Abstract

A new integrated optical component is introduced that performs the function of the well-known microwave magic T, i.e., that produces the sum and the difference of the two input optical signals. Two structures are proposed and tested theoretically for this purpose. The first is based on the symmetric Y junction, and the second is based on interference phenomena in a multimode waveguide. The theoretical design is tested with a beam-propagation method simulation, and good performance is obtained. The effects of the geometrical design parameters on the structures’ performance (bandwidth, cross talk, and losses) are also investigated.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. Kern, F. Malbet, I. Schanen-Duport, P. Benech, “Integrated optics single-mode interferometric beam combiner for near infrared astronomy,” in Conference Proceedings of the Integrated Optics for Astronomical Interferometry, P. Kern, F. Malbet, eds. (Bastianelli-Guirimand, Grenoble, France, 1996), pp. 195–203.
  2. A. Labeyrie, “Interference fringes obtained on Vega with two optical telescopes,” Astrophys. J. 196, L71–L75 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. Allen Vawter, G. Roland Hadley, B. Fuchs, J. R. Wendet, J. F. Klem, “An integrated optical XY coupler for phase sensitive optical power combining and suppression of radiated light,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 394–396 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. D. Feit, J. A. Fleck, “Light propagation in graded index optical fibers,” Appl. Opt. 17, 3990–3998 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. P. Gerard, P. Benech, D. Khalil, R. Rimet, S. Tedjini, “Towards a full vectorial and modal technique for the analysis of integrated optical structure: the radiation spectrum method RSM,” Opt. Commun. 140, 128–145 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. S. Levy, R. Scarmozzino, Y. M. Li, R. M. Osgood, “A new design for ultracompact multimode interference based 2 × 2 couplers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 96–98 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. E. R. Thoen, L. A. Molter, J. P. Donnelly, “Exact modal analysis and optimization of N × N × 1 cascaded waveguide structures with multimode guiding sections,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1299–1307 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. H. El-Refaei, D. Khalil, “Design of strip loaded weak guiding multimode interference structure for an optical router,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 2286–2290 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. C. Lin, W. Y. Lee, “Guided-wave 1.3/1.55 µm wavelength division multiplexer based on multimode interference,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1259–1261 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  10. I. Duport, P. Benech, D. Khalil, R. Rimet, “Study of linear taper waveguides made by ion-exchange in glass,” J. Phys. D 25, 913–918 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. Marcuse, Light Transmission Optics (Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1972).
  12. P. Benech, D. Khalil, F. Saint André, “An exact simplified method for the normalisation of radiation modes in planar multilayer structures,” Opt. Commun. 88, 96–100 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  13. O. Bryngdahl, “Image formation using self-imaging techniques,” J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 63, 416–419 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  14. E. C. M. Pennings, R. van Roijen, M. J. N. van Stralen, P. J. de Waard, R. G. M. P. Koumans, B. H. Verbeek, “Reflection properties of multimode interference devices,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 715–718 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  15. L. B. Soldano, E. C. Pennings, “Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: principles and applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615–627 (1995).
    [CrossRef]

1998 (2)

H. H. El-Refaei, D. Khalil, “Design of strip loaded weak guiding multimode interference structure for an optical router,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 2286–2290 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Levy, R. Scarmozzino, Y. M. Li, R. M. Osgood, “A new design for ultracompact multimode interference based 2 × 2 couplers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 96–98 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

E. R. Thoen, L. A. Molter, J. P. Donnelly, “Exact modal analysis and optimization of N × N × 1 cascaded waveguide structures with multimode guiding sections,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1299–1307 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Gerard, P. Benech, D. Khalil, R. Rimet, S. Tedjini, “Towards a full vectorial and modal technique for the analysis of integrated optical structure: the radiation spectrum method RSM,” Opt. Commun. 140, 128–145 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

K. C. Lin, W. Y. Lee, “Guided-wave 1.3/1.55 µm wavelength division multiplexer based on multimode interference,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1259–1261 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

L. B. Soldano, E. C. Pennings, “Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: principles and applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615–627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Allen Vawter, G. Roland Hadley, B. Fuchs, J. R. Wendet, J. F. Klem, “An integrated optical XY coupler for phase sensitive optical power combining and suppression of radiated light,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 394–396 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

E. C. M. Pennings, R. van Roijen, M. J. N. van Stralen, P. J. de Waard, R. G. M. P. Koumans, B. H. Verbeek, “Reflection properties of multimode interference devices,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 715–718 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

I. Duport, P. Benech, D. Khalil, R. Rimet, “Study of linear taper waveguides made by ion-exchange in glass,” J. Phys. D 25, 913–918 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. Benech, D. Khalil, F. Saint André, “An exact simplified method for the normalisation of radiation modes in planar multilayer structures,” Opt. Commun. 88, 96–100 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

1975 (1)

A. Labeyrie, “Interference fringes obtained on Vega with two optical telescopes,” Astrophys. J. 196, L71–L75 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

O. Bryngdahl, “Image formation using self-imaging techniques,” J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 63, 416–419 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Allen Vawter, G.

G. Allen Vawter, G. Roland Hadley, B. Fuchs, J. R. Wendet, J. F. Klem, “An integrated optical XY coupler for phase sensitive optical power combining and suppression of radiated light,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 394–396 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Benech, P.

P. Gerard, P. Benech, D. Khalil, R. Rimet, S. Tedjini, “Towards a full vectorial and modal technique for the analysis of integrated optical structure: the radiation spectrum method RSM,” Opt. Commun. 140, 128–145 (1997).
[CrossRef]

I. Duport, P. Benech, D. Khalil, R. Rimet, “Study of linear taper waveguides made by ion-exchange in glass,” J. Phys. D 25, 913–918 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. Benech, D. Khalil, F. Saint André, “An exact simplified method for the normalisation of radiation modes in planar multilayer structures,” Opt. Commun. 88, 96–100 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. Kern, F. Malbet, I. Schanen-Duport, P. Benech, “Integrated optics single-mode interferometric beam combiner for near infrared astronomy,” in Conference Proceedings of the Integrated Optics for Astronomical Interferometry, P. Kern, F. Malbet, eds. (Bastianelli-Guirimand, Grenoble, France, 1996), pp. 195–203.

Bryngdahl, O.

O. Bryngdahl, “Image formation using self-imaging techniques,” J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 63, 416–419 (1973).
[CrossRef]

de Waard, P. J.

E. C. M. Pennings, R. van Roijen, M. J. N. van Stralen, P. J. de Waard, R. G. M. P. Koumans, B. H. Verbeek, “Reflection properties of multimode interference devices,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 715–718 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Donnelly, J. P.

E. R. Thoen, L. A. Molter, J. P. Donnelly, “Exact modal analysis and optimization of N × N × 1 cascaded waveguide structures with multimode guiding sections,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1299–1307 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Duport, I.

I. Duport, P. Benech, D. Khalil, R. Rimet, “Study of linear taper waveguides made by ion-exchange in glass,” J. Phys. D 25, 913–918 (1992).
[CrossRef]

El-Refaei, H. H.

H. H. El-Refaei, D. Khalil, “Design of strip loaded weak guiding multimode interference structure for an optical router,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 2286–2290 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Feit, M. D.

Fleck, J. A.

Fuchs, B.

G. Allen Vawter, G. Roland Hadley, B. Fuchs, J. R. Wendet, J. F. Klem, “An integrated optical XY coupler for phase sensitive optical power combining and suppression of radiated light,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 394–396 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gerard, P.

P. Gerard, P. Benech, D. Khalil, R. Rimet, S. Tedjini, “Towards a full vectorial and modal technique for the analysis of integrated optical structure: the radiation spectrum method RSM,” Opt. Commun. 140, 128–145 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kern, P.

P. Kern, F. Malbet, I. Schanen-Duport, P. Benech, “Integrated optics single-mode interferometric beam combiner for near infrared astronomy,” in Conference Proceedings of the Integrated Optics for Astronomical Interferometry, P. Kern, F. Malbet, eds. (Bastianelli-Guirimand, Grenoble, France, 1996), pp. 195–203.

Khalil, D.

H. H. El-Refaei, D. Khalil, “Design of strip loaded weak guiding multimode interference structure for an optical router,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 2286–2290 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Gerard, P. Benech, D. Khalil, R. Rimet, S. Tedjini, “Towards a full vectorial and modal technique for the analysis of integrated optical structure: the radiation spectrum method RSM,” Opt. Commun. 140, 128–145 (1997).
[CrossRef]

I. Duport, P. Benech, D. Khalil, R. Rimet, “Study of linear taper waveguides made by ion-exchange in glass,” J. Phys. D 25, 913–918 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. Benech, D. Khalil, F. Saint André, “An exact simplified method for the normalisation of radiation modes in planar multilayer structures,” Opt. Commun. 88, 96–100 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Klem, J. F.

G. Allen Vawter, G. Roland Hadley, B. Fuchs, J. R. Wendet, J. F. Klem, “An integrated optical XY coupler for phase sensitive optical power combining and suppression of radiated light,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 394–396 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Koumans, R. G. M. P.

E. C. M. Pennings, R. van Roijen, M. J. N. van Stralen, P. J. de Waard, R. G. M. P. Koumans, B. H. Verbeek, “Reflection properties of multimode interference devices,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 715–718 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Labeyrie, A.

A. Labeyrie, “Interference fringes obtained on Vega with two optical telescopes,” Astrophys. J. 196, L71–L75 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Lee, W. Y.

K. C. Lin, W. Y. Lee, “Guided-wave 1.3/1.55 µm wavelength division multiplexer based on multimode interference,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1259–1261 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Levy, D. S.

D. S. Levy, R. Scarmozzino, Y. M. Li, R. M. Osgood, “A new design for ultracompact multimode interference based 2 × 2 couplers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 96–98 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y. M.

D. S. Levy, R. Scarmozzino, Y. M. Li, R. M. Osgood, “A new design for ultracompact multimode interference based 2 × 2 couplers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 96–98 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lin, K. C.

K. C. Lin, W. Y. Lee, “Guided-wave 1.3/1.55 µm wavelength division multiplexer based on multimode interference,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1259–1261 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Malbet, F.

P. Kern, F. Malbet, I. Schanen-Duport, P. Benech, “Integrated optics single-mode interferometric beam combiner for near infrared astronomy,” in Conference Proceedings of the Integrated Optics for Astronomical Interferometry, P. Kern, F. Malbet, eds. (Bastianelli-Guirimand, Grenoble, France, 1996), pp. 195–203.

Marcuse, D.

D. Marcuse, Light Transmission Optics (Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1972).

Molter, L. A.

E. R. Thoen, L. A. Molter, J. P. Donnelly, “Exact modal analysis and optimization of N × N × 1 cascaded waveguide structures with multimode guiding sections,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1299–1307 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Osgood, R. M.

D. S. Levy, R. Scarmozzino, Y. M. Li, R. M. Osgood, “A new design for ultracompact multimode interference based 2 × 2 couplers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 96–98 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pennings, E. C.

L. B. Soldano, E. C. Pennings, “Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: principles and applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615–627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pennings, E. C. M.

E. C. M. Pennings, R. van Roijen, M. J. N. van Stralen, P. J. de Waard, R. G. M. P. Koumans, B. H. Verbeek, “Reflection properties of multimode interference devices,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 715–718 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rimet, R.

P. Gerard, P. Benech, D. Khalil, R. Rimet, S. Tedjini, “Towards a full vectorial and modal technique for the analysis of integrated optical structure: the radiation spectrum method RSM,” Opt. Commun. 140, 128–145 (1997).
[CrossRef]

I. Duport, P. Benech, D. Khalil, R. Rimet, “Study of linear taper waveguides made by ion-exchange in glass,” J. Phys. D 25, 913–918 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Roland Hadley, G.

G. Allen Vawter, G. Roland Hadley, B. Fuchs, J. R. Wendet, J. F. Klem, “An integrated optical XY coupler for phase sensitive optical power combining and suppression of radiated light,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 394–396 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Saint André, F.

P. Benech, D. Khalil, F. Saint André, “An exact simplified method for the normalisation of radiation modes in planar multilayer structures,” Opt. Commun. 88, 96–100 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Scarmozzino, R.

D. S. Levy, R. Scarmozzino, Y. M. Li, R. M. Osgood, “A new design for ultracompact multimode interference based 2 × 2 couplers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 96–98 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schanen-Duport, I.

P. Kern, F. Malbet, I. Schanen-Duport, P. Benech, “Integrated optics single-mode interferometric beam combiner for near infrared astronomy,” in Conference Proceedings of the Integrated Optics for Astronomical Interferometry, P. Kern, F. Malbet, eds. (Bastianelli-Guirimand, Grenoble, France, 1996), pp. 195–203.

Soldano, L. B.

L. B. Soldano, E. C. Pennings, “Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: principles and applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615–627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tedjini, S.

P. Gerard, P. Benech, D. Khalil, R. Rimet, S. Tedjini, “Towards a full vectorial and modal technique for the analysis of integrated optical structure: the radiation spectrum method RSM,” Opt. Commun. 140, 128–145 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Thoen, E. R.

E. R. Thoen, L. A. Molter, J. P. Donnelly, “Exact modal analysis and optimization of N × N × 1 cascaded waveguide structures with multimode guiding sections,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1299–1307 (1997).
[CrossRef]

van Roijen, R.

E. C. M. Pennings, R. van Roijen, M. J. N. van Stralen, P. J. de Waard, R. G. M. P. Koumans, B. H. Verbeek, “Reflection properties of multimode interference devices,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 715–718 (1994).
[CrossRef]

van Stralen, M. J. N.

E. C. M. Pennings, R. van Roijen, M. J. N. van Stralen, P. J. de Waard, R. G. M. P. Koumans, B. H. Verbeek, “Reflection properties of multimode interference devices,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 715–718 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Verbeek, B. H.

E. C. M. Pennings, R. van Roijen, M. J. N. van Stralen, P. J. de Waard, R. G. M. P. Koumans, B. H. Verbeek, “Reflection properties of multimode interference devices,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 715–718 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wendet, J. R.

G. Allen Vawter, G. Roland Hadley, B. Fuchs, J. R. Wendet, J. F. Klem, “An integrated optical XY coupler for phase sensitive optical power combining and suppression of radiated light,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 394–396 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Astrophys. J. (1)

A. Labeyrie, “Interference fringes obtained on Vega with two optical telescopes,” Astrophys. J. 196, L71–L75 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

K. C. Lin, W. Y. Lee, “Guided-wave 1.3/1.55 µm wavelength division multiplexer based on multimode interference,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1259–1261 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

E. R. Thoen, L. A. Molter, J. P. Donnelly, “Exact modal analysis and optimization of N × N × 1 cascaded waveguide structures with multimode guiding sections,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1299–1307 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. H. El-Refaei, D. Khalil, “Design of strip loaded weak guiding multimode interference structure for an optical router,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 2286–2290 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

D. S. Levy, R. Scarmozzino, Y. M. Li, R. M. Osgood, “A new design for ultracompact multimode interference based 2 × 2 couplers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 96–98 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Allen Vawter, G. Roland Hadley, B. Fuchs, J. R. Wendet, J. F. Klem, “An integrated optical XY coupler for phase sensitive optical power combining and suppression of radiated light,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 394–396 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. C. M. Pennings, R. van Roijen, M. J. N. van Stralen, P. J. de Waard, R. G. M. P. Koumans, B. H. Verbeek, “Reflection properties of multimode interference devices,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 715–718 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

L. B. Soldano, E. C. Pennings, “Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: principles and applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615–627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. (1)

O. Bryngdahl, “Image formation using self-imaging techniques,” J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 63, 416–419 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D (1)

I. Duport, P. Benech, D. Khalil, R. Rimet, “Study of linear taper waveguides made by ion-exchange in glass,” J. Phys. D 25, 913–918 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

P. Benech, D. Khalil, F. Saint André, “An exact simplified method for the normalisation of radiation modes in planar multilayer structures,” Opt. Commun. 88, 96–100 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. Gerard, P. Benech, D. Khalil, R. Rimet, S. Tedjini, “Towards a full vectorial and modal technique for the analysis of integrated optical structure: the radiation spectrum method RSM,” Opt. Commun. 140, 128–145 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

D. Marcuse, Light Transmission Optics (Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1972).

P. Kern, F. Malbet, I. Schanen-Duport, P. Benech, “Integrated optics single-mode interferometric beam combiner for near infrared astronomy,” in Conference Proceedings of the Integrated Optics for Astronomical Interferometry, P. Kern, F. Malbet, eds. (Bastianelli-Guirimand, Grenoble, France, 1996), pp. 195–203.

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the proposed integrated optical magic T: (a) symmetric Y-junction structure, (b) MMI structure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Asymmetric excitation of the Y junction and generation of radiation modes at the output waveguide.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Field distribution in a Y junction of angle 0.91° in the inverse excitation: (a) symmetric excitation, ϕ = 0; (b) asymmetric excitation, ϕ = π.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Radiation spectrum at the output of the Y junction.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Output angle of the radiated field calculated by the BPM (spatial domain) and the RSM (spectral domain).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Schematic representation of the final Y-junction structure (dimensions in micrometers).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Typical performance of the Y-junction structure.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Electric field distribution in the final optimized structure: (a) in-phase excitation, (b) out-of-phase excitation.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Frequency response of the Y-junction structure.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Schematic diagram of the MMI structure designed to perform the magic T function (dimensions in micrometers).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Relative output in the central guide of the MMI structure for three different wavelengths.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Optical field distribution in the MMI structure for (a) in-phase excitation and (b) out-of-phase excitation.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Performance of the MMI optimized structure as a function of the phase shift between the two inputs.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Frequency response of the MMI structure.

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Ex, z=agϕgxexp-jβgz+  Aρϕx, ρexp-jβzdρ,
Aρ=-+ Einxϕ*x, ρdxIρ,
 ϕjx, ρϕi*x, ρdx=Iρδρ-ρ,
ρeff= Sρρdρ Sρdρ.
hi=0Lx Eix*Eoxdx20Lx |Eix|2dx+0Lx |Eox|2dx,
Einx=Eg1x+expjϕEg2x
L=P3Lπ/8,
Ψx, L=ν=1,5,9,13,  cνψνxexpj νν+2π3Lπ L,
LN, P=PN3Lπ/16,

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