Abstract

The spectral properties of plant leaves and stems have been obtained for ultraviolet, visible, and infrared frequencies. The spectral reflectance, transmittance, and absorptance for certain plants is given. The mechanism by which radiant energy interacts with a leaf is discussed, including the presence of plant pigments. Examples are given concerning the amount of absorbed solar radiation for clear sky and overcast conditions. The spectral properties of desert plants are compared with those of more mesic plants. The evolution of the spectral properties of plant leaves during the early growing season is given as well as the colorimetric behavior during the autumn.

© 1965 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. S. French, in Encyclopedia of Plant Physiology, W. Ruhland, ed. (Springer, Berlin, 1960), pp. 252–297.
  2. M. Calvin, G. M. Androes, Science 138, 867 (1962).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. E. S. Clements, Trans. Am. Microscop. Soc. 26, 19 (1904).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. S. French, V. M. K. Young, in Radiation Biology, A. Hollaender, ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1956), Chap. 6, pp. 343–391.
  5. G. S. Rabideau, C. S. French, A. S. Holt, Am. J. Botan. 33, 769 (1946).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. A. Shull, Botan. Gaz. 87, 583 (1929).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. J. McNicholas, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. 7, 171 (1931).
  8. W. Clark, Photography by Infrared (Wiley, New York, 1946), 2nd ed., 472 pp.
  9. E. L. Krinov, “Spectral reflectance properties of natural formations”, Area Methods Laboratory, Academy of Sciences, USSR. Technical translation TT-439 by E. Belkov, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, 268 pp. (1953).
  10. A. F. Kleshnin, I. A. Shulgin, Dokl. Akad. Nauk. SSSR (Botan. Sci. Sect.) 125, 1158 (1959).
  11. W. D. Billings, R. J. Morris, Am. J. Botan. 38, 327 (1951).
    [CrossRef]
  12. F. Obaton, Compt. Rend. 218, 721 (1944).
  13. R. A. Moss, W. E. Loomis, Plant Physiol. 27, 370 (1952).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. D. M. Gates, W. Tantraporn, Science 115, 613 (1952).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. P. J. C. Kuiper, Plant Physiol. (submitted).
  16. K. S. Gibson, H. J. Keegan, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 28, 372 (1938).
    [CrossRef]
  17. H. J. Keegan, J. C. Schleter, D. B. Judd, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. 66A, 203 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  18. H. J. Keegan, J. C. Schleter, M. A. Belknap, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. 67A, 572 (1963); J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 69 (1964).
  19. D. M. Gates, Am. Sci. 51, 327 (1963).
  20. D. M. Gates, C. M. Benedict, Am. J. Botan. 50, 563 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  21. R. Willstätter, A. Stoll, Untersuchungen über chlorophyll, (Springer, Berlin, 1913), English translation by F. M. Shertz, A. R. Mertz, 1928.
  22. P. Latimer, Science 127, 29 (1958).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. R. M. Evans, An Introduction to Color (Wiley, New York, 1948), p. 92.
  24. H. C. J. Smith, V. M. K. Young, in Radiation Biology, A. Hollaender, ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1956), Chap.7, pp. 393–442.
  25. D. M. Gates, E. C. Tibbals, F. Kreith, Am. J. Botan. (to be published).

1963 (3)

H. J. Keegan, J. C. Schleter, M. A. Belknap, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. 67A, 572 (1963); J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 69 (1964).

D. M. Gates, Am. Sci. 51, 327 (1963).

D. M. Gates, C. M. Benedict, Am. J. Botan. 50, 563 (1963).
[CrossRef]

1962 (2)

H. J. Keegan, J. C. Schleter, D. B. Judd, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. 66A, 203 (1962).
[CrossRef]

M. Calvin, G. M. Androes, Science 138, 867 (1962).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1959 (1)

A. F. Kleshnin, I. A. Shulgin, Dokl. Akad. Nauk. SSSR (Botan. Sci. Sect.) 125, 1158 (1959).

1958 (1)

P. Latimer, Science 127, 29 (1958).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1952 (2)

R. A. Moss, W. E. Loomis, Plant Physiol. 27, 370 (1952).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. Gates, W. Tantraporn, Science 115, 613 (1952).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1951 (1)

W. D. Billings, R. J. Morris, Am. J. Botan. 38, 327 (1951).
[CrossRef]

1946 (1)

G. S. Rabideau, C. S. French, A. S. Holt, Am. J. Botan. 33, 769 (1946).
[CrossRef]

1944 (1)

F. Obaton, Compt. Rend. 218, 721 (1944).

1938 (1)

1931 (1)

H. J. McNicholas, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. 7, 171 (1931).

1929 (1)

C. A. Shull, Botan. Gaz. 87, 583 (1929).
[CrossRef]

1904 (1)

E. S. Clements, Trans. Am. Microscop. Soc. 26, 19 (1904).
[CrossRef]

Androes, G. M.

M. Calvin, G. M. Androes, Science 138, 867 (1962).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Belknap, M. A.

H. J. Keegan, J. C. Schleter, M. A. Belknap, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. 67A, 572 (1963); J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 69 (1964).

Benedict, C. M.

D. M. Gates, C. M. Benedict, Am. J. Botan. 50, 563 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Billings, W. D.

W. D. Billings, R. J. Morris, Am. J. Botan. 38, 327 (1951).
[CrossRef]

Calvin, M.

M. Calvin, G. M. Androes, Science 138, 867 (1962).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clark, W.

W. Clark, Photography by Infrared (Wiley, New York, 1946), 2nd ed., 472 pp.

Clements, E. S.

E. S. Clements, Trans. Am. Microscop. Soc. 26, 19 (1904).
[CrossRef]

Evans, R. M.

R. M. Evans, An Introduction to Color (Wiley, New York, 1948), p. 92.

French, C. S.

G. S. Rabideau, C. S. French, A. S. Holt, Am. J. Botan. 33, 769 (1946).
[CrossRef]

C. S. French, in Encyclopedia of Plant Physiology, W. Ruhland, ed. (Springer, Berlin, 1960), pp. 252–297.

C. S. French, V. M. K. Young, in Radiation Biology, A. Hollaender, ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1956), Chap. 6, pp. 343–391.

Gates, D. M.

D. M. Gates, Am. Sci. 51, 327 (1963).

D. M. Gates, C. M. Benedict, Am. J. Botan. 50, 563 (1963).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Gates, W. Tantraporn, Science 115, 613 (1952).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. Gates, E. C. Tibbals, F. Kreith, Am. J. Botan. (to be published).

Gibson, K. S.

Holt, A. S.

G. S. Rabideau, C. S. French, A. S. Holt, Am. J. Botan. 33, 769 (1946).
[CrossRef]

Judd, D. B.

H. J. Keegan, J. C. Schleter, D. B. Judd, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. 66A, 203 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Keegan, H. J.

H. J. Keegan, J. C. Schleter, M. A. Belknap, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. 67A, 572 (1963); J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 69 (1964).

H. J. Keegan, J. C. Schleter, D. B. Judd, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. 66A, 203 (1962).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Gibson, H. J. Keegan, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 28, 372 (1938).
[CrossRef]

Kleshnin, A. F.

A. F. Kleshnin, I. A. Shulgin, Dokl. Akad. Nauk. SSSR (Botan. Sci. Sect.) 125, 1158 (1959).

Kreith, F.

D. M. Gates, E. C. Tibbals, F. Kreith, Am. J. Botan. (to be published).

Krinov, E. L.

E. L. Krinov, “Spectral reflectance properties of natural formations”, Area Methods Laboratory, Academy of Sciences, USSR. Technical translation TT-439 by E. Belkov, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, 268 pp. (1953).

Kuiper, P. J. C.

P. J. C. Kuiper, Plant Physiol. (submitted).

Latimer, P.

P. Latimer, Science 127, 29 (1958).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Loomis, W. E.

R. A. Moss, W. E. Loomis, Plant Physiol. 27, 370 (1952).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McNicholas, H. J.

H. J. McNicholas, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. 7, 171 (1931).

Morris, R. J.

W. D. Billings, R. J. Morris, Am. J. Botan. 38, 327 (1951).
[CrossRef]

Moss, R. A.

R. A. Moss, W. E. Loomis, Plant Physiol. 27, 370 (1952).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Obaton, F.

F. Obaton, Compt. Rend. 218, 721 (1944).

Rabideau, G. S.

G. S. Rabideau, C. S. French, A. S. Holt, Am. J. Botan. 33, 769 (1946).
[CrossRef]

Schleter, J. C.

H. J. Keegan, J. C. Schleter, M. A. Belknap, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. 67A, 572 (1963); J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 69 (1964).

H. J. Keegan, J. C. Schleter, D. B. Judd, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. 66A, 203 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Shulgin, I. A.

A. F. Kleshnin, I. A. Shulgin, Dokl. Akad. Nauk. SSSR (Botan. Sci. Sect.) 125, 1158 (1959).

Shull, C. A.

C. A. Shull, Botan. Gaz. 87, 583 (1929).
[CrossRef]

Smith, H. C. J.

H. C. J. Smith, V. M. K. Young, in Radiation Biology, A. Hollaender, ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1956), Chap.7, pp. 393–442.

Stoll, A.

R. Willstätter, A. Stoll, Untersuchungen über chlorophyll, (Springer, Berlin, 1913), English translation by F. M. Shertz, A. R. Mertz, 1928.

Tantraporn, W.

D. M. Gates, W. Tantraporn, Science 115, 613 (1952).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tibbals, E. C.

D. M. Gates, E. C. Tibbals, F. Kreith, Am. J. Botan. (to be published).

Willstätter, R.

R. Willstätter, A. Stoll, Untersuchungen über chlorophyll, (Springer, Berlin, 1913), English translation by F. M. Shertz, A. R. Mertz, 1928.

Young, V. M. K.

C. S. French, V. M. K. Young, in Radiation Biology, A. Hollaender, ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1956), Chap. 6, pp. 343–391.

H. C. J. Smith, V. M. K. Young, in Radiation Biology, A. Hollaender, ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1956), Chap.7, pp. 393–442.

Am. J. Botan. (3)

G. S. Rabideau, C. S. French, A. S. Holt, Am. J. Botan. 33, 769 (1946).
[CrossRef]

W. D. Billings, R. J. Morris, Am. J. Botan. 38, 327 (1951).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Gates, C. M. Benedict, Am. J. Botan. 50, 563 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Am. Sci. (1)

D. M. Gates, Am. Sci. 51, 327 (1963).

Botan. Gaz. (1)

C. A. Shull, Botan. Gaz. 87, 583 (1929).
[CrossRef]

Compt. Rend. (1)

F. Obaton, Compt. Rend. 218, 721 (1944).

Dokl. Akad. Nauk. SSSR (Botan. Sci. Sect.) (1)

A. F. Kleshnin, I. A. Shulgin, Dokl. Akad. Nauk. SSSR (Botan. Sci. Sect.) 125, 1158 (1959).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. (3)

H. J. McNicholas, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. 7, 171 (1931).

H. J. Keegan, J. C. Schleter, D. B. Judd, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. 66A, 203 (1962).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Keegan, J. C. Schleter, M. A. Belknap, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. 67A, 572 (1963); J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 69 (1964).

Plant Physiol. (1)

R. A. Moss, W. E. Loomis, Plant Physiol. 27, 370 (1952).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (3)

D. M. Gates, W. Tantraporn, Science 115, 613 (1952).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Calvin, G. M. Androes, Science 138, 867 (1962).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Latimer, Science 127, 29 (1958).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trans. Am. Microscop. Soc. (1)

E. S. Clements, Trans. Am. Microscop. Soc. 26, 19 (1904).
[CrossRef]

Other (9)

C. S. French, V. M. K. Young, in Radiation Biology, A. Hollaender, ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1956), Chap. 6, pp. 343–391.

C. S. French, in Encyclopedia of Plant Physiology, W. Ruhland, ed. (Springer, Berlin, 1960), pp. 252–297.

W. Clark, Photography by Infrared (Wiley, New York, 1946), 2nd ed., 472 pp.

E. L. Krinov, “Spectral reflectance properties of natural formations”, Area Methods Laboratory, Academy of Sciences, USSR. Technical translation TT-439 by E. Belkov, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, 268 pp. (1953).

P. J. C. Kuiper, Plant Physiol. (submitted).

R. Willstätter, A. Stoll, Untersuchungen über chlorophyll, (Springer, Berlin, 1913), English translation by F. M. Shertz, A. R. Mertz, 1928.

R. M. Evans, An Introduction to Color (Wiley, New York, 1948), p. 92.

H. C. J. Smith, V. M. K. Young, in Radiation Biology, A. Hollaender, ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1956), Chap.7, pp. 393–442.

D. M. Gates, E. C. Tibbals, F. Kreith, Am. J. Botan. (to be published).

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