Abstract

Based on empirical relations found in the literature, relatively simple mathematical models of the average of the total absorption of seawater [a̅T(z,Chl)], the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficient of phytoplankton [a¯phz,Chl*], and the backscattering coefficient [b̅b(Chl)], weighted by the in situ spectral distribution of photosynthetically active scalar irradiance (PAR), as functions of chlorophyll concentration and depth, were developed. The models for a̅T(z,Chl) and b̅b(Chl) can be used to calculate the coefficient of vertical attenuation of PAR [K̅o(z,Chl)] and therefore to estimate the vertical profile of PAR as an input to algorithms for primary production. One application of a¯phz,Chl* may be in the correction of the initial slope of the photosynthesis-irradiance curve [α¯z*] for the in situ spectral distribution of PAR and the package effect. Also, a¯phz,Chl* may be used to calculate ϕ(z), the in situ quantum yield of photosynthesis, from ϕmax and irradiance.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. Sathyendranath, T. Platt, “Underwater light field and primary production: application to remote sensing,” in Ocean Color: Theory and Applications in a Decade of CZCS Experience, V. Barale, P. M. Schlittenhardt, eds. (European Economic Community, Brussels, 1993), pp. 79–93.
  2. P. G. Falkowski, J. A. Raven, Aquatic Photosynthesis (Blackwell, Oxford, 1997), p. 375.
  3. H. Loisel, A. Morel, “Light scattering and chlorophyll concentration in case I waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 847–858 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. W. Preisendorfer, “Application of radiative transfer theory to light measurements in the sea,” Union Geod. Geophys. Inst. Monogr. 10, 11–30 (1961).
  5. S. Sathyendranath, T. Platt, “The spectral irradiance field at the surface and in the interior of the ocean: a model for applications in oceanography and remote sensing,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 9270–9280 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. R. Gordon, “Modeling and simulating radiative transfer in the ocean,” in Ocean Optics, R. W. Spinrad, K. L. Carder, M. J. Perry, eds., Vol. 25 of Oxford Monographs on Geology and Geophysics (Oxford U. Press, New York, 1994), pp. 3–39.
  7. H. R. Gordon, A. Morel, Remote Assessment of Ocean Color for Interpretation of Satellite Visible Imagery: A Review, Vol. 4 of Lecture Notes on Coastal and Estuarine Studies (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1983), p. 114.
  8. J. T. O. Kirk, Light and Photosynthesis in Aquatic Ecosystems (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1994), p. 509.
  9. T. L. Petzold, “Volume scattering functions for selected ocean waters,” (Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, Calif., 1972).
  10. H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. M. Pope, E. S. Fry, “Absorption spectrum (380–700 nm) of pure water. II. Integrating cavity measurements,” Appl. Opt. 26, 8710–8723 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. S. Cleveland, “Regional models for phytoplankton absorption as a function of chlorophyll a concentration,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,333–13,344 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. S. Cleveland, M. J. Perry, “A model for partitioning particulate absorption into phytoplanktonic and detrital components,” Deep-Sea Res. 41, 197–221 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. D. Giles-Guzmán, S. Alvarez-Borrego, “Covariance of the absorption of phytoplankton, colored dissolved organic matter, and detritus in case I waters, as deduced from the Coastal Zone Color Scanner bio-optical algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2109–2113 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. W. W. Gregg, K. L. Karder, “A simple spectral solar irradiance model for cloudless maritime atmospheres,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 35, 1657–1675 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. Morel, “Available, usable, and stored radiant energy in relation to marine photosynthesis,” Deep-Sea Res. 25, 673–688 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. Morel, “Optical properties of pure water and pure seawater,” in Optical Aspects of Oceanography, N. G. Jerlov, E. Steemann Nielsen, eds. (Academic, London, 1974), pp. 1–24.
  18. J. R. V. Zaneveld, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Ore 97331 (personal communication, 1998).
  19. J. T. O. Kirk, “A Monte Carlo study of the nature of the underwater light field in, and the relationships between optical properties of, turbid yellow waters,” Aust. J. Mar. Freshwater Res. 32, 517–532 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  20. T. T. Bannister, “Model of the mean cosine of underwater radiance and estimation of underwater scalar irradiance,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 37, 773–780 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. Berwald, D. Stramski, C. D. Mobley, D. A. Kiefer, “Influences of absorption and scattering on vertical changes in the average cosine of the underwater light field,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 1347–1357 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  22. A. Morel, “Light and marine photosynthesis: a model with geochemical and climatological implications,” Progr. Oceanogr. 26, 263–306 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  23. S. Sathyendranath, T. Platt, “The light field in the ocean: Its modification and exploitation by the pelagic biota,” in Light and Life in the Sea, P. J. Herring, A. K. Campbell, M. Withfield, L. Maddock, eds., (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1990), pp. 3–18.
  24. M. Kyewalyanga, T. Platt, S. Sathyendranath, “Phosynthetic action spectrum: estimation from phytoplankton absorption spectrum,” in Ocean Optics XIII, S. G. Ackleson, ed., Proc. SPIE2963, 290–295 (1997).
  25. J. E. Valdez-Holguín, S. Alvarez-Borrego, B. G. Mitchell, “Photosynthetic parameters of phytoplankton in the California Current System,” Cal COFI Rep. 39, 171–177 (1998).
  26. A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, H. Claustre, “Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: analysis and parameterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,321–13,332 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  27. R. Millán-Núñez, S. Alvarez-Borrego, C. C. Trees, “Modeling the vertical distribution of chlorophyll in the California Current System,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 8587–8595 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  28. D. A. Kiefer, B. G. Mitchell, “A simple steady state description of phytoplankton growth based on absorption cross section and quantum efficiency,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 28, 770–776 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  29. J. Dera, S. Sagan, D. Stramski, “Focusing of sunlight by sea surface waves: new measurement results from the Black Sea,” in Optics of the Air–Sea Interface: Theory and Measurement, L. Estep, ed., Proc. SPIE1749, 65–72 (1992).

1998 (2)

H. Loisel, A. Morel, “Light scattering and chlorophyll concentration in case I waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 847–858 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Valdez-Holguín, S. Alvarez-Borrego, B. G. Mitchell, “Photosynthetic parameters of phytoplankton in the California Current System,” Cal COFI Rep. 39, 171–177 (1998).

1997 (2)

R. Millán-Núñez, S. Alvarez-Borrego, C. C. Trees, “Modeling the vertical distribution of chlorophyll in the California Current System,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 8587–8595 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Pope, E. S. Fry, “Absorption spectrum (380–700 nm) of pure water. II. Integrating cavity measurements,” Appl. Opt. 26, 8710–8723 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1995 (3)

J. S. Cleveland, “Regional models for phytoplankton absorption as a function of chlorophyll a concentration,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,333–13,344 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, H. Claustre, “Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: analysis and parameterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,321–13,332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Berwald, D. Stramski, C. D. Mobley, D. A. Kiefer, “Influences of absorption and scattering on vertical changes in the average cosine of the underwater light field,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 1347–1357 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

J. S. Cleveland, M. J. Perry, “A model for partitioning particulate absorption into phytoplanktonic and detrital components,” Deep-Sea Res. 41, 197–221 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

T. T. Bannister, “Model of the mean cosine of underwater radiance and estimation of underwater scalar irradiance,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 37, 773–780 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

A. Morel, “Light and marine photosynthesis: a model with geochemical and climatological implications,” Progr. Oceanogr. 26, 263–306 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

W. W. Gregg, K. L. Karder, “A simple spectral solar irradiance model for cloudless maritime atmospheres,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 35, 1657–1675 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988 (2)

S. Sathyendranath, T. Platt, “The spectral irradiance field at the surface and in the interior of the ocean: a model for applications in oceanography and remote sensing,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 9270–9280 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

D. A. Kiefer, B. G. Mitchell, “A simple steady state description of phytoplankton growth based on absorption cross section and quantum efficiency,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 28, 770–776 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

J. T. O. Kirk, “A Monte Carlo study of the nature of the underwater light field in, and the relationships between optical properties of, turbid yellow waters,” Aust. J. Mar. Freshwater Res. 32, 517–532 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

A. Morel, “Available, usable, and stored radiant energy in relation to marine photosynthesis,” Deep-Sea Res. 25, 673–688 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1961 (1)

R. W. Preisendorfer, “Application of radiative transfer theory to light measurements in the sea,” Union Geod. Geophys. Inst. Monogr. 10, 11–30 (1961).

Alvarez-Borrego, S.

J. E. Valdez-Holguín, S. Alvarez-Borrego, B. G. Mitchell, “Photosynthetic parameters of phytoplankton in the California Current System,” Cal COFI Rep. 39, 171–177 (1998).

R. Millán-Núñez, S. Alvarez-Borrego, C. C. Trees, “Modeling the vertical distribution of chlorophyll in the California Current System,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 8587–8595 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Giles-Guzmán, S. Alvarez-Borrego, “Covariance of the absorption of phytoplankton, colored dissolved organic matter, and detritus in case I waters, as deduced from the Coastal Zone Color Scanner bio-optical algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2109–2113 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Babin, M.

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, H. Claustre, “Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: analysis and parameterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,321–13,332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Baker, K. S.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Bannister, T. T.

T. T. Bannister, “Model of the mean cosine of underwater radiance and estimation of underwater scalar irradiance,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 37, 773–780 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Berwald, J.

J. Berwald, D. Stramski, C. D. Mobley, D. A. Kiefer, “Influences of absorption and scattering on vertical changes in the average cosine of the underwater light field,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 1347–1357 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bricaud, A.

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, H. Claustre, “Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: analysis and parameterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,321–13,332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Brown, J. W.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Brown, O. B.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Clark, D. K.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Claustre, H.

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, H. Claustre, “Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: analysis and parameterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,321–13,332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cleveland, J. S.

J. S. Cleveland, “Regional models for phytoplankton absorption as a function of chlorophyll a concentration,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,333–13,344 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Cleveland, M. J. Perry, “A model for partitioning particulate absorption into phytoplanktonic and detrital components,” Deep-Sea Res. 41, 197–221 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Dera, J.

J. Dera, S. Sagan, D. Stramski, “Focusing of sunlight by sea surface waves: new measurement results from the Black Sea,” in Optics of the Air–Sea Interface: Theory and Measurement, L. Estep, ed., Proc. SPIE1749, 65–72 (1992).

Evans, R. H.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Falkowski, P. G.

P. G. Falkowski, J. A. Raven, Aquatic Photosynthesis (Blackwell, Oxford, 1997), p. 375.

Fry, E. S.

R. M. Pope, E. S. Fry, “Absorption spectrum (380–700 nm) of pure water. II. Integrating cavity measurements,” Appl. Opt. 26, 8710–8723 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Giles-Guzmán, A. D.

Gordon, H. R.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, “Modeling and simulating radiative transfer in the ocean,” in Ocean Optics, R. W. Spinrad, K. L. Carder, M. J. Perry, eds., Vol. 25 of Oxford Monographs on Geology and Geophysics (Oxford U. Press, New York, 1994), pp. 3–39.

H. R. Gordon, A. Morel, Remote Assessment of Ocean Color for Interpretation of Satellite Visible Imagery: A Review, Vol. 4 of Lecture Notes on Coastal and Estuarine Studies (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1983), p. 114.

Gregg, W. W.

W. W. Gregg, K. L. Karder, “A simple spectral solar irradiance model for cloudless maritime atmospheres,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 35, 1657–1675 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Karder, K. L.

W. W. Gregg, K. L. Karder, “A simple spectral solar irradiance model for cloudless maritime atmospheres,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 35, 1657–1675 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kiefer, D. A.

J. Berwald, D. Stramski, C. D. Mobley, D. A. Kiefer, “Influences of absorption and scattering on vertical changes in the average cosine of the underwater light field,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 1347–1357 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Kiefer, B. G. Mitchell, “A simple steady state description of phytoplankton growth based on absorption cross section and quantum efficiency,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 28, 770–776 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Kirk, J. T. O.

J. T. O. Kirk, “A Monte Carlo study of the nature of the underwater light field in, and the relationships between optical properties of, turbid yellow waters,” Aust. J. Mar. Freshwater Res. 32, 517–532 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. T. O. Kirk, Light and Photosynthesis in Aquatic Ecosystems (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1994), p. 509.

Kyewalyanga, M.

M. Kyewalyanga, T. Platt, S. Sathyendranath, “Phosynthetic action spectrum: estimation from phytoplankton absorption spectrum,” in Ocean Optics XIII, S. G. Ackleson, ed., Proc. SPIE2963, 290–295 (1997).

Loisel, H.

H. Loisel, A. Morel, “Light scattering and chlorophyll concentration in case I waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 847–858 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Millán-Núñez, R.

R. Millán-Núñez, S. Alvarez-Borrego, C. C. Trees, “Modeling the vertical distribution of chlorophyll in the California Current System,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 8587–8595 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, B. G.

J. E. Valdez-Holguín, S. Alvarez-Borrego, B. G. Mitchell, “Photosynthetic parameters of phytoplankton in the California Current System,” Cal COFI Rep. 39, 171–177 (1998).

D. A. Kiefer, B. G. Mitchell, “A simple steady state description of phytoplankton growth based on absorption cross section and quantum efficiency,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 28, 770–776 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Mobley, C. D.

J. Berwald, D. Stramski, C. D. Mobley, D. A. Kiefer, “Influences of absorption and scattering on vertical changes in the average cosine of the underwater light field,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 1347–1357 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Morel, A.

H. Loisel, A. Morel, “Light scattering and chlorophyll concentration in case I waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 847–858 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, H. Claustre, “Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: analysis and parameterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,321–13,332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, “Light and marine photosynthesis: a model with geochemical and climatological implications,” Progr. Oceanogr. 26, 263–306 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, “Available, usable, and stored radiant energy in relation to marine photosynthesis,” Deep-Sea Res. 25, 673–688 (1978).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, “Optical properties of pure water and pure seawater,” in Optical Aspects of Oceanography, N. G. Jerlov, E. Steemann Nielsen, eds. (Academic, London, 1974), pp. 1–24.

H. R. Gordon, A. Morel, Remote Assessment of Ocean Color for Interpretation of Satellite Visible Imagery: A Review, Vol. 4 of Lecture Notes on Coastal and Estuarine Studies (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1983), p. 114.

Perry, M. J.

J. S. Cleveland, M. J. Perry, “A model for partitioning particulate absorption into phytoplanktonic and detrital components,” Deep-Sea Res. 41, 197–221 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Petzold, T. L.

T. L. Petzold, “Volume scattering functions for selected ocean waters,” (Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, Calif., 1972).

Platt, T.

S. Sathyendranath, T. Platt, “The spectral irradiance field at the surface and in the interior of the ocean: a model for applications in oceanography and remote sensing,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 9270–9280 (1988).
[CrossRef]

S. Sathyendranath, T. Platt, “Underwater light field and primary production: application to remote sensing,” in Ocean Color: Theory and Applications in a Decade of CZCS Experience, V. Barale, P. M. Schlittenhardt, eds. (European Economic Community, Brussels, 1993), pp. 79–93.

M. Kyewalyanga, T. Platt, S. Sathyendranath, “Phosynthetic action spectrum: estimation from phytoplankton absorption spectrum,” in Ocean Optics XIII, S. G. Ackleson, ed., Proc. SPIE2963, 290–295 (1997).

S. Sathyendranath, T. Platt, “The light field in the ocean: Its modification and exploitation by the pelagic biota,” in Light and Life in the Sea, P. J. Herring, A. K. Campbell, M. Withfield, L. Maddock, eds., (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1990), pp. 3–18.

Pope, R. M.

R. M. Pope, E. S. Fry, “Absorption spectrum (380–700 nm) of pure water. II. Integrating cavity measurements,” Appl. Opt. 26, 8710–8723 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Preisendorfer, R. W.

R. W. Preisendorfer, “Application of radiative transfer theory to light measurements in the sea,” Union Geod. Geophys. Inst. Monogr. 10, 11–30 (1961).

Raven, J. A.

P. G. Falkowski, J. A. Raven, Aquatic Photosynthesis (Blackwell, Oxford, 1997), p. 375.

Sagan, S.

J. Dera, S. Sagan, D. Stramski, “Focusing of sunlight by sea surface waves: new measurement results from the Black Sea,” in Optics of the Air–Sea Interface: Theory and Measurement, L. Estep, ed., Proc. SPIE1749, 65–72 (1992).

Sathyendranath, S.

S. Sathyendranath, T. Platt, “The spectral irradiance field at the surface and in the interior of the ocean: a model for applications in oceanography and remote sensing,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 9270–9280 (1988).
[CrossRef]

S. Sathyendranath, T. Platt, “Underwater light field and primary production: application to remote sensing,” in Ocean Color: Theory and Applications in a Decade of CZCS Experience, V. Barale, P. M. Schlittenhardt, eds. (European Economic Community, Brussels, 1993), pp. 79–93.

M. Kyewalyanga, T. Platt, S. Sathyendranath, “Phosynthetic action spectrum: estimation from phytoplankton absorption spectrum,” in Ocean Optics XIII, S. G. Ackleson, ed., Proc. SPIE2963, 290–295 (1997).

S. Sathyendranath, T. Platt, “The light field in the ocean: Its modification and exploitation by the pelagic biota,” in Light and Life in the Sea, P. J. Herring, A. K. Campbell, M. Withfield, L. Maddock, eds., (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1990), pp. 3–18.

Smith, R. C.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Stramski, D.

J. Berwald, D. Stramski, C. D. Mobley, D. A. Kiefer, “Influences of absorption and scattering on vertical changes in the average cosine of the underwater light field,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 1347–1357 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Dera, S. Sagan, D. Stramski, “Focusing of sunlight by sea surface waves: new measurement results from the Black Sea,” in Optics of the Air–Sea Interface: Theory and Measurement, L. Estep, ed., Proc. SPIE1749, 65–72 (1992).

Trees, C. C.

R. Millán-Núñez, S. Alvarez-Borrego, C. C. Trees, “Modeling the vertical distribution of chlorophyll in the California Current System,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 8587–8595 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Valdez-Holguín, J. E.

J. E. Valdez-Holguín, S. Alvarez-Borrego, B. G. Mitchell, “Photosynthetic parameters of phytoplankton in the California Current System,” Cal COFI Rep. 39, 171–177 (1998).

Zaneveld, J. R. V.

J. R. V. Zaneveld, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Ore 97331 (personal communication, 1998).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Aust. J. Mar. Freshwater Res. (1)

J. T. O. Kirk, “A Monte Carlo study of the nature of the underwater light field in, and the relationships between optical properties of, turbid yellow waters,” Aust. J. Mar. Freshwater Res. 32, 517–532 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Cal COFI Rep. (1)

J. E. Valdez-Holguín, S. Alvarez-Borrego, B. G. Mitchell, “Photosynthetic parameters of phytoplankton in the California Current System,” Cal COFI Rep. 39, 171–177 (1998).

Deep-Sea Res. (2)

A. Morel, “Available, usable, and stored radiant energy in relation to marine photosynthesis,” Deep-Sea Res. 25, 673–688 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Cleveland, M. J. Perry, “A model for partitioning particulate absorption into phytoplanktonic and detrital components,” Deep-Sea Res. 41, 197–221 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (5)

J. S. Cleveland, “Regional models for phytoplankton absorption as a function of chlorophyll a concentration,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,333–13,344 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Sathyendranath, T. Platt, “The spectral irradiance field at the surface and in the interior of the ocean: a model for applications in oceanography and remote sensing,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 9270–9280 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, H. Claustre, “Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: analysis and parameterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,321–13,332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Millán-Núñez, S. Alvarez-Borrego, C. C. Trees, “Modeling the vertical distribution of chlorophyll in the California Current System,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 8587–8595 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceanogr. (5)

D. A. Kiefer, B. G. Mitchell, “A simple steady state description of phytoplankton growth based on absorption cross section and quantum efficiency,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 28, 770–776 (1983).
[CrossRef]

H. Loisel, A. Morel, “Light scattering and chlorophyll concentration in case I waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 847–858 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Gregg, K. L. Karder, “A simple spectral solar irradiance model for cloudless maritime atmospheres,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 35, 1657–1675 (1990).
[CrossRef]

T. T. Bannister, “Model of the mean cosine of underwater radiance and estimation of underwater scalar irradiance,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 37, 773–780 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Berwald, D. Stramski, C. D. Mobley, D. A. Kiefer, “Influences of absorption and scattering on vertical changes in the average cosine of the underwater light field,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 1347–1357 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Progr. Oceanogr. (1)

A. Morel, “Light and marine photosynthesis: a model with geochemical and climatological implications,” Progr. Oceanogr. 26, 263–306 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Union Geod. Geophys. Inst. Monogr. (1)

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