Abstract

The reorientation of the director of a homeotropically aligned nematic liquid-crystal film subjected to ultrasound pulses is discussed. The relationship is investigated for the first time, to our knowledge, between the transmitted optical power and the high-frequency (approximately megahertz) pulsed ultrasound intensity. It is evident that there exists a power law governing the ultrasound-intensity-dependent optical transmission. However, the data indicate no existence of a characteristic threshold for the acousto-optical effect. Our results suggest that acoustic streaming, known to be responsible for acousto-optical effects in cw ultrasound experiments, should also play a similarly important role in the case involving a pulsed ultrasound field.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. W. Helfrich, “Orienting action of sound on nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 29, 1583–1586 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. Nagai, K. Izuka, “On the effect of ultrasound to nematic liquid crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 13, 189–190 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. L. Dion, A. D. Jacob, “A new hypothesis on ultrasonic interaction with a nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 490–493 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. G. Bruchmüller, “Die Flüssigkristallzelle als akusto-optischer Wandler (The liquid crystal cell as an acousto-optical transducer),” Acustica 40, 155–166 (1978).
  5. C. Sripaipan, C. F. Hayes, G. T. Fang, “Ultrasonically-induced optical effect in a nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. A 15, 1297–1303 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. Miyano, Y. R. Shen, “Excitation of stripe domain patterns by propagating acoustic waves in an oriented nematic film,” Phys. Rev. A 15, 2471–2485 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Nagai, A. Peters, S. Candau, “Acousto-optical effects in a nematic liquid crystal,” Rev. Phys. Appl. (Paris) 12, 21–30 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Letcher, J. Lebrun, S. Candau, “Acousto-optic effect in nematic liquid crystals,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 63, 55–59 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Candau, A. Ferre, A. Peters, G. Waton, P. Pieranski, “Acoustical streaming in a film of nematic liquid crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 61, 7–30 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  10. N. K. Gus’kov, E. N. Kozhevnikov, “Acoustooptical effect in a nematic liquid-crystal layer in an ultrasonic field,” Sov. Phys. Acoust. 29, 21–24 (1983).
  11. S.-H. Chen, W. Lee, K.-F. Huang, “Observation of domain patterns induced by ultrasound pulses in a nematic liquid-crystal film,” Opt. Lett. 14, 1042–1044 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. O. A. Kapustina, V. N. Reshetov, “Analysis of acoustooptical conversion in nematic liquid crystals,” Sov. Phys. Acoust. 37, 254–258 (1991).
  13. F. J. Kahn, “Orientation of liquid crystals by surface coupling agents,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 386–388 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  14. O. A. Kapustina, “Acoustooptical phenomena in liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 112, 1–159 (1984).
    [CrossRef]

1991 (1)

O. A. Kapustina, V. N. Reshetov, “Analysis of acoustooptical conversion in nematic liquid crystals,” Sov. Phys. Acoust. 37, 254–258 (1991).

1989 (1)

1984 (1)

O. A. Kapustina, “Acoustooptical phenomena in liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 112, 1–159 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

N. K. Gus’kov, E. N. Kozhevnikov, “Acoustooptical effect in a nematic liquid-crystal layer in an ultrasonic field,” Sov. Phys. Acoust. 29, 21–24 (1983).

1980 (1)

S. Candau, A. Ferre, A. Peters, G. Waton, P. Pieranski, “Acoustical streaming in a film of nematic liquid crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 61, 7–30 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1978 (2)

S. Letcher, J. Lebrun, S. Candau, “Acousto-optic effect in nematic liquid crystals,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 63, 55–59 (1978).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Bruchmüller, “Die Flüssigkristallzelle als akusto-optischer Wandler (The liquid crystal cell as an acousto-optical transducer),” Acustica 40, 155–166 (1978).

1977 (3)

C. Sripaipan, C. F. Hayes, G. T. Fang, “Ultrasonically-induced optical effect in a nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. A 15, 1297–1303 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Dion, A. D. Jacob, “A new hypothesis on ultrasonic interaction with a nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 490–493 (1977).
[CrossRef]

S. Nagai, A. Peters, S. Candau, “Acousto-optical effects in a nematic liquid crystal,” Rev. Phys. Appl. (Paris) 12, 21–30 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

K. Miyano, Y. R. Shen, “Excitation of stripe domain patterns by propagating acoustic waves in an oriented nematic film,” Phys. Rev. A 15, 2471–2485 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

S. Nagai, K. Izuka, “On the effect of ultrasound to nematic liquid crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 13, 189–190 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

F. J. Kahn, “Orientation of liquid crystals by surface coupling agents,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 386–388 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

W. Helfrich, “Orienting action of sound on nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 29, 1583–1586 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Bruchmüller, H. G.

H. G. Bruchmüller, “Die Flüssigkristallzelle als akusto-optischer Wandler (The liquid crystal cell as an acousto-optical transducer),” Acustica 40, 155–166 (1978).

Candau, S.

S. Candau, A. Ferre, A. Peters, G. Waton, P. Pieranski, “Acoustical streaming in a film of nematic liquid crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 61, 7–30 (1980).
[CrossRef]

S. Letcher, J. Lebrun, S. Candau, “Acousto-optic effect in nematic liquid crystals,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 63, 55–59 (1978).
[CrossRef]

S. Nagai, A. Peters, S. Candau, “Acousto-optical effects in a nematic liquid crystal,” Rev. Phys. Appl. (Paris) 12, 21–30 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S.-H.

Dion, J. L.

J. L. Dion, A. D. Jacob, “A new hypothesis on ultrasonic interaction with a nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 490–493 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Fang, G. T.

C. Sripaipan, C. F. Hayes, G. T. Fang, “Ultrasonically-induced optical effect in a nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. A 15, 1297–1303 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Ferre, A.

S. Candau, A. Ferre, A. Peters, G. Waton, P. Pieranski, “Acoustical streaming in a film of nematic liquid crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 61, 7–30 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Gus’kov, N. K.

N. K. Gus’kov, E. N. Kozhevnikov, “Acoustooptical effect in a nematic liquid-crystal layer in an ultrasonic field,” Sov. Phys. Acoust. 29, 21–24 (1983).

Hayes, C. F.

C. Sripaipan, C. F. Hayes, G. T. Fang, “Ultrasonically-induced optical effect in a nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. A 15, 1297–1303 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Helfrich, W.

W. Helfrich, “Orienting action of sound on nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 29, 1583–1586 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Huang, K.-F.

Izuka, K.

S. Nagai, K. Izuka, “On the effect of ultrasound to nematic liquid crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 13, 189–190 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Jacob, A. D.

J. L. Dion, A. D. Jacob, “A new hypothesis on ultrasonic interaction with a nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 490–493 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Kahn, F. J.

F. J. Kahn, “Orientation of liquid crystals by surface coupling agents,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 386–388 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Kapustina, O. A.

O. A. Kapustina, V. N. Reshetov, “Analysis of acoustooptical conversion in nematic liquid crystals,” Sov. Phys. Acoust. 37, 254–258 (1991).

O. A. Kapustina, “Acoustooptical phenomena in liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 112, 1–159 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Kozhevnikov, E. N.

N. K. Gus’kov, E. N. Kozhevnikov, “Acoustooptical effect in a nematic liquid-crystal layer in an ultrasonic field,” Sov. Phys. Acoust. 29, 21–24 (1983).

Lebrun, J.

S. Letcher, J. Lebrun, S. Candau, “Acousto-optic effect in nematic liquid crystals,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 63, 55–59 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Lee, W.

Letcher, S.

S. Letcher, J. Lebrun, S. Candau, “Acousto-optic effect in nematic liquid crystals,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 63, 55–59 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Miyano, K.

K. Miyano, Y. R. Shen, “Excitation of stripe domain patterns by propagating acoustic waves in an oriented nematic film,” Phys. Rev. A 15, 2471–2485 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Nagai, S.

S. Nagai, A. Peters, S. Candau, “Acousto-optical effects in a nematic liquid crystal,” Rev. Phys. Appl. (Paris) 12, 21–30 (1977).
[CrossRef]

S. Nagai, K. Izuka, “On the effect of ultrasound to nematic liquid crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 13, 189–190 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Peters, A.

S. Candau, A. Ferre, A. Peters, G. Waton, P. Pieranski, “Acoustical streaming in a film of nematic liquid crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 61, 7–30 (1980).
[CrossRef]

S. Nagai, A. Peters, S. Candau, “Acousto-optical effects in a nematic liquid crystal,” Rev. Phys. Appl. (Paris) 12, 21–30 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Pieranski, P.

S. Candau, A. Ferre, A. Peters, G. Waton, P. Pieranski, “Acoustical streaming in a film of nematic liquid crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 61, 7–30 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Reshetov, V. N.

O. A. Kapustina, V. N. Reshetov, “Analysis of acoustooptical conversion in nematic liquid crystals,” Sov. Phys. Acoust. 37, 254–258 (1991).

Shen, Y. R.

K. Miyano, Y. R. Shen, “Excitation of stripe domain patterns by propagating acoustic waves in an oriented nematic film,” Phys. Rev. A 15, 2471–2485 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Sripaipan, C.

C. Sripaipan, C. F. Hayes, G. T. Fang, “Ultrasonically-induced optical effect in a nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. A 15, 1297–1303 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Waton, G.

S. Candau, A. Ferre, A. Peters, G. Waton, P. Pieranski, “Acoustical streaming in a film of nematic liquid crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 61, 7–30 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Acustica (1)

H. G. Bruchmüller, “Die Flüssigkristallzelle als akusto-optischer Wandler (The liquid crystal cell as an acousto-optical transducer),” Acustica 40, 155–166 (1978).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

F. J. Kahn, “Orientation of liquid crystals by surface coupling agents,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 386–388 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Dion, A. D. Jacob, “A new hypothesis on ultrasonic interaction with a nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 490–493 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Acoust. Soc. Am. (1)

S. Letcher, J. Lebrun, S. Candau, “Acousto-optic effect in nematic liquid crystals,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 63, 55–59 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Nagai, K. Izuka, “On the effect of ultrasound to nematic liquid crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 13, 189–190 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (2)

S. Candau, A. Ferre, A. Peters, G. Waton, P. Pieranski, “Acoustical streaming in a film of nematic liquid crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 61, 7–30 (1980).
[CrossRef]

O. A. Kapustina, “Acoustooptical phenomena in liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 112, 1–159 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (2)

C. Sripaipan, C. F. Hayes, G. T. Fang, “Ultrasonically-induced optical effect in a nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. A 15, 1297–1303 (1977).
[CrossRef]

K. Miyano, Y. R. Shen, “Excitation of stripe domain patterns by propagating acoustic waves in an oriented nematic film,” Phys. Rev. A 15, 2471–2485 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

W. Helfrich, “Orienting action of sound on nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 29, 1583–1586 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Phys. Appl. (Paris) (1)

S. Nagai, A. Peters, S. Candau, “Acousto-optical effects in a nematic liquid crystal,” Rev. Phys. Appl. (Paris) 12, 21–30 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. Acoust. (2)

N. K. Gus’kov, E. N. Kozhevnikov, “Acoustooptical effect in a nematic liquid-crystal layer in an ultrasonic field,” Sov. Phys. Acoust. 29, 21–24 (1983).

O. A. Kapustina, V. N. Reshetov, “Analysis of acoustooptical conversion in nematic liquid crystals,” Sov. Phys. Acoust. 37, 254–258 (1991).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Plot of optical transmission vs. peak-to-peak pulse voltage of the ultrasound.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Plot of optical transmission vs. repetition rate. The cell temperature is 22.4 °C.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Relationship between the peak-to-peak pulse voltage and the pulse repetition rate for an optical transmission of 2.5 × 10-3. The cell temperatures are (a) 23.6 °C, (b) 23.5 °C.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Temperature dependence of the excitation voltage required for yielding an optical transmission of 2.5 × 10-3. The pulse repetition rate of the ultrasound is 400 Hz.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Exponent n as a function of the cell temperature as in the relation I ∼ (V p 2) n for a fixed pulse repetition rate of 400 Hz.

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