Abstract

We demonstrate the capability of using fiber-optic sensors for measurements on environmental loads on a high-power, overhead transmission line. A trial system with three Bragg gratings, including a temperature reference, was installed on a 160-m span of a 60-kV line. An interrogation system with a tunable distributed Bragg reflector laser source was used. Several measurements of the induced loads on a conductor were recorded in various wind conditions. In particular, aeolian vibrations were frequently observed, and several measurements of this phenomenon were made. The results correlate well with simple theoretical predictions and visual observations.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. J. Tunstall, “Wind-induced vibrations of overhead transmission lines: an overview,” in Proceedings of the International Seminar on Cable Dynamics (Japan Association for Wind Engineering, Tokyo, Japan, 1997), pp. 13–25.
  2. Conference Internationale des Grands Reseaux Electrigues SC22, “Report on aeolian vibration,” Electra 124, 40–77 (1989).
  3. Y. Ogawa, J. Iwasaki, K. Nakamura, “A multiplexing load monitoring system of power transmission lines using fiber Bragg grating,” in Optical Fiber Sensors, Vol. 16 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 468–471.
  4. L. Bjerkan, K. Johannessen, X. Guo, “Measurements of frequency responses of three-section distributed Bragg reflector lasers and application to modulation spectroscopy,” Opt. Laser Technol. 30, 417–423 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. Jin, “Investigation of interferometric noise in fiber-optic Bragg grating sensors by use of tunable laser sources,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2517–2525 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. C. Young, Roark’s Formulas for Stress and Strain, 6th ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1989), Chap. 7.
  7. L. M. Milne-Thomson, Theoretical Hydrodynamics, 3rd ed. (Macmillan, London, 1955), Chap. 12.

1998

L. Bjerkan, K. Johannessen, X. Guo, “Measurements of frequency responses of three-section distributed Bragg reflector lasers and application to modulation spectroscopy,” Opt. Laser Technol. 30, 417–423 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. Jin, “Investigation of interferometric noise in fiber-optic Bragg grating sensors by use of tunable laser sources,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2517–2525 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1989

Conference Internationale des Grands Reseaux Electrigues SC22, “Report on aeolian vibration,” Electra 124, 40–77 (1989).

Bjerkan, L.

L. Bjerkan, K. Johannessen, X. Guo, “Measurements of frequency responses of three-section distributed Bragg reflector lasers and application to modulation spectroscopy,” Opt. Laser Technol. 30, 417–423 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Guo, X.

L. Bjerkan, K. Johannessen, X. Guo, “Measurements of frequency responses of three-section distributed Bragg reflector lasers and application to modulation spectroscopy,” Opt. Laser Technol. 30, 417–423 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Iwasaki, J.

Y. Ogawa, J. Iwasaki, K. Nakamura, “A multiplexing load monitoring system of power transmission lines using fiber Bragg grating,” in Optical Fiber Sensors, Vol. 16 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 468–471.

Jin, W.

Johannessen, K.

L. Bjerkan, K. Johannessen, X. Guo, “Measurements of frequency responses of three-section distributed Bragg reflector lasers and application to modulation spectroscopy,” Opt. Laser Technol. 30, 417–423 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Milne-Thomson, L. M.

L. M. Milne-Thomson, Theoretical Hydrodynamics, 3rd ed. (Macmillan, London, 1955), Chap. 12.

Nakamura, K.

Y. Ogawa, J. Iwasaki, K. Nakamura, “A multiplexing load monitoring system of power transmission lines using fiber Bragg grating,” in Optical Fiber Sensors, Vol. 16 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 468–471.

Ogawa, Y.

Y. Ogawa, J. Iwasaki, K. Nakamura, “A multiplexing load monitoring system of power transmission lines using fiber Bragg grating,” in Optical Fiber Sensors, Vol. 16 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 468–471.

Tunstall, M. J.

M. J. Tunstall, “Wind-induced vibrations of overhead transmission lines: an overview,” in Proceedings of the International Seminar on Cable Dynamics (Japan Association for Wind Engineering, Tokyo, Japan, 1997), pp. 13–25.

Young, W. C.

W. C. Young, Roark’s Formulas for Stress and Strain, 6th ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1989), Chap. 7.

Appl. Opt.

Electra

Conference Internationale des Grands Reseaux Electrigues SC22, “Report on aeolian vibration,” Electra 124, 40–77 (1989).

Opt. Laser Technol.

L. Bjerkan, K. Johannessen, X. Guo, “Measurements of frequency responses of three-section distributed Bragg reflector lasers and application to modulation spectroscopy,” Opt. Laser Technol. 30, 417–423 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other

M. J. Tunstall, “Wind-induced vibrations of overhead transmission lines: an overview,” in Proceedings of the International Seminar on Cable Dynamics (Japan Association for Wind Engineering, Tokyo, Japan, 1997), pp. 13–25.

Y. Ogawa, J. Iwasaki, K. Nakamura, “A multiplexing load monitoring system of power transmission lines using fiber Bragg grating,” in Optical Fiber Sensors, Vol. 16 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 468–471.

W. C. Young, Roark’s Formulas for Stress and Strain, 6th ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1989), Chap. 7.

L. M. Milne-Thomson, Theoretical Hydrodynamics, 3rd ed. (Macmillan, London, 1955), Chap. 12.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of installation of three Bragg grating sensors on a 60-kV power transmission line. Each grating is bonded to the conductor with epoxy and spliced to a lead-in fiber contained in a cable that is terminated at the base of the nearest mast.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Installation of the sensor system.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental setup for Bragg grating interrogation with a DBR laser source.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Principles for the wavelength position definition from a Bragg grating response: (a) peak detection by straight line fits to both slopes between 30% and 80% of the maximum, (b) detection of changes in signal level at a fixed wavelength approximately at the 3-dB point of the grating response.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Typical example of measured aeolian vibrations from grating 1: (a) entire time series with calculated strains from wavelength shift data; (b), (c) detail of the time series at the start and end, respectively, of the time series; (d) power spectrum of the time series in (a), indicating the harmonic orders of the frequency peaks as determined by Eq. (3).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Some typical vibration spectra recorded with grating 1: (a) sampling frequency, 40 Hz; (b) sampling frequency, 100 Hz. No contributions were found above 12 Hz.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Typical spectra from aeolian vibrations recorded by grating 2. The sampling frequency was 40 Hz.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Example of measured time series (above) for grating 1 in hard side-wind conditions and (below) the corresponding frequency spectrum.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Direct recording of all three gratings simultaneously in hard wind conditions. The sampling frequency was 10 Hz (3.3 Hz/channel). The grating numbers are indicated. (The wavelength scale for gratings 2 and 3 is changed for illustration purposes.)

Equations (8)

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yx=L2βcoshβ2 xL-1-coshβ, β=mgL2H0,
ε0x=FxEA=H0EA1+dydx21/2=H0EAcoshβ2xL-1,
fn=n2LH0m1/2,  ynx=Y0 sinnπxL,
f=SVD,
εx=D2ynx=DY02nπL2 sinnπxL.
Fh=12CDρV2D,
H=H01+Fhmg21/2.
Δεx=H-H0EA=ε0x1+Fhmg21/2-1.

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