Abstract

An ion-beam microcontouring process is developed and implemented for figuring millimeter scale optics. Ion figuring is a noncontact machining technique in which a beam of high-energy ions is directed toward a target substrate to remove material in a predetermined and controlled fashion. Owing to this noncontact mode of material removal, problems associated with tool wear and edge effects, which are common in conventional machining processes, are avoided. Ion-beam figuring is presented as an alternative for the final figuring of small (<1-mm) optical components. The depth of the material removed by an ion beam is a convolution between the ion-beam shape and an ion-beam dwell function, defined over a two-dimensional area of interest. Therefore determination of the beam dwell function from a desired material removal map and a known steady beam shape is a deconvolution process. A wavelet-based algorithm has been developed to model the deconvolution process in which the desired removal contours and ion-beam shapes are synthesized numerically as wavelet expansions. We then mathematically combined these expansions to compute the dwell function or the tool path for controlling the figuring process. Various models have been developed to test the stability of the algorithm and to understand the critical parameters of the figuring process. The figuring system primarily consists of a duo-plasmatron ion source that ionizes argon to generate a focused (∼200-µm FWHM) ion beam. This beam is rastered over the removal surface with a perpendicular set of electrostatic plates controlled by a computer guidance system. Experimental confirmation of ion figuring is demonstrated by machining a one-dimensional sinusoidal depth profile in a prepolished silicon substrate. This profile was figured to within a rms error of 25 nm in one iteration.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. R. Wilson, J. R. McNeil, “Neutral ion beam figuring of large optical surfaces,” in Current Developments in Optical Engineering II, R. E. Fischer, W. J. Smith, eds., Proc. SPIE818, 320–324 (1987).
  2. S. R. Wilson, D. W. Reicher, J. R. McNeil, “Surface figuring using neutral ion beams,” in Advances in Fabrication and Metrology for Optics and Large Optics, J. B. Arnold, R. E. Parko, eds., Proc. SPIE966, 74–81 (1988).
  3. L. N. Allen, R. E. Keim, “An ion figuring system for large optic fabrication,” in Current Developments in Optical Engineering and Commercial Optics, R. E. Fischer, H. M. Pallicove, W. J. Smith, eds., Proc. SPIE1168, 33–50 (1989).
  4. L. N. Allen, H. W. Romig, “Demonstration of an ion figuring process,” in Advanced Optical Manufacturing and Testing, L. R. Baker, P. B. Reid, G. M. Sanger, eds., Proc. SPIE1333, 22–33 (1990).
  5. L. N. Allen, J. J. Hannon, R. W. Wambach, “Final surface error correction of an off-axis aspheric petal by ion figuring,” in Active and Adaptive Optical Components, M. A. Ealey, ed., Proc. SPIE1543, 190–200 (1991).
  6. L. N. Allen, R. E. Keim, T. S. Lewis, “Surface error correction of a Keck 10-m telescope primary mirror segment by ion figuring,” in Advanced Optical Manufacturing and Testing II, V. J. Doherty, ed., Proc. SPIE1531, 195–204 (1991).
  7. D. Pileri, “Large optics fabrication: technology drivers and new manufacturing techniques,” in Current Developments in Optical Engineering and Commercial Optics, R. E. Fischer, H. M. Pallicove, W. J. Smith, eds., Proc. SPIE1168, 25–32 (1989).
  8. J. Lubliner, J. E. Nelson, “Stressed mirror polishing: a technique for producing nonaxisymmetric mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 19, 2332–2340 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. T. W. Drueding, S. C. Fawcett, S. R. Wilson, T. G. Bifano, “Neutral ion figuring of CVD SiC,” Opt. Eng. 33, 967–974 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. W. Drueding, S. C. Fawcett, S. R. Wilson, T. G. Bifano, “Ion beam figuring of small optical components,” Opt. Eng. 34, 3565–3571 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. W. Drueding, S. C. Fawcett, T. G. Bifano, “Contouring algorithm for ion figuring,” Precis. Eng. 17, 10–12 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  12. T. W. Drueding, “Precision ion figuring system for optical components,” Ph.D. dissertation (Boston University, Boston, 1995).
  13. C. L. Carnal, C. M. Egert, K. Y. Hylton, “Advanced matrix-based algorithm for ion beam milling of optical components,” in Current Developments on Optical Design and Optical Engineering II, R. E. Fischer, W. J. Smith, eds., Proc. SPIE1752, 54–62 (1992).
  14. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference and Diffraction of Light (Cambridge U Press, New York, 1998).
  15. B. Wolf, Handbook of Ion Sources (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1995).
  16. T. G. Bifano, R. Mali, J. Perreault, K. Dorton, N. Vandelli, M. Hornstein, D. Castañon, “Continuous membrane surface micromachined silicon deformable mirror,” Opt. Eng. 36, 1354–1360 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

1997 (1)

T. G. Bifano, R. Mali, J. Perreault, K. Dorton, N. Vandelli, M. Hornstein, D. Castañon, “Continuous membrane surface micromachined silicon deformable mirror,” Opt. Eng. 36, 1354–1360 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

T. W. Drueding, S. C. Fawcett, S. R. Wilson, T. G. Bifano, “Ion beam figuring of small optical components,” Opt. Eng. 34, 3565–3571 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Drueding, S. C. Fawcett, T. G. Bifano, “Contouring algorithm for ion figuring,” Precis. Eng. 17, 10–12 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

T. W. Drueding, S. C. Fawcett, S. R. Wilson, T. G. Bifano, “Neutral ion figuring of CVD SiC,” Opt. Eng. 33, 967–974 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

Allen, L. N.

L. N. Allen, H. W. Romig, “Demonstration of an ion figuring process,” in Advanced Optical Manufacturing and Testing, L. R. Baker, P. B. Reid, G. M. Sanger, eds., Proc. SPIE1333, 22–33 (1990).

L. N. Allen, R. E. Keim, “An ion figuring system for large optic fabrication,” in Current Developments in Optical Engineering and Commercial Optics, R. E. Fischer, H. M. Pallicove, W. J. Smith, eds., Proc. SPIE1168, 33–50 (1989).

L. N. Allen, R. E. Keim, T. S. Lewis, “Surface error correction of a Keck 10-m telescope primary mirror segment by ion figuring,” in Advanced Optical Manufacturing and Testing II, V. J. Doherty, ed., Proc. SPIE1531, 195–204 (1991).

L. N. Allen, J. J. Hannon, R. W. Wambach, “Final surface error correction of an off-axis aspheric petal by ion figuring,” in Active and Adaptive Optical Components, M. A. Ealey, ed., Proc. SPIE1543, 190–200 (1991).

Bifano, T. G.

T. G. Bifano, R. Mali, J. Perreault, K. Dorton, N. Vandelli, M. Hornstein, D. Castañon, “Continuous membrane surface micromachined silicon deformable mirror,” Opt. Eng. 36, 1354–1360 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Drueding, S. C. Fawcett, S. R. Wilson, T. G. Bifano, “Ion beam figuring of small optical components,” Opt. Eng. 34, 3565–3571 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Drueding, S. C. Fawcett, T. G. Bifano, “Contouring algorithm for ion figuring,” Precis. Eng. 17, 10–12 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Drueding, S. C. Fawcett, S. R. Wilson, T. G. Bifano, “Neutral ion figuring of CVD SiC,” Opt. Eng. 33, 967–974 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference and Diffraction of Light (Cambridge U Press, New York, 1998).

Carnal, C. L.

C. L. Carnal, C. M. Egert, K. Y. Hylton, “Advanced matrix-based algorithm for ion beam milling of optical components,” in Current Developments on Optical Design and Optical Engineering II, R. E. Fischer, W. J. Smith, eds., Proc. SPIE1752, 54–62 (1992).

Castañon, D.

T. G. Bifano, R. Mali, J. Perreault, K. Dorton, N. Vandelli, M. Hornstein, D. Castañon, “Continuous membrane surface micromachined silicon deformable mirror,” Opt. Eng. 36, 1354–1360 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dorton, K.

T. G. Bifano, R. Mali, J. Perreault, K. Dorton, N. Vandelli, M. Hornstein, D. Castañon, “Continuous membrane surface micromachined silicon deformable mirror,” Opt. Eng. 36, 1354–1360 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Drueding, T. W.

T. W. Drueding, S. C. Fawcett, S. R. Wilson, T. G. Bifano, “Ion beam figuring of small optical components,” Opt. Eng. 34, 3565–3571 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Drueding, S. C. Fawcett, T. G. Bifano, “Contouring algorithm for ion figuring,” Precis. Eng. 17, 10–12 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Drueding, S. C. Fawcett, S. R. Wilson, T. G. Bifano, “Neutral ion figuring of CVD SiC,” Opt. Eng. 33, 967–974 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Drueding, “Precision ion figuring system for optical components,” Ph.D. dissertation (Boston University, Boston, 1995).

Egert, C. M.

C. L. Carnal, C. M. Egert, K. Y. Hylton, “Advanced matrix-based algorithm for ion beam milling of optical components,” in Current Developments on Optical Design and Optical Engineering II, R. E. Fischer, W. J. Smith, eds., Proc. SPIE1752, 54–62 (1992).

Fawcett, S. C.

T. W. Drueding, S. C. Fawcett, S. R. Wilson, T. G. Bifano, “Ion beam figuring of small optical components,” Opt. Eng. 34, 3565–3571 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Drueding, S. C. Fawcett, T. G. Bifano, “Contouring algorithm for ion figuring,” Precis. Eng. 17, 10–12 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Drueding, S. C. Fawcett, S. R. Wilson, T. G. Bifano, “Neutral ion figuring of CVD SiC,” Opt. Eng. 33, 967–974 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hannon, J. J.

L. N. Allen, J. J. Hannon, R. W. Wambach, “Final surface error correction of an off-axis aspheric petal by ion figuring,” in Active and Adaptive Optical Components, M. A. Ealey, ed., Proc. SPIE1543, 190–200 (1991).

Hornstein, M.

T. G. Bifano, R. Mali, J. Perreault, K. Dorton, N. Vandelli, M. Hornstein, D. Castañon, “Continuous membrane surface micromachined silicon deformable mirror,” Opt. Eng. 36, 1354–1360 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hylton, K. Y.

C. L. Carnal, C. M. Egert, K. Y. Hylton, “Advanced matrix-based algorithm for ion beam milling of optical components,” in Current Developments on Optical Design and Optical Engineering II, R. E. Fischer, W. J. Smith, eds., Proc. SPIE1752, 54–62 (1992).

Keim, R. E.

L. N. Allen, R. E. Keim, T. S. Lewis, “Surface error correction of a Keck 10-m telescope primary mirror segment by ion figuring,” in Advanced Optical Manufacturing and Testing II, V. J. Doherty, ed., Proc. SPIE1531, 195–204 (1991).

L. N. Allen, R. E. Keim, “An ion figuring system for large optic fabrication,” in Current Developments in Optical Engineering and Commercial Optics, R. E. Fischer, H. M. Pallicove, W. J. Smith, eds., Proc. SPIE1168, 33–50 (1989).

Lewis, T. S.

L. N. Allen, R. E. Keim, T. S. Lewis, “Surface error correction of a Keck 10-m telescope primary mirror segment by ion figuring,” in Advanced Optical Manufacturing and Testing II, V. J. Doherty, ed., Proc. SPIE1531, 195–204 (1991).

Lubliner, J.

Mali, R.

T. G. Bifano, R. Mali, J. Perreault, K. Dorton, N. Vandelli, M. Hornstein, D. Castañon, “Continuous membrane surface micromachined silicon deformable mirror,” Opt. Eng. 36, 1354–1360 (1997).
[CrossRef]

McNeil, J. R.

S. R. Wilson, J. R. McNeil, “Neutral ion beam figuring of large optical surfaces,” in Current Developments in Optical Engineering II, R. E. Fischer, W. J. Smith, eds., Proc. SPIE818, 320–324 (1987).

S. R. Wilson, D. W. Reicher, J. R. McNeil, “Surface figuring using neutral ion beams,” in Advances in Fabrication and Metrology for Optics and Large Optics, J. B. Arnold, R. E. Parko, eds., Proc. SPIE966, 74–81 (1988).

Nelson, J. E.

Perreault, J.

T. G. Bifano, R. Mali, J. Perreault, K. Dorton, N. Vandelli, M. Hornstein, D. Castañon, “Continuous membrane surface micromachined silicon deformable mirror,” Opt. Eng. 36, 1354–1360 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pileri, D.

D. Pileri, “Large optics fabrication: technology drivers and new manufacturing techniques,” in Current Developments in Optical Engineering and Commercial Optics, R. E. Fischer, H. M. Pallicove, W. J. Smith, eds., Proc. SPIE1168, 25–32 (1989).

Reicher, D. W.

S. R. Wilson, D. W. Reicher, J. R. McNeil, “Surface figuring using neutral ion beams,” in Advances in Fabrication and Metrology for Optics and Large Optics, J. B. Arnold, R. E. Parko, eds., Proc. SPIE966, 74–81 (1988).

Romig, H. W.

L. N. Allen, H. W. Romig, “Demonstration of an ion figuring process,” in Advanced Optical Manufacturing and Testing, L. R. Baker, P. B. Reid, G. M. Sanger, eds., Proc. SPIE1333, 22–33 (1990).

Vandelli, N.

T. G. Bifano, R. Mali, J. Perreault, K. Dorton, N. Vandelli, M. Hornstein, D. Castañon, “Continuous membrane surface micromachined silicon deformable mirror,” Opt. Eng. 36, 1354–1360 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wambach, R. W.

L. N. Allen, J. J. Hannon, R. W. Wambach, “Final surface error correction of an off-axis aspheric petal by ion figuring,” in Active and Adaptive Optical Components, M. A. Ealey, ed., Proc. SPIE1543, 190–200 (1991).

Wilson, S. R.

T. W. Drueding, S. C. Fawcett, S. R. Wilson, T. G. Bifano, “Ion beam figuring of small optical components,” Opt. Eng. 34, 3565–3571 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Drueding, S. C. Fawcett, S. R. Wilson, T. G. Bifano, “Neutral ion figuring of CVD SiC,” Opt. Eng. 33, 967–974 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Wilson, D. W. Reicher, J. R. McNeil, “Surface figuring using neutral ion beams,” in Advances in Fabrication and Metrology for Optics and Large Optics, J. B. Arnold, R. E. Parko, eds., Proc. SPIE966, 74–81 (1988).

S. R. Wilson, J. R. McNeil, “Neutral ion beam figuring of large optical surfaces,” in Current Developments in Optical Engineering II, R. E. Fischer, W. J. Smith, eds., Proc. SPIE818, 320–324 (1987).

Wolf, B.

B. Wolf, Handbook of Ion Sources (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1995).

Wolf, E.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference and Diffraction of Light (Cambridge U Press, New York, 1998).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Opt. Eng. (3)

T. G. Bifano, R. Mali, J. Perreault, K. Dorton, N. Vandelli, M. Hornstein, D. Castañon, “Continuous membrane surface micromachined silicon deformable mirror,” Opt. Eng. 36, 1354–1360 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Drueding, S. C. Fawcett, S. R. Wilson, T. G. Bifano, “Neutral ion figuring of CVD SiC,” Opt. Eng. 33, 967–974 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Drueding, S. C. Fawcett, S. R. Wilson, T. G. Bifano, “Ion beam figuring of small optical components,” Opt. Eng. 34, 3565–3571 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Precis. Eng. (1)

T. W. Drueding, S. C. Fawcett, T. G. Bifano, “Contouring algorithm for ion figuring,” Precis. Eng. 17, 10–12 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other (11)

T. W. Drueding, “Precision ion figuring system for optical components,” Ph.D. dissertation (Boston University, Boston, 1995).

C. L. Carnal, C. M. Egert, K. Y. Hylton, “Advanced matrix-based algorithm for ion beam milling of optical components,” in Current Developments on Optical Design and Optical Engineering II, R. E. Fischer, W. J. Smith, eds., Proc. SPIE1752, 54–62 (1992).

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference and Diffraction of Light (Cambridge U Press, New York, 1998).

B. Wolf, Handbook of Ion Sources (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1995).

S. R. Wilson, J. R. McNeil, “Neutral ion beam figuring of large optical surfaces,” in Current Developments in Optical Engineering II, R. E. Fischer, W. J. Smith, eds., Proc. SPIE818, 320–324 (1987).

S. R. Wilson, D. W. Reicher, J. R. McNeil, “Surface figuring using neutral ion beams,” in Advances in Fabrication and Metrology for Optics and Large Optics, J. B. Arnold, R. E. Parko, eds., Proc. SPIE966, 74–81 (1988).

L. N. Allen, R. E. Keim, “An ion figuring system for large optic fabrication,” in Current Developments in Optical Engineering and Commercial Optics, R. E. Fischer, H. M. Pallicove, W. J. Smith, eds., Proc. SPIE1168, 33–50 (1989).

L. N. Allen, H. W. Romig, “Demonstration of an ion figuring process,” in Advanced Optical Manufacturing and Testing, L. R. Baker, P. B. Reid, G. M. Sanger, eds., Proc. SPIE1333, 22–33 (1990).

L. N. Allen, J. J. Hannon, R. W. Wambach, “Final surface error correction of an off-axis aspheric petal by ion figuring,” in Active and Adaptive Optical Components, M. A. Ealey, ed., Proc. SPIE1543, 190–200 (1991).

L. N. Allen, R. E. Keim, T. S. Lewis, “Surface error correction of a Keck 10-m telescope primary mirror segment by ion figuring,” in Advanced Optical Manufacturing and Testing II, V. J. Doherty, ed., Proc. SPIE1531, 195–204 (1991).

D. Pileri, “Large optics fabrication: technology drivers and new manufacturing techniques,” in Current Developments in Optical Engineering and Commercial Optics, R. E. Fischer, H. M. Pallicove, W. J. Smith, eds., Proc. SPIE1168, 25–32 (1989).

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