 1941–1955 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Kumar, L. Li, X. L. Liang, D. Y. Kim, T. S. Lee, S. K. Tripathy, “Gradient force: the mechanism for surface relief grating formation in azobenzene functionalized chromophores,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2096–2098 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Kim, T.-S. Lee, S. K. Tripathy, X. L. Jian, L. Li, J. Kumar, “Photo fabrication of surface relief gratings on polymer films,” Macromol. Symp. 116, 127–134 (1997).
[CrossRef]

X. L. Liang, L. Li, J. Kumar, D. Y. Kim, V. Shivshankar, S. K. Tripathy, “Polarization dependent recording of surface relief gratings on azobenzene containing polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2618–2620 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Kim, S. K. Tripathy, L. Li, J. Kumar, “Laser-induced holographic surface relief gratings on nonlinear optical polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1166–1168 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lee, T. S.

J. Kumar, L. Li, X. L. Liang, D. Y. Kim, T. S. Lee, S. K. Tripathy, “Gradient force: the mechanism for surface relief grating formation in azobenzene functionalized chromophores,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2096–2098 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lee, T.-S.

D. Y. Kim, T.-S. Lee, S. K. Tripathy, X. L. Jian, L. Li, J. Kumar, “Photo fabrication of surface relief gratings on polymer films,” Macromol. Symp. 116, 127–134 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Leopold, A.

A. Leopold, J. Wolff, O. Baldus, M. R. Huber, T. Bieringer, S. J. Zilker, “Thermally induced surface relief gratings in azobenzene polymers,” J. Chem. Phys. 113, 833–837 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

N. K. Viswanathan, D. Y. Kim, S. Bian, J. Williams, W. Liu, L. Li, L. Samuelson, J. Kumar, S. K. Tripathy, “Surface relief structures on azo polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem. 9, 1941–1955 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Kumar, L. Li, X. L. Liang, D. Y. Kim, T. S. Lee, S. K. Tripathy, “Gradient force: the mechanism for surface relief grating formation in azobenzene functionalized chromophores,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2096–2098 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Kim, T.-S. Lee, S. K. Tripathy, X. L. Jian, L. Li, J. Kumar, “Photo fabrication of surface relief gratings on polymer films,” Macromol. Symp. 116, 127–134 (1997).
[CrossRef]

X. L. Liang, L. Li, J. Kumar, D. Y. Kim, V. Shivshankar, S. K. Tripathy, “Polarization dependent recording of surface relief gratings on azobenzene containing polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2618–2620 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Kim, S. K. Tripathy, L. Li, J. Kumar, “Laser-induced holographic surface relief gratings on nonlinear optical polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1166–1168 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Liang, X. L.

J. Kumar, L. Li, X. L. Liang, D. Y. Kim, T. S. Lee, S. K. Tripathy, “Gradient force: the mechanism for surface relief grating formation in azobenzene functionalized chromophores,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2096–2098 (1998).
[CrossRef]

X. L. Liang, L. Li, J. Kumar, D. Y. Kim, V. Shivshankar, S. K. Tripathy, “Polarization dependent recording of surface relief gratings on azobenzene containing polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2618–2620 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W.

N. K. Viswanathan, D. Y. Kim, S. Bian, J. Williams, W. Liu, L. Li, L. Samuelson, J. Kumar, S. K. Tripathy, “Surface relief structures on azo polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem. 9, 1941–1955 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Moerner, W. E.

Nakashima, M.

Natansohn, A.

P. Rochon, E. Batella, A. Natansohn, “Optically induced surface gratings on azoaromatic polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 136–138 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nikolova, L.

N. C. R. Holme, L. Nikolova, S. Hvilsted, P. H. Rasmussen, R. H. Berg, P. S. Ramanujam, “Optically induced surface relief phenomena in azobenzene polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 519–521 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pedersen, T. G.

T. G. Pedersen, P. M. Johansen, N. C. R. Holme, P. S. Ramanujam, S. Hvilsted, “Mean-field theory of photoinduced formation of surface reliefs in side-chain azobenzene polymers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 89–92 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ramanujam, P. S.

N. C. R. Holme, L. Nikolova, S. Hvilsted, P. H. Rasmussen, R. H. Berg, P. S. Ramanujam, “Optically induced surface relief phenomena in azobenzene polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 519–521 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. G. Pedersen, P. M. Johansen, N. C. R. Holme, P. S. Ramanujam, S. Hvilsted, “Mean-field theory of photoinduced formation of surface reliefs in side-chain azobenzene polymers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 89–92 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rao, D. V. G. L. N.

Rasmussen, P. H.

N. C. R. Holme, L. Nikolova, S. Hvilsted, P. H. Rasmussen, R. H. Berg, P. S. Ramanujam, “Optically induced surface relief phenomena in azobenzene polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 519–521 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rochon, P.

P. Rochon, E. Batella, A. Natansohn, “Optically induced surface gratings on azoaromatic polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 136–138 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Samuelson, L.

N. K. Viswanathan, D. Y. Kim, S. Bian, J. Williams, W. Liu, L. Li, L. Samuelson, J. Kumar, S. K. Tripathy, “Surface relief structures on azo polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem. 9, 1941–1955 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shivshankar, V.

X. L. Liang, L. Li, J. Kumar, D. Y. Kim, V. Shivshankar, S. K. Tripathy, “Polarization dependent recording of surface relief gratings on azobenzene containing polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2618–2620 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Stein, R. S.

S. J. Zilker, T. Bieringer, D. Haarer, R. S. Stein, J. W. van Egmond, S. G. Kostromine, “Holographic data storage in amorphous polymers,” Adv. Mater. 10, 855–859 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tang, G.

P. Wu, L. Wang, J. Xu, B. Zou, X. Gong, G. Zhang, G. Tang, W. Chen, W. Huang, “Transient biphotonic holographic grating in photoisomerizative azo materials,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 3874–3880 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Thoma, R.

J. Eickmans, T. Bieringer, S. Kostromine, H. Berneth, R. Thoma, “Photoaddressable polymers: a new class of materials for optical data storage and holographic memories,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 1835–1836 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tripathy, S. K.

N. K. Viswanathan, D. Y. Kim, S. Bian, J. Williams, W. Liu, L. Li, L. Samuelson, J. Kumar, S. K. Tripathy, “Surface relief structures on azo polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem. 9, 1941–1955 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Kumar, L. Li, X. L. Liang, D. Y. Kim, T. S. Lee, S. K. Tripathy, “Gradient force: the mechanism for surface relief grating formation in azobenzene functionalized chromophores,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2096–2098 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Kim, T.-S. Lee, S. K. Tripathy, X. L. Jian, L. Li, J. Kumar, “Photo fabrication of surface relief gratings on polymer films,” Macromol. Symp. 116, 127–134 (1997).
[CrossRef]

X. L. Liang, L. Li, J. Kumar, D. Y. Kim, V. Shivshankar, S. K. Tripathy, “Polarization dependent recording of surface relief gratings on azobenzene containing polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2618–2620 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Kim, S. K. Tripathy, L. Li, J. Kumar, “Laser-induced holographic surface relief gratings on nonlinear optical polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1166–1168 (1995).
[CrossRef]

van Egmond, J. W.

S. J. Zilker, T. Bieringer, D. Haarer, R. S. Stein, J. W. van Egmond, S. G. Kostromine, “Holographic data storage in amorphous polymers,” Adv. Mater. 10, 855–859 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Viswanathan, N. K.

N. K. Viswanathan, D. Y. Kim, S. Bian, J. Williams, W. Liu, L. Li, L. Samuelson, J. Kumar, S. K. Tripathy, “Surface relief structures on azo polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem. 9, 1941–1955 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Walsh, C. A.

Wang, L.

P. Wu, L. Wang, J. Xu, B. Zou, X. Gong, G. Zhang, G. Tang, W. Chen, W. Huang, “Transient biphotonic holographic grating in photoisomerizative azo materials,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 3874–3880 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Williams, J.

N. K. Viswanathan, D. Y. Kim, S. Bian, J. Williams, W. Liu, L. Li, L. Samuelson, J. Kumar, S. K. Tripathy, “Surface relief structures on azo polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem. 9, 1941–1955 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wolff, J.

A. Leopold, J. Wolff, O. Baldus, M. R. Huber, T. Bieringer, S. J. Zilker, “Thermally induced surface relief gratings in azobenzene polymers,” J. Chem. Phys. 113, 833–837 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wu, P.

P. Wu, D. V. G. L. N. Rao, B. R. Kimball, M. Nakashima, B. S. DeCristofano, “Transient optical modulation with a disperse-red-1-doped polymer film,” Appl. Opt. 39, 814–817 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Wu, L. Wang, J. Xu, B. Zou, X. Gong, G. Zhang, G. Tang, W. Chen, W. Huang, “Transient biphotonic holographic grating in photoisomerizative azo materials,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 3874–3880 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

P. Wu, L. Wang, J. Xu, B. Zou, X. Gong, G. Zhang, G. Tang, W. Chen, W. Huang, “Transient biphotonic holographic grating in photoisomerizative azo materials,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 3874–3880 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, G.

P. Wu, L. Wang, J. Xu, B. Zou, X. Gong, G. Zhang, G. Tang, W. Chen, W. Huang, “Transient biphotonic holographic grating in photoisomerizative azo materials,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 3874–3880 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zilker, S. J.

A. Leopold, J. Wolff, O. Baldus, M. R. Huber, T. Bieringer, S. J. Zilker, “Thermally induced surface relief gratings in azobenzene polymers,” J. Chem. Phys. 113, 833–837 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Zilker, M. R. Huber, T. Bieringer, D. Haarer, “Holographic recording in amorphous sidechain polymers: a comparison of two different design philosophies,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 893–897 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Zilker, T. Bieringer, D. Haarer, R. S. Stein, J. W. van Egmond, S. G. Kostromine, “Holographic data storage in amorphous polymers,” Adv. Mater. 10, 855–859 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zou, B.

P. Wu, L. Wang, J. Xu, B. Zou, X. Gong, G. Zhang, G. Tang, W. Chen, W. Huang, “Transient biphotonic holographic grating in photoisomerizative azo materials,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 3874–3880 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater.

S. J. Zilker, T. Bieringer, D. Haarer, R. S. Stein, J. W. van Egmond, S. G. Kostromine, “Holographic data storage in amorphous polymers,” Adv. Mater. 10, 855–859 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. B

S. J. Zilker, M. R. Huber, T. Bieringer, D. Haarer, “Holographic recording in amorphous sidechain polymers: a comparison of two different design philosophies,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 893–897 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. Kumar, L. Li, X. L. Liang, D. Y. Kim, T. S. Lee, S. K. Tripathy, “Gradient force: the mechanism for surface relief grating formation in azobenzene functionalized chromophores,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2096–2098 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. C. R. Holme, L. Nikolova, S. Hvilsted, P. H. Rasmussen, R. H. Berg, P. S. Ramanujam, “Optically induced surface relief phenomena in azobenzene polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 519–521 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Kim, S. K. Tripathy, L. Li, J. Kumar, “Laser-induced holographic surface relief gratings on nonlinear optical polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1166–1168 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Rochon, E. Batella, A. Natansohn, “Optically induced surface gratings on azoaromatic polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 136–138 (1995).
[CrossRef]

X. L. Liang, L. Li, J. Kumar, D. Y. Kim, V. Shivshankar, S. K. Tripathy, “Polarization dependent recording of surface relief gratings on azobenzene containing polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2618–2620 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys.

A. Leopold, J. Wolff, O. Baldus, M. R. Huber, T. Bieringer, S. J. Zilker, “Thermally induced surface relief gratings in azobenzene polymers,” J. Chem. Phys. 113, 833–837 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem.

N. K. Viswanathan, D. Y. Kim, S. Bian, J. Williams, W. Liu, L. Li, L. Samuelson, J. Kumar, S. K. Tripathy, “Surface relief structures on azo polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem. 9, 1941–1955 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

J. Eickmans, T. Bieringer, S. Kostromine, H. Berneth, R. Thoma, “Photoaddressable polymers: a new class of materials for optical data storage and holographic memories,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 1835–1836 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Macromol. Symp.

D. Y. Kim, T.-S. Lee, S. K. Tripathy, X. L. Jian, L. Li, J. Kumar, “Photo fabrication of surface relief gratings on polymer films,” Macromol. Symp. 116, 127–134 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

P. Wu, L. Wang, J. Xu, B. Zou, X. Gong, G. Zhang, G. Tang, W. Chen, W. Huang, “Transient biphotonic holographic grating in photoisomerizative azo materials,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 3874–3880 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

T. G. Pedersen, P. M. Johansen, N. C. R. Holme, P. S. Ramanujam, S. Hvilsted, “Mean-field theory of photoinduced formation of surface reliefs in side-chain azobenzene polymers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 89–92 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Chemical structure of the investigated polymer K1-0.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Diffraction efficiency of a grating written by two red s-polarized laser beams with (upper curve) and without (lower curve) p-polarization illumination. Inset: atomic force microscope scan of the bicolor grating.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Stability measurement of the bicolor grating. Inset: closer look at the beginning of the experiment.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Model for the two different illumination cases (p and s polarization) with mean-field forces (arrows).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Diffraction efficiencies for both illuminations (s and p polarization) with the same beam intensities.

Metrics