Abstract

Real-time image processing requires high computational and I/O throughputs obtained by use of optoelectronic system solutions. A novel architecture that uses focal-plane optoelectronic-area I/O with a fine-grain, low-memory, single-instruction–multiple-data (SIMD) processor array is presented as an efficient computational solution for real-time hyperspectral image processing. The architecture is evaluated by use of realistic workloads to determine data throughputs, processing demands, and storage requirements. We show that traditional store-and-process system performance is inadequate for this application domain, whereas the focal-plane SIMD architecture is capable of supporting real-time performances with sustained operation throughputs of 500–1500 gigaoperations/s. The focal-plane architecture exploits the direct coupling between sensor and parallel-processor arrays to alleviate data-bandwidth requirements, allowing computation to be performed in a stream-parallel computation model, while data arrive from the sensors.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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  27. A. Gentile, J. Cruz-Rivera, D. S. Wills, L. Bustelo, J. J. Figueroa, J. E. Fonseca-Camacho, W. E. Lugo-Beauchamp, R. Olivieri, M. Quiñones-Cerpa, A. H. Rivera-Ríos, I. Vargas-Gonzáles, M. Viera-Vera, “Real-time image processing on a focal plane SIMD array,” in Parallel and Distributed Processing, Vol. 1586 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1999), pp. 400–405.
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    [CrossRef]

1998

J. Adams, K. Parulski, K. Spaulding, “Color processing in digital cameras,” IEEE Micro. 18, 20–30 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

K. Diefendorff, R. Dubey, “How multimedia workloads will change processor design,” IEEE Comput. 30, 43–45 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

M. Arias-Estrada, M. Tremblay, D. Poussart, “A focal plane architecture for motion computation,” Real-Time Imag. 2, 351–360 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Wills, J. M. Baker, H. H. Cat, S. M. Chai, L. Codrescu, J. Cruz-Rivera, J. C. Eble, A. Gentile, M. A. Hopper, W. S. Lacy, A. López-Lagunas, P. May, S. Smith, T. Taha, “Processing architecture for smart pixel systems,” IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 24–34 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994

R. J. Birk, T. B. McCord, “Airborne hyperspectral sensor systems,” IEEE Aerospace Electron. Sys. 9 (10), 26–33 (1994).

1985

K. A. Parulski, “Color filter arrays and processing alternatives for one-chip cameras,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices ED-32, 1381–1389 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Adams, J.

J. Adams, K. Parulski, K. Spaulding, “Color processing in digital cameras,” IEEE Micro. 18, 20–30 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Arias-Estrada, M.

M. Arias-Estrada, M. Tremblay, D. Poussart, “A focal plane architecture for motion computation,” Real-Time Imag. 2, 351–360 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Azimi-Sadjadi, M. R.

M. A. Shaikh, B. Tian, M. R. Azimi-Sadjadi, K. E. Eis, T. H. VonderHaar, “An automatic neural network-based cloud detection–classification scheme using multispectral and textural features,” in Algorithms for Multispectral and Hyperspectral Imagery II, D. K. Lynch, E. P. Shettle, eds., Proc. SPIE2578, 51–61 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Baker, J. M.

D. S. Wills, J. M. Baker, H. H. Cat, S. M. Chai, L. Codrescu, J. Cruz-Rivera, J. C. Eble, A. Gentile, M. A. Hopper, W. S. Lacy, A. López-Lagunas, P. May, S. Smith, T. Taha, “Processing architecture for smart pixel systems,” IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 24–34 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Birk, R. J.

R. J. Birk, T. B. McCord, “Airborne hyperspectral sensor systems,” IEEE Aerospace Electron. Sys. 9 (10), 26–33 (1994).

Breitwieser, D.

R. Holasek, F. Protigal, G. Mooradian, M. Voelker, D. Even, M. Fene, P. Owensby, D. Breitwieser, “HIS mapping of marine and coastal environments using the Advanced Airborne Hyperspectral Imaging System (AAHIS),” in Algorithms for Multispectral and Hyperspectral Imagery III, A. Iverson, S. S. Shen, eds., Proc. SPIE3071, 169–180 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Brooke, M.

H. H. Cat, A. Gentile, J. C. Eble, M. E. Lee, O. Vendier, Y. J. Joo, D. S. Wills, M. Brooke, N. M. Jokerst, A. S. Brown, “SIMPil: an OE integrated SIMD architecture for focal plane processing applications,” in Proceedings of the Third IEEE International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnection (MMPOI-96) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1996), pp. 44–52.
[CrossRef]

Brown, A. S.

H. H. Cat, A. Gentile, J. C. Eble, M. E. Lee, O. Vendier, Y. J. Joo, D. S. Wills, M. Brooke, N. M. Jokerst, A. S. Brown, “SIMPil: an OE integrated SIMD architecture for focal plane processing applications,” in Proceedings of the Third IEEE International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnection (MMPOI-96) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1996), pp. 44–52.
[CrossRef]

Bustelo, L.

A. Gentile, J. Cruz-Rivera, D. S. Wills, L. Bustelo, J. J. Figueroa, J. E. Fonseca-Camacho, W. E. Lugo-Beauchamp, R. Olivieri, M. Quiñones-Cerpa, A. H. Rivera-Ríos, I. Vargas-Gonzáles, M. Viera-Vera, “Real-time image processing on a focal plane SIMD array,” in Parallel and Distributed Processing, Vol. 1586 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1999), pp. 400–405.
[CrossRef]

Cat, H. H.

D. S. Wills, J. M. Baker, H. H. Cat, S. M. Chai, L. Codrescu, J. Cruz-Rivera, J. C. Eble, A. Gentile, M. A. Hopper, W. S. Lacy, A. López-Lagunas, P. May, S. Smith, T. Taha, “Processing architecture for smart pixel systems,” IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 24–34 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Gentile, H. H. Cat, F. Kossentini, F. Sorbello, D. S. Wills, “Real-time vector quantization-based image compression on the SIMPil low-memory SIMD architecture,” in Proceedings of the 1997 International Performance, Computing, and Communications Conference (IPCCC’97) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1997), pp. 10–16.
[CrossRef]

H. H. Cat, A. Gentile, J. C. Eble, M. E. Lee, O. Vendier, Y. J. Joo, D. S. Wills, M. Brooke, N. M. Jokerst, A. S. Brown, “SIMPil: an OE integrated SIMD architecture for focal plane processing applications,” in Proceedings of the Third IEEE International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnection (MMPOI-96) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1996), pp. 44–52.
[CrossRef]

Chai, S. M.

D. S. Wills, J. M. Baker, H. H. Cat, S. M. Chai, L. Codrescu, J. Cruz-Rivera, J. C. Eble, A. Gentile, M. A. Hopper, W. S. Lacy, A. López-Lagunas, P. May, S. Smith, T. Taha, “Processing architecture for smart pixel systems,” IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 24–34 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Chai, A. Gentile, D. S. Wills, “Impact of power density limitation in gigascale integration for the SIMD pixel processor,” in Proceedings of the Twentieth Anniversary Conference on Advanced Research in VLSI (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1999), pp. 57–71.
[CrossRef]

Chan, A. K.

H. J. Lee, J. C. Liu, A. K. Chan, C. K. Chui, “A parallel vector quantization algorithm for single-instruction–multiple-data (SIMD) multiprocessor systems,” in Proceedings of the Fifth IEEE Data Compression Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1995), p. 479.

H. J. Lee, J. C. Liu, A. K. Chan, C. K. Chui, “Parallel implementation of wavelet decomposition–reconstruction algorithms,” in Wavelet Applications, H. H. Szu, ed., Proc. SPIE2242, 248–259 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chui, C. K.

H. J. Lee, J. C. Liu, A. K. Chan, C. K. Chui, “Parallel implementation of wavelet decomposition–reconstruction algorithms,” in Wavelet Applications, H. H. Szu, ed., Proc. SPIE2242, 248–259 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Lee, J. C. Liu, A. K. Chan, C. K. Chui, “A parallel vector quantization algorithm for single-instruction–multiple-data (SIMD) multiprocessor systems,” in Proceedings of the Fifth IEEE Data Compression Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1995), p. 479.

Codrescu, L.

D. S. Wills, J. M. Baker, H. H. Cat, S. M. Chai, L. Codrescu, J. Cruz-Rivera, J. C. Eble, A. Gentile, M. A. Hopper, W. S. Lacy, A. López-Lagunas, P. May, S. Smith, T. Taha, “Processing architecture for smart pixel systems,” IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 24–34 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cruz-Rivera, J.

D. S. Wills, J. M. Baker, H. H. Cat, S. M. Chai, L. Codrescu, J. Cruz-Rivera, J. C. Eble, A. Gentile, M. A. Hopper, W. S. Lacy, A. López-Lagunas, P. May, S. Smith, T. Taha, “Processing architecture for smart pixel systems,” IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 24–34 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Gentile, J. Cruz-Rivera, D. S. Wills, L. Bustelo, J. J. Figueroa, J. E. Fonseca-Camacho, W. E. Lugo-Beauchamp, R. Olivieri, M. Quiñones-Cerpa, A. H. Rivera-Ríos, I. Vargas-Gonzáles, M. Viera-Vera, “Real-time image processing on a focal plane SIMD array,” in Parallel and Distributed Processing, Vol. 1586 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1999), pp. 400–405.
[CrossRef]

D’Luna, L. J.

W. C. Fang, T. Shaw, J. Yu, Y. T. Tsai, L. J. D’Luna, P. P. K. Lee, “VLSI focal-plane array processor for morphological image processing,” in Proceedings of the Fifth Annual IEEE International ASIC Conference and Exhibit (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1992), pp. 423–426.
[CrossRef]

Davis, C. O.

M. K. Hamilton, S. H. Pilorz, C. O. Davis, J. M. van den Bosch, W. J. Rhea, “Analysis of high spectral resolution coastal ocean imagery: statistical, empirical, and analytical investigation,” in Algorithms for Multispectral and Hyperspectral Imagery, A. Iverson, ed., Proc. SPIE2231, 116–126 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Davis, S. M.

P. H. Swain, S. M. Davis, Remote Sensing: The Quantitative Approach (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1978), pp. 55–62.

DeWeerth, S. P.

H. Urey, W. T. Rhodes, S. P. DeWeerth, T. J. Drabik, “Optoelectronic image processor for multiresolution Gabor filtering,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1996), Vol. 6, pp. 3236–3239.

Diefendorff, K.

K. Diefendorff, R. Dubey, “How multimedia workloads will change processor design,” IEEE Comput. 30, 43–45 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Djemouiai, A.

D. Poussart, M. Tremblay, A. Djemouiai, “VLSI implementation of focal plane processing for smart vision sensing,” in Pattern Recognition: Architectures, Algorithms, and Applications, R. Plamondon, H. Cheng, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1991), pp. 5–23.

Drabik, T. J.

H. Urey, W. T. Rhodes, S. P. DeWeerth, T. J. Drabik, “Optoelectronic image processor for multiresolution Gabor filtering,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1996), Vol. 6, pp. 3236–3239.

Dubey, R.

K. Diefendorff, R. Dubey, “How multimedia workloads will change processor design,” IEEE Comput. 30, 43–45 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Eble, J. C.

D. S. Wills, J. M. Baker, H. H. Cat, S. M. Chai, L. Codrescu, J. Cruz-Rivera, J. C. Eble, A. Gentile, M. A. Hopper, W. S. Lacy, A. López-Lagunas, P. May, S. Smith, T. Taha, “Processing architecture for smart pixel systems,” IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 24–34 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Cat, A. Gentile, J. C. Eble, M. E. Lee, O. Vendier, Y. J. Joo, D. S. Wills, M. Brooke, N. M. Jokerst, A. S. Brown, “SIMPil: an OE integrated SIMD architecture for focal plane processing applications,” in Proceedings of the Third IEEE International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnection (MMPOI-96) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1996), pp. 44–52.
[CrossRef]

Eid, E. S.

E. S. Eid, E. Fossum, “Real-time focal-plane array image processor,” in Automated Inspection and High-Speed Vision Architectures III (International Society for Optical Engineering, Philadelphia, Pa., 1989), pp. 2–12.

Eis, K. E.

M. A. Shaikh, B. Tian, M. R. Azimi-Sadjadi, K. E. Eis, T. H. VonderHaar, “An automatic neural network-based cloud detection–classification scheme using multispectral and textural features,” in Algorithms for Multispectral and Hyperspectral Imagery II, D. K. Lynch, E. P. Shettle, eds., Proc. SPIE2578, 51–61 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Even, D.

R. Holasek, F. Protigal, G. Mooradian, M. Voelker, D. Even, M. Fene, P. Owensby, D. Breitwieser, “HIS mapping of marine and coastal environments using the Advanced Airborne Hyperspectral Imaging System (AAHIS),” in Algorithms for Multispectral and Hyperspectral Imagery III, A. Iverson, S. S. Shen, eds., Proc. SPIE3071, 169–180 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fang, W. C.

W. C. Fang, T. Shaw, J. Yu, Y. T. Tsai, L. J. D’Luna, P. P. K. Lee, “VLSI focal-plane array processor for morphological image processing,” in Proceedings of the Fifth Annual IEEE International ASIC Conference and Exhibit (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1992), pp. 423–426.
[CrossRef]

Fene, M.

R. Holasek, F. Protigal, G. Mooradian, M. Voelker, D. Even, M. Fene, P. Owensby, D. Breitwieser, “HIS mapping of marine and coastal environments using the Advanced Airborne Hyperspectral Imaging System (AAHIS),” in Algorithms for Multispectral and Hyperspectral Imagery III, A. Iverson, S. S. Shen, eds., Proc. SPIE3071, 169–180 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Figueroa, J. J.

A. Gentile, J. Cruz-Rivera, D. S. Wills, L. Bustelo, J. J. Figueroa, J. E. Fonseca-Camacho, W. E. Lugo-Beauchamp, R. Olivieri, M. Quiñones-Cerpa, A. H. Rivera-Ríos, I. Vargas-Gonzáles, M. Viera-Vera, “Real-time image processing on a focal plane SIMD array,” in Parallel and Distributed Processing, Vol. 1586 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1999), pp. 400–405.
[CrossRef]

Fonseca-Camacho, J. E.

A. Gentile, J. Cruz-Rivera, D. S. Wills, L. Bustelo, J. J. Figueroa, J. E. Fonseca-Camacho, W. E. Lugo-Beauchamp, R. Olivieri, M. Quiñones-Cerpa, A. H. Rivera-Ríos, I. Vargas-Gonzáles, M. Viera-Vera, “Real-time image processing on a focal plane SIMD array,” in Parallel and Distributed Processing, Vol. 1586 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1999), pp. 400–405.
[CrossRef]

Fossum, E.

E. S. Eid, E. Fossum, “Real-time focal-plane array image processor,” in Automated Inspection and High-Speed Vision Architectures III (International Society for Optical Engineering, Philadelphia, Pa., 1989), pp. 2–12.

Gentile, A.

D. S. Wills, J. M. Baker, H. H. Cat, S. M. Chai, L. Codrescu, J. Cruz-Rivera, J. C. Eble, A. Gentile, M. A. Hopper, W. S. Lacy, A. López-Lagunas, P. May, S. Smith, T. Taha, “Processing architecture for smart pixel systems,” IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 24–34 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Cat, A. Gentile, J. C. Eble, M. E. Lee, O. Vendier, Y. J. Joo, D. S. Wills, M. Brooke, N. M. Jokerst, A. S. Brown, “SIMPil: an OE integrated SIMD architecture for focal plane processing applications,” in Proceedings of the Third IEEE International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnection (MMPOI-96) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1996), pp. 44–52.
[CrossRef]

A. Gentile, H. H. Cat, F. Kossentini, F. Sorbello, D. S. Wills, “Real-time vector quantization-based image compression on the SIMPil low-memory SIMD architecture,” in Proceedings of the 1997 International Performance, Computing, and Communications Conference (IPCCC’97) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1997), pp. 10–16.
[CrossRef]

S. M. Chai, A. Gentile, D. S. Wills, “Impact of power density limitation in gigascale integration for the SIMD pixel processor,” in Proceedings of the Twentieth Anniversary Conference on Advanced Research in VLSI (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1999), pp. 57–71.
[CrossRef]

A. Gentile, J. Cruz-Rivera, D. S. Wills, L. Bustelo, J. J. Figueroa, J. E. Fonseca-Camacho, W. E. Lugo-Beauchamp, R. Olivieri, M. Quiñones-Cerpa, A. H. Rivera-Ríos, I. Vargas-Gonzáles, M. Viera-Vera, “Real-time image processing on a focal plane SIMD array,” in Parallel and Distributed Processing, Vol. 1586 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1999), pp. 400–405.
[CrossRef]

Gersho, A.

A. Gersho, R. M. Gray, Vector Quantization and Signal Compression (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1992).
[CrossRef]

Gose, E.

E. Gose, R. Johnsonbaugh, S. Jost, Pattern Recognition and Image Analysis (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1996), Chap. 5.

Gray, R. M.

A. Gersho, R. M. Gray, Vector Quantization and Signal Compression (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1992).
[CrossRef]

Hamilton, M. K.

M. K. Hamilton, S. H. Pilorz, C. O. Davis, J. M. van den Bosch, W. J. Rhea, “Analysis of high spectral resolution coastal ocean imagery: statistical, empirical, and analytical investigation,” in Algorithms for Multispectral and Hyperspectral Imagery, A. Iverson, ed., Proc. SPIE2231, 116–126 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hayden, A. F.

A. F. Hayden, R. J. Noll, “Remote trace-gas quantification using thermal IR spectroscopy and digital filtering based on principal components of background scene clutter,” in Algorithms for Multispectral and Hyperspectral Imagery III, A. Iverson, S. S. Shen, eds., Proc. SPIE3071, 158–168 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hillis, W. D.

W. D. Hillis, The Connection Machine (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1985).

Holasek, R.

R. Holasek, F. Protigal, G. Mooradian, M. Voelker, D. Even, M. Fene, P. Owensby, D. Breitwieser, “HIS mapping of marine and coastal environments using the Advanced Airborne Hyperspectral Imaging System (AAHIS),” in Algorithms for Multispectral and Hyperspectral Imagery III, A. Iverson, S. S. Shen, eds., Proc. SPIE3071, 169–180 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hopper, M. A.

D. S. Wills, J. M. Baker, H. H. Cat, S. M. Chai, L. Codrescu, J. Cruz-Rivera, J. C. Eble, A. Gentile, M. A. Hopper, W. S. Lacy, A. López-Lagunas, P. May, S. Smith, T. Taha, “Processing architecture for smart pixel systems,” IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 24–34 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Johnsonbaugh, R.

E. Gose, R. Johnsonbaugh, S. Jost, Pattern Recognition and Image Analysis (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1996), Chap. 5.

Jokerst, N. M.

H. H. Cat, A. Gentile, J. C. Eble, M. E. Lee, O. Vendier, Y. J. Joo, D. S. Wills, M. Brooke, N. M. Jokerst, A. S. Brown, “SIMPil: an OE integrated SIMD architecture for focal plane processing applications,” in Proceedings of the Third IEEE International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnection (MMPOI-96) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1996), pp. 44–52.
[CrossRef]

Joo, Y. J.

H. H. Cat, A. Gentile, J. C. Eble, M. E. Lee, O. Vendier, Y. J. Joo, D. S. Wills, M. Brooke, N. M. Jokerst, A. S. Brown, “SIMPil: an OE integrated SIMD architecture for focal plane processing applications,” in Proceedings of the Third IEEE International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnection (MMPOI-96) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1996), pp. 44–52.
[CrossRef]

Jost, S.

E. Gose, R. Johnsonbaugh, S. Jost, Pattern Recognition and Image Analysis (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1996), Chap. 5.

Kossentini, F.

A. Gentile, H. H. Cat, F. Kossentini, F. Sorbello, D. S. Wills, “Real-time vector quantization-based image compression on the SIMPil low-memory SIMD architecture,” in Proceedings of the 1997 International Performance, Computing, and Communications Conference (IPCCC’97) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1997), pp. 10–16.
[CrossRef]

Lacy, W. S.

D. S. Wills, J. M. Baker, H. H. Cat, S. M. Chai, L. Codrescu, J. Cruz-Rivera, J. C. Eble, A. Gentile, M. A. Hopper, W. S. Lacy, A. López-Lagunas, P. May, S. Smith, T. Taha, “Processing architecture for smart pixel systems,” IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 24–34 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H. J.

H. J. Lee, J. C. Liu, A. K. Chan, C. K. Chui, “Parallel implementation of wavelet decomposition–reconstruction algorithms,” in Wavelet Applications, H. H. Szu, ed., Proc. SPIE2242, 248–259 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Lee, J. C. Liu, A. K. Chan, C. K. Chui, “A parallel vector quantization algorithm for single-instruction–multiple-data (SIMD) multiprocessor systems,” in Proceedings of the Fifth IEEE Data Compression Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1995), p. 479.

Lee, M. E.

H. H. Cat, A. Gentile, J. C. Eble, M. E. Lee, O. Vendier, Y. J. Joo, D. S. Wills, M. Brooke, N. M. Jokerst, A. S. Brown, “SIMPil: an OE integrated SIMD architecture for focal plane processing applications,” in Proceedings of the Third IEEE International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnection (MMPOI-96) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1996), pp. 44–52.
[CrossRef]

Lee, P. P. K.

W. C. Fang, T. Shaw, J. Yu, Y. T. Tsai, L. J. D’Luna, P. P. K. Lee, “VLSI focal-plane array processor for morphological image processing,” in Proceedings of the Fifth Annual IEEE International ASIC Conference and Exhibit (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1992), pp. 423–426.
[CrossRef]

Liu, J. C.

H. J. Lee, J. C. Liu, A. K. Chan, C. K. Chui, “A parallel vector quantization algorithm for single-instruction–multiple-data (SIMD) multiprocessor systems,” in Proceedings of the Fifth IEEE Data Compression Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1995), p. 479.

H. J. Lee, J. C. Liu, A. K. Chan, C. K. Chui, “Parallel implementation of wavelet decomposition–reconstruction algorithms,” in Wavelet Applications, H. H. Szu, ed., Proc. SPIE2242, 248–259 (1994).
[CrossRef]

López-Lagunas, A.

D. S. Wills, J. M. Baker, H. H. Cat, S. M. Chai, L. Codrescu, J. Cruz-Rivera, J. C. Eble, A. Gentile, M. A. Hopper, W. S. Lacy, A. López-Lagunas, P. May, S. Smith, T. Taha, “Processing architecture for smart pixel systems,” IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 24–34 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lugo-Beauchamp, W. E.

A. Gentile, J. Cruz-Rivera, D. S. Wills, L. Bustelo, J. J. Figueroa, J. E. Fonseca-Camacho, W. E. Lugo-Beauchamp, R. Olivieri, M. Quiñones-Cerpa, A. H. Rivera-Ríos, I. Vargas-Gonzáles, M. Viera-Vera, “Real-time image processing on a focal plane SIMD array,” in Parallel and Distributed Processing, Vol. 1586 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1999), pp. 400–405.
[CrossRef]

Manohar, M.

M. Manohar, J. C. Tilton, “Progressive vector quantization of multispectral image data using a massively parallel SIMD machine,” in Proceedings of the Second IEEE Data Compression Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1992), pp. 181–186.

May, P.

D. S. Wills, J. M. Baker, H. H. Cat, S. M. Chai, L. Codrescu, J. Cruz-Rivera, J. C. Eble, A. Gentile, M. A. Hopper, W. S. Lacy, A. López-Lagunas, P. May, S. Smith, T. Taha, “Processing architecture for smart pixel systems,” IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 24–34 (1996).
[CrossRef]

McCord, T. B.

R. J. Birk, T. B. McCord, “Airborne hyperspectral sensor systems,” IEEE Aerospace Electron. Sys. 9 (10), 26–33 (1994).

Mooradian, G.

R. Holasek, F. Protigal, G. Mooradian, M. Voelker, D. Even, M. Fene, P. Owensby, D. Breitwieser, “HIS mapping of marine and coastal environments using the Advanced Airborne Hyperspectral Imaging System (AAHIS),” in Algorithms for Multispectral and Hyperspectral Imagery III, A. Iverson, S. S. Shen, eds., Proc. SPIE3071, 169–180 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Noll, R. J.

A. F. Hayden, R. J. Noll, “Remote trace-gas quantification using thermal IR spectroscopy and digital filtering based on principal components of background scene clutter,” in Algorithms for Multispectral and Hyperspectral Imagery III, A. Iverson, S. S. Shen, eds., Proc. SPIE3071, 158–168 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Olivieri, R.

A. Gentile, J. Cruz-Rivera, D. S. Wills, L. Bustelo, J. J. Figueroa, J. E. Fonseca-Camacho, W. E. Lugo-Beauchamp, R. Olivieri, M. Quiñones-Cerpa, A. H. Rivera-Ríos, I. Vargas-Gonzáles, M. Viera-Vera, “Real-time image processing on a focal plane SIMD array,” in Parallel and Distributed Processing, Vol. 1586 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1999), pp. 400–405.
[CrossRef]

Owensby, P.

R. Holasek, F. Protigal, G. Mooradian, M. Voelker, D. Even, M. Fene, P. Owensby, D. Breitwieser, “HIS mapping of marine and coastal environments using the Advanced Airborne Hyperspectral Imaging System (AAHIS),” in Algorithms for Multispectral and Hyperspectral Imagery III, A. Iverson, S. S. Shen, eds., Proc. SPIE3071, 169–180 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Parulski, K.

J. Adams, K. Parulski, K. Spaulding, “Color processing in digital cameras,” IEEE Micro. 18, 20–30 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Parulski, K. A.

K. A. Parulski, “Color filter arrays and processing alternatives for one-chip cameras,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices ED-32, 1381–1389 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Pilorz, S. H.

M. K. Hamilton, S. H. Pilorz, C. O. Davis, J. M. van den Bosch, W. J. Rhea, “Analysis of high spectral resolution coastal ocean imagery: statistical, empirical, and analytical investigation,” in Algorithms for Multispectral and Hyperspectral Imagery, A. Iverson, ed., Proc. SPIE2231, 116–126 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Poussart, D.

M. Arias-Estrada, M. Tremblay, D. Poussart, “A focal plane architecture for motion computation,” Real-Time Imag. 2, 351–360 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. Poussart, M. Tremblay, A. Djemouiai, “VLSI implementation of focal plane processing for smart vision sensing,” in Pattern Recognition: Architectures, Algorithms, and Applications, R. Plamondon, H. Cheng, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1991), pp. 5–23.

Protigal, F.

R. Holasek, F. Protigal, G. Mooradian, M. Voelker, D. Even, M. Fene, P. Owensby, D. Breitwieser, “HIS mapping of marine and coastal environments using the Advanced Airborne Hyperspectral Imaging System (AAHIS),” in Algorithms for Multispectral and Hyperspectral Imagery III, A. Iverson, S. S. Shen, eds., Proc. SPIE3071, 169–180 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Quiñones-Cerpa, M.

A. Gentile, J. Cruz-Rivera, D. S. Wills, L. Bustelo, J. J. Figueroa, J. E. Fonseca-Camacho, W. E. Lugo-Beauchamp, R. Olivieri, M. Quiñones-Cerpa, A. H. Rivera-Ríos, I. Vargas-Gonzáles, M. Viera-Vera, “Real-time image processing on a focal plane SIMD array,” in Parallel and Distributed Processing, Vol. 1586 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1999), pp. 400–405.
[CrossRef]

Rhea, W. J.

M. K. Hamilton, S. H. Pilorz, C. O. Davis, J. M. van den Bosch, W. J. Rhea, “Analysis of high spectral resolution coastal ocean imagery: statistical, empirical, and analytical investigation,” in Algorithms for Multispectral and Hyperspectral Imagery, A. Iverson, ed., Proc. SPIE2231, 116–126 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rhodes, W. T.

H. Urey, W. T. Rhodes, S. P. DeWeerth, T. J. Drabik, “Optoelectronic image processor for multiresolution Gabor filtering,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1996), Vol. 6, pp. 3236–3239.

Rivera-Ríos, A. H.

A. Gentile, J. Cruz-Rivera, D. S. Wills, L. Bustelo, J. J. Figueroa, J. E. Fonseca-Camacho, W. E. Lugo-Beauchamp, R. Olivieri, M. Quiñones-Cerpa, A. H. Rivera-Ríos, I. Vargas-Gonzáles, M. Viera-Vera, “Real-time image processing on a focal plane SIMD array,” in Parallel and Distributed Processing, Vol. 1586 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1999), pp. 400–405.
[CrossRef]

Schott, J.

J. Schott, Remote Sensing: The Image Chain Approach (Oxford U. Press, New York, 1997), pp. 125–188.

Scowengerdt, R. A.

R. A. Scowengerdt, Remote Sensing: Models and Methods for Image Processing, 2nd ed. (Academic, New York, 1997), pp. 403–410.

Shaikh, M. A.

M. A. Shaikh, B. Tian, M. R. Azimi-Sadjadi, K. E. Eis, T. H. VonderHaar, “An automatic neural network-based cloud detection–classification scheme using multispectral and textural features,” in Algorithms for Multispectral and Hyperspectral Imagery II, D. K. Lynch, E. P. Shettle, eds., Proc. SPIE2578, 51–61 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, T.

W. C. Fang, T. Shaw, J. Yu, Y. T. Tsai, L. J. D’Luna, P. P. K. Lee, “VLSI focal-plane array processor for morphological image processing,” in Proceedings of the Fifth Annual IEEE International ASIC Conference and Exhibit (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1992), pp. 423–426.
[CrossRef]

Smith, S.

D. S. Wills, J. M. Baker, H. H. Cat, S. M. Chai, L. Codrescu, J. Cruz-Rivera, J. C. Eble, A. Gentile, M. A. Hopper, W. S. Lacy, A. López-Lagunas, P. May, S. Smith, T. Taha, “Processing architecture for smart pixel systems,” IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 24–34 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Song, P.

P. Song, “Direct RDRAM sustains 1.5 Gbytes/s,” (MicroDesign Resources, 874 Gravenstein Highway South, Sebastopol, Calif. 95472, 27October1997).

Sorbello, F.

A. Gentile, H. H. Cat, F. Kossentini, F. Sorbello, D. S. Wills, “Real-time vector quantization-based image compression on the SIMPil low-memory SIMD architecture,” in Proceedings of the 1997 International Performance, Computing, and Communications Conference (IPCCC’97) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1997), pp. 10–16.
[CrossRef]

Spaulding, K.

J. Adams, K. Parulski, K. Spaulding, “Color processing in digital cameras,” IEEE Micro. 18, 20–30 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Swain, P. H.

P. H. Swain, S. M. Davis, Remote Sensing: The Quantitative Approach (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1978), pp. 55–62.

Taha, T.

D. S. Wills, J. M. Baker, H. H. Cat, S. M. Chai, L. Codrescu, J. Cruz-Rivera, J. C. Eble, A. Gentile, M. A. Hopper, W. S. Lacy, A. López-Lagunas, P. May, S. Smith, T. Taha, “Processing architecture for smart pixel systems,” IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 24–34 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tian, B.

M. A. Shaikh, B. Tian, M. R. Azimi-Sadjadi, K. E. Eis, T. H. VonderHaar, “An automatic neural network-based cloud detection–classification scheme using multispectral and textural features,” in Algorithms for Multispectral and Hyperspectral Imagery II, D. K. Lynch, E. P. Shettle, eds., Proc. SPIE2578, 51–61 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tilton, J. C.

M. Manohar, J. C. Tilton, “Progressive vector quantization of multispectral image data using a massively parallel SIMD machine,” in Proceedings of the Second IEEE Data Compression Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1992), pp. 181–186.

Tremblay, M.

M. Arias-Estrada, M. Tremblay, D. Poussart, “A focal plane architecture for motion computation,” Real-Time Imag. 2, 351–360 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. Poussart, M. Tremblay, A. Djemouiai, “VLSI implementation of focal plane processing for smart vision sensing,” in Pattern Recognition: Architectures, Algorithms, and Applications, R. Plamondon, H. Cheng, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1991), pp. 5–23.

Tsai, Y. T.

W. C. Fang, T. Shaw, J. Yu, Y. T. Tsai, L. J. D’Luna, P. P. K. Lee, “VLSI focal-plane array processor for morphological image processing,” in Proceedings of the Fifth Annual IEEE International ASIC Conference and Exhibit (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1992), pp. 423–426.
[CrossRef]

Urey, H.

H. Urey, W. T. Rhodes, S. P. DeWeerth, T. J. Drabik, “Optoelectronic image processor for multiresolution Gabor filtering,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1996), Vol. 6, pp. 3236–3239.

van den Bosch, J. M.

M. K. Hamilton, S. H. Pilorz, C. O. Davis, J. M. van den Bosch, W. J. Rhea, “Analysis of high spectral resolution coastal ocean imagery: statistical, empirical, and analytical investigation,” in Algorithms for Multispectral and Hyperspectral Imagery, A. Iverson, ed., Proc. SPIE2231, 116–126 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Vargas-Gonzáles, I.

A. Gentile, J. Cruz-Rivera, D. S. Wills, L. Bustelo, J. J. Figueroa, J. E. Fonseca-Camacho, W. E. Lugo-Beauchamp, R. Olivieri, M. Quiñones-Cerpa, A. H. Rivera-Ríos, I. Vargas-Gonzáles, M. Viera-Vera, “Real-time image processing on a focal plane SIMD array,” in Parallel and Distributed Processing, Vol. 1586 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1999), pp. 400–405.
[CrossRef]

Vendier, O.

H. H. Cat, A. Gentile, J. C. Eble, M. E. Lee, O. Vendier, Y. J. Joo, D. S. Wills, M. Brooke, N. M. Jokerst, A. S. Brown, “SIMPil: an OE integrated SIMD architecture for focal plane processing applications,” in Proceedings of the Third IEEE International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnection (MMPOI-96) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1996), pp. 44–52.
[CrossRef]

Viera-Vera, M.

A. Gentile, J. Cruz-Rivera, D. S. Wills, L. Bustelo, J. J. Figueroa, J. E. Fonseca-Camacho, W. E. Lugo-Beauchamp, R. Olivieri, M. Quiñones-Cerpa, A. H. Rivera-Ríos, I. Vargas-Gonzáles, M. Viera-Vera, “Real-time image processing on a focal plane SIMD array,” in Parallel and Distributed Processing, Vol. 1586 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1999), pp. 400–405.
[CrossRef]

Voelker, M.

R. Holasek, F. Protigal, G. Mooradian, M. Voelker, D. Even, M. Fene, P. Owensby, D. Breitwieser, “HIS mapping of marine and coastal environments using the Advanced Airborne Hyperspectral Imaging System (AAHIS),” in Algorithms for Multispectral and Hyperspectral Imagery III, A. Iverson, S. S. Shen, eds., Proc. SPIE3071, 169–180 (1997).
[CrossRef]

VonderHaar, T. H.

M. A. Shaikh, B. Tian, M. R. Azimi-Sadjadi, K. E. Eis, T. H. VonderHaar, “An automatic neural network-based cloud detection–classification scheme using multispectral and textural features,” in Algorithms for Multispectral and Hyperspectral Imagery II, D. K. Lynch, E. P. Shettle, eds., Proc. SPIE2578, 51–61 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wills, D. S.

D. S. Wills, J. M. Baker, H. H. Cat, S. M. Chai, L. Codrescu, J. Cruz-Rivera, J. C. Eble, A. Gentile, M. A. Hopper, W. S. Lacy, A. López-Lagunas, P. May, S. Smith, T. Taha, “Processing architecture for smart pixel systems,” IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 24–34 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Gentile, H. H. Cat, F. Kossentini, F. Sorbello, D. S. Wills, “Real-time vector quantization-based image compression on the SIMPil low-memory SIMD architecture,” in Proceedings of the 1997 International Performance, Computing, and Communications Conference (IPCCC’97) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1997), pp. 10–16.
[CrossRef]

H. H. Cat, A. Gentile, J. C. Eble, M. E. Lee, O. Vendier, Y. J. Joo, D. S. Wills, M. Brooke, N. M. Jokerst, A. S. Brown, “SIMPil: an OE integrated SIMD architecture for focal plane processing applications,” in Proceedings of the Third IEEE International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnection (MMPOI-96) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1996), pp. 44–52.
[CrossRef]

S. M. Chai, A. Gentile, D. S. Wills, “Impact of power density limitation in gigascale integration for the SIMD pixel processor,” in Proceedings of the Twentieth Anniversary Conference on Advanced Research in VLSI (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1999), pp. 57–71.
[CrossRef]

A. Gentile, J. Cruz-Rivera, D. S. Wills, L. Bustelo, J. J. Figueroa, J. E. Fonseca-Camacho, W. E. Lugo-Beauchamp, R. Olivieri, M. Quiñones-Cerpa, A. H. Rivera-Ríos, I. Vargas-Gonzáles, M. Viera-Vera, “Real-time image processing on a focal plane SIMD array,” in Parallel and Distributed Processing, Vol. 1586 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1999), pp. 400–405.
[CrossRef]

Yu, J.

W. C. Fang, T. Shaw, J. Yu, Y. T. Tsai, L. J. D’Luna, P. P. K. Lee, “VLSI focal-plane array processor for morphological image processing,” in Proceedings of the Fifth Annual IEEE International ASIC Conference and Exhibit (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1992), pp. 423–426.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Aerospace Electron. Sys.

R. J. Birk, T. B. McCord, “Airborne hyperspectral sensor systems,” IEEE Aerospace Electron. Sys. 9 (10), 26–33 (1994).

IEEE Comput.

K. Diefendorff, R. Dubey, “How multimedia workloads will change processor design,” IEEE Comput. 30, 43–45 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron.

D. S. Wills, J. M. Baker, H. H. Cat, S. M. Chai, L. Codrescu, J. Cruz-Rivera, J. C. Eble, A. Gentile, M. A. Hopper, W. S. Lacy, A. López-Lagunas, P. May, S. Smith, T. Taha, “Processing architecture for smart pixel systems,” IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 24–34 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Micro.

J. Adams, K. Parulski, K. Spaulding, “Color processing in digital cameras,” IEEE Micro. 18, 20–30 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices

K. A. Parulski, “Color filter arrays and processing alternatives for one-chip cameras,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices ED-32, 1381–1389 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Real-Time Imag.

M. Arias-Estrada, M. Tremblay, D. Poussart, “A focal plane architecture for motion computation,” Real-Time Imag. 2, 351–360 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other

W. C. Fang, T. Shaw, J. Yu, Y. T. Tsai, L. J. D’Luna, P. P. K. Lee, “VLSI focal-plane array processor for morphological image processing,” in Proceedings of the Fifth Annual IEEE International ASIC Conference and Exhibit (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1992), pp. 423–426.
[CrossRef]

D. Poussart, M. Tremblay, A. Djemouiai, “VLSI implementation of focal plane processing for smart vision sensing,” in Pattern Recognition: Architectures, Algorithms, and Applications, R. Plamondon, H. Cheng, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1991), pp. 5–23.

H. Urey, W. T. Rhodes, S. P. DeWeerth, T. J. Drabik, “Optoelectronic image processor for multiresolution Gabor filtering,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1996), Vol. 6, pp. 3236–3239.

R. Holasek, F. Protigal, G. Mooradian, M. Voelker, D. Even, M. Fene, P. Owensby, D. Breitwieser, “HIS mapping of marine and coastal environments using the Advanced Airborne Hyperspectral Imaging System (AAHIS),” in Algorithms for Multispectral and Hyperspectral Imagery III, A. Iverson, S. S. Shen, eds., Proc. SPIE3071, 169–180 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Hamilton, S. H. Pilorz, C. O. Davis, J. M. van den Bosch, W. J. Rhea, “Analysis of high spectral resolution coastal ocean imagery: statistical, empirical, and analytical investigation,” in Algorithms for Multispectral and Hyperspectral Imagery, A. Iverson, ed., Proc. SPIE2231, 116–126 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Shaikh, B. Tian, M. R. Azimi-Sadjadi, K. E. Eis, T. H. VonderHaar, “An automatic neural network-based cloud detection–classification scheme using multispectral and textural features,” in Algorithms for Multispectral and Hyperspectral Imagery II, D. K. Lynch, E. P. Shettle, eds., Proc. SPIE2578, 51–61 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Hayden, R. J. Noll, “Remote trace-gas quantification using thermal IR spectroscopy and digital filtering based on principal components of background scene clutter,” in Algorithms for Multispectral and Hyperspectral Imagery III, A. Iverson, S. S. Shen, eds., Proc. SPIE3071, 158–168 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. H. Swain, S. M. Davis, Remote Sensing: The Quantitative Approach (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1978), pp. 55–62.

J. Schott, Remote Sensing: The Image Chain Approach (Oxford U. Press, New York, 1997), pp. 125–188.

P. Song, “Direct RDRAM sustains 1.5 Gbytes/s,” (MicroDesign Resources, 874 Gravenstein Highway South, Sebastopol, Calif. 95472, 27October1997).

E. S. Eid, E. Fossum, “Real-time focal-plane array image processor,” in Automated Inspection and High-Speed Vision Architectures III (International Society for Optical Engineering, Philadelphia, Pa., 1989), pp. 2–12.

MasPar MP-2 Users Guide, Version A5 (MasPar Corporation, 749 North Mary Avenue, Sunnyvale, Calif. 94086, 1994).

MasPar MP-2 System Data Sheet (MasPar Corporation, 749 North Mary Avenue, Sunnyvale, Calif. 94086, 1993).

H. J. Lee, J. C. Liu, A. K. Chan, C. K. Chui, “Parallel implementation of wavelet decomposition–reconstruction algorithms,” in Wavelet Applications, H. H. Szu, ed., Proc. SPIE2242, 248–259 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Gentile, H. H. Cat, F. Kossentini, F. Sorbello, D. S. Wills, “Real-time vector quantization-based image compression on the SIMPil low-memory SIMD architecture,” in Proceedings of the 1997 International Performance, Computing, and Communications Conference (IPCCC’97) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1997), pp. 10–16.
[CrossRef]

H. J. Lee, J. C. Liu, A. K. Chan, C. K. Chui, “A parallel vector quantization algorithm for single-instruction–multiple-data (SIMD) multiprocessor systems,” in Proceedings of the Fifth IEEE Data Compression Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1995), p. 479.

M. Manohar, J. C. Tilton, “Progressive vector quantization of multispectral image data using a massively parallel SIMD machine,” in Proceedings of the Second IEEE Data Compression Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1992), pp. 181–186.

W. D. Hillis, The Connection Machine (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1985).

Connection Machine Model CM-2 Technical Summary, Version 5.1 (Thinking Machine Corporation, 16 New England Executive Park, Burlington, Mass. 01803, 1989).

H. H. Cat, A. Gentile, J. C. Eble, M. E. Lee, O. Vendier, Y. J. Joo, D. S. Wills, M. Brooke, N. M. Jokerst, A. S. Brown, “SIMPil: an OE integrated SIMD architecture for focal plane processing applications,” in Proceedings of the Third IEEE International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnection (MMPOI-96) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1996), pp. 44–52.
[CrossRef]

S. M. Chai, A. Gentile, D. S. Wills, “Impact of power density limitation in gigascale integration for the SIMD pixel processor,” in Proceedings of the Twentieth Anniversary Conference on Advanced Research in VLSI (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1999), pp. 57–71.
[CrossRef]

A. Gentile, J. Cruz-Rivera, D. S. Wills, L. Bustelo, J. J. Figueroa, J. E. Fonseca-Camacho, W. E. Lugo-Beauchamp, R. Olivieri, M. Quiñones-Cerpa, A. H. Rivera-Ríos, I. Vargas-Gonzáles, M. Viera-Vera, “Real-time image processing on a focal plane SIMD array,” in Parallel and Distributed Processing, Vol. 1586 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1999), pp. 400–405.
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[CrossRef]

See the PICA (portable image computation architecture) research group’s SIMPil (SIMD pixel processor) home page at http://www.ee.gatech.edu/research/pica/simpil .

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Figures (20)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Hyperspectral imaging: multiple images in different spectral bands form an image cube for the same spatial image. Spatial and spectral analyses are performed on the image cube to obtain chromatic, textural, and regional information.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectrometer block diagram: The first stage consists of an optical system that focuses the incoming radiation. The second and the third stages include optical components such as choppers, gratings, and prisms that are used to separate the spectral components of the polychromatic source. The fourth stage includes the detection, amplification, demodulation, and recording phases of the data-gathering process.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Detector responsivity for four types of detector plotted as a function of the radiation wavelength.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Traditional line scanners that use (a) oscillating mirrors or (b) push-broom arrays.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Store-and-process processing model.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Stream-parallel processing model.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Push-broom imaging-spectrometer design for capturing spectral–spatial images.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Imaging spectrometer shown capturing 2-D spatial–spatial images. As the detector array moves along the y axis, an image frame is captured for a single wavelength (band). After capturing n frames the entire hyperspectral data cube will be captured.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

CFA’s for digital color cameras: (a) RGB and (b) CMYG models. (c) Hyperspectral sensors can be interlaced in the focal plane to capture the entire radiation range. Si, silicon; PbS, lead sulfide; InSb, indium antimonide; HgDdTe, mercury cadmium telluride.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Organization of a SIMD computer architecture. Program instructions are broadcast to every PE in the system through a single instruction stream, and each PE carries out the received instructions on its local data. P 0, P 1, P n , PE’s; MEM 0, MEM 1 MEM n, local memory.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Block diagram of the SIMD focal-plane system. Each PE in the SIMD processor array can address a 4 × 4 array of image sensors. This model permits the entire image as projected onto many PE’s to be obtained in a single operation. Shift unit, barrel shifter; ADC, analog-to-digital converter.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Projected system size and power consumption for a processor array. The numbers in square brackets along the horizontal coordinate represent the feature sizes.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Region-autofocus processing steps involved in isolating regions of interest. Data cubes that contain many images at different wavelengths are produced by hyperspectral-imaging sensors. Two images at different spectra are shown. The top left-hand image is in the visible spectrum; the top right-hand image is in the nonvisible spectrum.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Representation of the C-means algorithm: (a) The hyperspectral data cube is brought into the SIMD focal-plane architecture by a single wavelength (layer) at a time. (b) The SIMD architecture performs the parallel C-means classifier algorithm as the data arrive. (c) The final classified image is produced.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Processing steps for the K-means clustering algorithm. A thresholding metric is used to identify all possible pixel clusters in an image. Live pixels are grouped into N clusters. The clusters are then labeled, the centroid calculation is performed, and the clusters are classified.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

K-means mapping example. The dots represent the N cluster centroids. N = 7 clusters are mapped into K = 3 main clusters or K = 2 main clusters.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Textural-correlation application by use of the DFT and a texel library: (a) M × M region extraction from an N × N spectral slice and (b) matching of the extracted region against the texel library. Y/N, yes–no; L, the number of texels in the library.

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

Workload characterization for the hyperspectral-application suite.

Fig. 19
Fig. 19

Performance comparison of the store-and-process DSP versus the SIMD focal-plane systems on hyperspectral-application workloads. fps, frames per second.

Fig. 20
Fig. 20

Comparison of total application-execution latencies for region autofocus and K-means clustering (a) for the SIMD focal-plane system and (b) for a store-and-process DSP. The DSP is unable to provide real-time rate execution for hyperspectral applications. fps, frames per second.

Tables (5)

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Table 1 Data Bandwidth and Processing Throughputs for a Selection of Sensor Arrays

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Table 2 Key FU Specifications for a 16-Bit Fixed-Point Implementation

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Table 3 Technology and System Parameters for a 16-Bit Fixed-Point Target System

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Table 4 Distribution of the Execution Time Among the Different FU’s

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Table 5 Hyperspectral-Application Performance Comparison

Metrics