Abstract

Accurately estimating the spectral reflectance of art paintings from low-dimensional multichannel images requires that both image-acquisition hardware with appropriate spectral characteristics and appropriate estimation software be applied to the captured multichannel image. In this study, a system that incorporates both factors is designed and developed on the basis of the minimum-mean-square error criterion. The accuracy of spectral estimation by use of this system is evaluated, and the system’s high performance is demonstrated.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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  1. F. H. Imai, R. S. Berns, “High-resolution multispectral image archives: a hybrid approach,” in Proceedings of the Sixth Color Imaging Conference (Scottsdale, Ariz., Nov. 17–20, 1998), pp. 224–227.
  2. P. D. Burns, R. S. Berns, “Analysis of multispectral image capture,” in Proceedings of the Fourth Color Imaging Conference (Scottsdale, Ariz., Nov. 17–20, 1996), pp. 19–22.
  3. K. Martinez, J. Cupitt, D. Saunders, “High resolution colorimetric imaging of paintings,” in Cameras, Scanners, and Image Acquisition Systems, H. Marz, R. L. Nielsen eds., Proc. SPIE1901, 25–36 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. Maitre, F. Schmitt, J. Crettez, Y. Wu, Y. Hardeberg, “Spectrophotometric image analysis of fine art paintings,” in Proceedings of the Fourth Color Imaging Conference (Scottsdale, Ariz., Nov. 17–20, 1996), pp. 50–53.
  5. D. Saunders, J. Cupitt, “Image processing at the National Gallery: The VASARI project,” Nat. Gallery Tech. Bull. 14, 72–85 (1993).
  6. F. Konig, “Reconstruction of natural spectra from color sensor using nonlinear estimation methods,” in Proceedings of the 50th Annual Conference of Imaging Science and Technology (Cambridge, Mass., May 18–23, 1997), pp. 454–458.
  7. J. E. Farrell, J. Cupitt, D. Saunders, B. A. Wandell, “Estimating spectral reflectances of digital images of art,” in International Symposium of Multispectral Imaging and Color Reproduction for Digital Archives (Society of Multispectral Imaging of Japan, Chiba, Japan, 1999), pp. 58–64.
  8. H. Haneishi, T. Hasegawa, N. Tsumura, Y. Miyake, “Design of color filters for recording artworks,” in Proceedings of the 50th Annual Conference of Imaging Science and Technology (Cambridge, Mass., May 18–23, 1997), pp. 369–372.
  9. A. Hosoi, K. Miyata, H. Haneishi, Y. Miyake, “Filter design of multispectral camera based on CCD sensor noise analysis,” in International Symposium of Multispectral Imaging and Color Representation for Digital Archives (Society of Multispectral Imaging of Japan, Chiba, Japan, 1999), pp. 159–162.
  10. H. Sugiura, T. Kuno, N. Watanabe, N. Matoba, J. Hayashi, Y. Miyake, “Development of highly accurate multispectral cameras,” in International Symposium on Multispectral Imaging and Color Reproduction for Digital Archives (Society of Multispectral Imaging of Japan, Chiba, Japan, 1999), pp. 73–80.
  11. L. T. Maloney, “Evaluation of linear models of surface spectral reflectance with small number of parameters,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1673–1683 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. P. S. Parkkinen, J. Hallikainen, T. Jaaskelainen, “Characteristic spectra of Munsell color,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 6, 318–322 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. J. Vrhel, R. Gershon, L. S. Iwan, “Measurement and analysis of object reflectance spectra,” Color Res. Appl. 19, 4–9 (1994).
  14. W. K. Pratt, Digital Image Processing (Wiley Interscience, New York, 1991), pp. 404–406.
  15. J. Tajima, M. Tsukada, Y. Miyake, H. Haneishi, N. Tsumura, M. Nakajima, Y. Azuma, T. Iga, M. Inui, N. Ohta, N. Ojima, S. Sanada, “Development and standardization of a spectral characteristics data base for evaluating color reproduction in image input devices,” in Electronic Imaging: Processing, Printing, and Publishing in color, J. Bares, ed., Proc. SPIE3409, 42–50 (1998).
  16. J. Tajima, “Huge spectral characteristics database and its application to color imaging device design,” in Proceedings of the Sixth Color Imaging Conference (Scottsdale,Ariz., Nov. 17–20, 1998), pp. 86–89.
  17. D.-Y. Tzeng, R. S. Berns, “Spectral-based ink selection for multiple-ink printing. I. Colorant estimation of original objects,” in Proceedings of the Sixth Color Imaging Conference (Scottsdale, Ariz., Nov. 17–20, 1998), pp. 106–111.
  18. G. E. Healey, R. Kondepudy, “Radiometric CCD camera calibration and noise estimation,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 16, 267–276 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  19. S. Kirkpatrick, C. D. Gelatt, M. P. Vecchi, “Optimization by simulated annealing,” Science 220, 671–680 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C, 2nd Ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1994), pp. 444–455.
  21. M. J. Vrhel, H. J. Trussell, “Color correction using principal components,” Color Res. Appl. 17, 328–338 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  22. W. Menke, Geophysical Data Analysis: Discrete Inverse Theory (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1989), pp. 61–78.
  23. M. J. Vrhel, H. J. Trussell, “Filter considerations in color correction,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 3, 147–161 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. M. J. Vrhel, H. J. Trussell, “Optimal color filters in the presence of noise,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 4, 814–823 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. M. J. Vrhel, H. J. Trussell, Jack Bosch, “Design and realization of optimal color filters for multi-illuminant color correction,” J. Electron. Imaging 4, 6–14 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  26. P. L. Vola, B. J. Trussell, “Mathematical methods for the design of color scanning filters,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 6, 312–320 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  27. G. Sharma, H. J. Trussell, M. J. Vrhel, “Optimal nonnegative color scanning filters,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 7, 129–133 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

1998

G. Sharma, H. J. Trussell, M. J. Vrhel, “Optimal nonnegative color scanning filters,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 7, 129–133 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

P. L. Vola, B. J. Trussell, “Mathematical methods for the design of color scanning filters,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 6, 312–320 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

M. J. Vrhel, H. J. Trussell, “Optimal color filters in the presence of noise,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 4, 814–823 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Vrhel, H. J. Trussell, Jack Bosch, “Design and realization of optimal color filters for multi-illuminant color correction,” J. Electron. Imaging 4, 6–14 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

M. J. Vrhel, R. Gershon, L. S. Iwan, “Measurement and analysis of object reflectance spectra,” Color Res. Appl. 19, 4–9 (1994).

G. E. Healey, R. Kondepudy, “Radiometric CCD camera calibration and noise estimation,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 16, 267–276 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Vrhel, H. J. Trussell, “Filter considerations in color correction,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 3, 147–161 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

D. Saunders, J. Cupitt, “Image processing at the National Gallery: The VASARI project,” Nat. Gallery Tech. Bull. 14, 72–85 (1993).

1992

M. J. Vrhel, H. J. Trussell, “Color correction using principal components,” Color Res. Appl. 17, 328–338 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1989

J. P. S. Parkkinen, J. Hallikainen, T. Jaaskelainen, “Characteristic spectra of Munsell color,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 6, 318–322 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986

L. T. Maloney, “Evaluation of linear models of surface spectral reflectance with small number of parameters,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1673–1683 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1983

S. Kirkpatrick, C. D. Gelatt, M. P. Vecchi, “Optimization by simulated annealing,” Science 220, 671–680 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Azuma, Y.

J. Tajima, M. Tsukada, Y. Miyake, H. Haneishi, N. Tsumura, M. Nakajima, Y. Azuma, T. Iga, M. Inui, N. Ohta, N. Ojima, S. Sanada, “Development and standardization of a spectral characteristics data base for evaluating color reproduction in image input devices,” in Electronic Imaging: Processing, Printing, and Publishing in color, J. Bares, ed., Proc. SPIE3409, 42–50 (1998).

Berns, R. S.

D.-Y. Tzeng, R. S. Berns, “Spectral-based ink selection for multiple-ink printing. I. Colorant estimation of original objects,” in Proceedings of the Sixth Color Imaging Conference (Scottsdale, Ariz., Nov. 17–20, 1998), pp. 106–111.

F. H. Imai, R. S. Berns, “High-resolution multispectral image archives: a hybrid approach,” in Proceedings of the Sixth Color Imaging Conference (Scottsdale, Ariz., Nov. 17–20, 1998), pp. 224–227.

P. D. Burns, R. S. Berns, “Analysis of multispectral image capture,” in Proceedings of the Fourth Color Imaging Conference (Scottsdale, Ariz., Nov. 17–20, 1996), pp. 19–22.

Bosch, Jack

M. J. Vrhel, H. J. Trussell, Jack Bosch, “Design and realization of optimal color filters for multi-illuminant color correction,” J. Electron. Imaging 4, 6–14 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Burns, P. D.

P. D. Burns, R. S. Berns, “Analysis of multispectral image capture,” in Proceedings of the Fourth Color Imaging Conference (Scottsdale, Ariz., Nov. 17–20, 1996), pp. 19–22.

Crettez, J.

H. Maitre, F. Schmitt, J. Crettez, Y. Wu, Y. Hardeberg, “Spectrophotometric image analysis of fine art paintings,” in Proceedings of the Fourth Color Imaging Conference (Scottsdale, Ariz., Nov. 17–20, 1996), pp. 50–53.

Cupitt, J.

D. Saunders, J. Cupitt, “Image processing at the National Gallery: The VASARI project,” Nat. Gallery Tech. Bull. 14, 72–85 (1993).

K. Martinez, J. Cupitt, D. Saunders, “High resolution colorimetric imaging of paintings,” in Cameras, Scanners, and Image Acquisition Systems, H. Marz, R. L. Nielsen eds., Proc. SPIE1901, 25–36 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Farrell, J. Cupitt, D. Saunders, B. A. Wandell, “Estimating spectral reflectances of digital images of art,” in International Symposium of Multispectral Imaging and Color Reproduction for Digital Archives (Society of Multispectral Imaging of Japan, Chiba, Japan, 1999), pp. 58–64.

Farrell, J. E.

J. E. Farrell, J. Cupitt, D. Saunders, B. A. Wandell, “Estimating spectral reflectances of digital images of art,” in International Symposium of Multispectral Imaging and Color Reproduction for Digital Archives (Society of Multispectral Imaging of Japan, Chiba, Japan, 1999), pp. 58–64.

Flannery, B. P.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C, 2nd Ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1994), pp. 444–455.

Gelatt, C. D.

S. Kirkpatrick, C. D. Gelatt, M. P. Vecchi, “Optimization by simulated annealing,” Science 220, 671–680 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gershon, R.

M. J. Vrhel, R. Gershon, L. S. Iwan, “Measurement and analysis of object reflectance spectra,” Color Res. Appl. 19, 4–9 (1994).

Hallikainen, J.

J. P. S. Parkkinen, J. Hallikainen, T. Jaaskelainen, “Characteristic spectra of Munsell color,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 6, 318–322 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Haneishi, H.

J. Tajima, M. Tsukada, Y. Miyake, H. Haneishi, N. Tsumura, M. Nakajima, Y. Azuma, T. Iga, M. Inui, N. Ohta, N. Ojima, S. Sanada, “Development and standardization of a spectral characteristics data base for evaluating color reproduction in image input devices,” in Electronic Imaging: Processing, Printing, and Publishing in color, J. Bares, ed., Proc. SPIE3409, 42–50 (1998).

H. Haneishi, T. Hasegawa, N. Tsumura, Y. Miyake, “Design of color filters for recording artworks,” in Proceedings of the 50th Annual Conference of Imaging Science and Technology (Cambridge, Mass., May 18–23, 1997), pp. 369–372.

A. Hosoi, K. Miyata, H. Haneishi, Y. Miyake, “Filter design of multispectral camera based on CCD sensor noise analysis,” in International Symposium of Multispectral Imaging and Color Representation for Digital Archives (Society of Multispectral Imaging of Japan, Chiba, Japan, 1999), pp. 159–162.

Hardeberg, Y.

H. Maitre, F. Schmitt, J. Crettez, Y. Wu, Y. Hardeberg, “Spectrophotometric image analysis of fine art paintings,” in Proceedings of the Fourth Color Imaging Conference (Scottsdale, Ariz., Nov. 17–20, 1996), pp. 50–53.

Hasegawa, T.

H. Haneishi, T. Hasegawa, N. Tsumura, Y. Miyake, “Design of color filters for recording artworks,” in Proceedings of the 50th Annual Conference of Imaging Science and Technology (Cambridge, Mass., May 18–23, 1997), pp. 369–372.

Hayashi, J.

H. Sugiura, T. Kuno, N. Watanabe, N. Matoba, J. Hayashi, Y. Miyake, “Development of highly accurate multispectral cameras,” in International Symposium on Multispectral Imaging and Color Reproduction for Digital Archives (Society of Multispectral Imaging of Japan, Chiba, Japan, 1999), pp. 73–80.

Healey, G. E.

G. E. Healey, R. Kondepudy, “Radiometric CCD camera calibration and noise estimation,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 16, 267–276 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hosoi, A.

A. Hosoi, K. Miyata, H. Haneishi, Y. Miyake, “Filter design of multispectral camera based on CCD sensor noise analysis,” in International Symposium of Multispectral Imaging and Color Representation for Digital Archives (Society of Multispectral Imaging of Japan, Chiba, Japan, 1999), pp. 159–162.

Iga, T.

J. Tajima, M. Tsukada, Y. Miyake, H. Haneishi, N. Tsumura, M. Nakajima, Y. Azuma, T. Iga, M. Inui, N. Ohta, N. Ojima, S. Sanada, “Development and standardization of a spectral characteristics data base for evaluating color reproduction in image input devices,” in Electronic Imaging: Processing, Printing, and Publishing in color, J. Bares, ed., Proc. SPIE3409, 42–50 (1998).

Imai, F. H.

F. H. Imai, R. S. Berns, “High-resolution multispectral image archives: a hybrid approach,” in Proceedings of the Sixth Color Imaging Conference (Scottsdale, Ariz., Nov. 17–20, 1998), pp. 224–227.

Inui, M.

J. Tajima, M. Tsukada, Y. Miyake, H. Haneishi, N. Tsumura, M. Nakajima, Y. Azuma, T. Iga, M. Inui, N. Ohta, N. Ojima, S. Sanada, “Development and standardization of a spectral characteristics data base for evaluating color reproduction in image input devices,” in Electronic Imaging: Processing, Printing, and Publishing in color, J. Bares, ed., Proc. SPIE3409, 42–50 (1998).

Iwan, L. S.

M. J. Vrhel, R. Gershon, L. S. Iwan, “Measurement and analysis of object reflectance spectra,” Color Res. Appl. 19, 4–9 (1994).

Jaaskelainen, T.

J. P. S. Parkkinen, J. Hallikainen, T. Jaaskelainen, “Characteristic spectra of Munsell color,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 6, 318–322 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kirkpatrick, S.

S. Kirkpatrick, C. D. Gelatt, M. P. Vecchi, “Optimization by simulated annealing,” Science 220, 671–680 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kondepudy, R.

G. E. Healey, R. Kondepudy, “Radiometric CCD camera calibration and noise estimation,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 16, 267–276 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Konig, F.

F. Konig, “Reconstruction of natural spectra from color sensor using nonlinear estimation methods,” in Proceedings of the 50th Annual Conference of Imaging Science and Technology (Cambridge, Mass., May 18–23, 1997), pp. 454–458.

Kuno, T.

H. Sugiura, T. Kuno, N. Watanabe, N. Matoba, J. Hayashi, Y. Miyake, “Development of highly accurate multispectral cameras,” in International Symposium on Multispectral Imaging and Color Reproduction for Digital Archives (Society of Multispectral Imaging of Japan, Chiba, Japan, 1999), pp. 73–80.

Maitre, H.

H. Maitre, F. Schmitt, J. Crettez, Y. Wu, Y. Hardeberg, “Spectrophotometric image analysis of fine art paintings,” in Proceedings of the Fourth Color Imaging Conference (Scottsdale, Ariz., Nov. 17–20, 1996), pp. 50–53.

Maloney, L. T.

L. T. Maloney, “Evaluation of linear models of surface spectral reflectance with small number of parameters,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1673–1683 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Martinez, K.

K. Martinez, J. Cupitt, D. Saunders, “High resolution colorimetric imaging of paintings,” in Cameras, Scanners, and Image Acquisition Systems, H. Marz, R. L. Nielsen eds., Proc. SPIE1901, 25–36 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Matoba, N.

H. Sugiura, T. Kuno, N. Watanabe, N. Matoba, J. Hayashi, Y. Miyake, “Development of highly accurate multispectral cameras,” in International Symposium on Multispectral Imaging and Color Reproduction for Digital Archives (Society of Multispectral Imaging of Japan, Chiba, Japan, 1999), pp. 73–80.

Menke, W.

W. Menke, Geophysical Data Analysis: Discrete Inverse Theory (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1989), pp. 61–78.

Miyake, Y.

J. Tajima, M. Tsukada, Y. Miyake, H. Haneishi, N. Tsumura, M. Nakajima, Y. Azuma, T. Iga, M. Inui, N. Ohta, N. Ojima, S. Sanada, “Development and standardization of a spectral characteristics data base for evaluating color reproduction in image input devices,” in Electronic Imaging: Processing, Printing, and Publishing in color, J. Bares, ed., Proc. SPIE3409, 42–50 (1998).

H. Haneishi, T. Hasegawa, N. Tsumura, Y. Miyake, “Design of color filters for recording artworks,” in Proceedings of the 50th Annual Conference of Imaging Science and Technology (Cambridge, Mass., May 18–23, 1997), pp. 369–372.

H. Sugiura, T. Kuno, N. Watanabe, N. Matoba, J. Hayashi, Y. Miyake, “Development of highly accurate multispectral cameras,” in International Symposium on Multispectral Imaging and Color Reproduction for Digital Archives (Society of Multispectral Imaging of Japan, Chiba, Japan, 1999), pp. 73–80.

A. Hosoi, K. Miyata, H. Haneishi, Y. Miyake, “Filter design of multispectral camera based on CCD sensor noise analysis,” in International Symposium of Multispectral Imaging and Color Representation for Digital Archives (Society of Multispectral Imaging of Japan, Chiba, Japan, 1999), pp. 159–162.

Miyata, K.

A. Hosoi, K. Miyata, H. Haneishi, Y. Miyake, “Filter design of multispectral camera based on CCD sensor noise analysis,” in International Symposium of Multispectral Imaging and Color Representation for Digital Archives (Society of Multispectral Imaging of Japan, Chiba, Japan, 1999), pp. 159–162.

Nakajima, M.

J. Tajima, M. Tsukada, Y. Miyake, H. Haneishi, N. Tsumura, M. Nakajima, Y. Azuma, T. Iga, M. Inui, N. Ohta, N. Ojima, S. Sanada, “Development and standardization of a spectral characteristics data base for evaluating color reproduction in image input devices,” in Electronic Imaging: Processing, Printing, and Publishing in color, J. Bares, ed., Proc. SPIE3409, 42–50 (1998).

Ohta, N.

J. Tajima, M. Tsukada, Y. Miyake, H. Haneishi, N. Tsumura, M. Nakajima, Y. Azuma, T. Iga, M. Inui, N. Ohta, N. Ojima, S. Sanada, “Development and standardization of a spectral characteristics data base for evaluating color reproduction in image input devices,” in Electronic Imaging: Processing, Printing, and Publishing in color, J. Bares, ed., Proc. SPIE3409, 42–50 (1998).

Ojima, N.

J. Tajima, M. Tsukada, Y. Miyake, H. Haneishi, N. Tsumura, M. Nakajima, Y. Azuma, T. Iga, M. Inui, N. Ohta, N. Ojima, S. Sanada, “Development and standardization of a spectral characteristics data base for evaluating color reproduction in image input devices,” in Electronic Imaging: Processing, Printing, and Publishing in color, J. Bares, ed., Proc. SPIE3409, 42–50 (1998).

Parkkinen, J. P. S.

J. P. S. Parkkinen, J. Hallikainen, T. Jaaskelainen, “Characteristic spectra of Munsell color,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 6, 318–322 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Pratt, W. K.

W. K. Pratt, Digital Image Processing (Wiley Interscience, New York, 1991), pp. 404–406.

Press, W. H.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C, 2nd Ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1994), pp. 444–455.

Sanada, S.

J. Tajima, M. Tsukada, Y. Miyake, H. Haneishi, N. Tsumura, M. Nakajima, Y. Azuma, T. Iga, M. Inui, N. Ohta, N. Ojima, S. Sanada, “Development and standardization of a spectral characteristics data base for evaluating color reproduction in image input devices,” in Electronic Imaging: Processing, Printing, and Publishing in color, J. Bares, ed., Proc. SPIE3409, 42–50 (1998).

Saunders, D.

D. Saunders, J. Cupitt, “Image processing at the National Gallery: The VASARI project,” Nat. Gallery Tech. Bull. 14, 72–85 (1993).

K. Martinez, J. Cupitt, D. Saunders, “High resolution colorimetric imaging of paintings,” in Cameras, Scanners, and Image Acquisition Systems, H. Marz, R. L. Nielsen eds., Proc. SPIE1901, 25–36 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Farrell, J. Cupitt, D. Saunders, B. A. Wandell, “Estimating spectral reflectances of digital images of art,” in International Symposium of Multispectral Imaging and Color Reproduction for Digital Archives (Society of Multispectral Imaging of Japan, Chiba, Japan, 1999), pp. 58–64.

Schmitt, F.

H. Maitre, F. Schmitt, J. Crettez, Y. Wu, Y. Hardeberg, “Spectrophotometric image analysis of fine art paintings,” in Proceedings of the Fourth Color Imaging Conference (Scottsdale, Ariz., Nov. 17–20, 1996), pp. 50–53.

Sharma, G.

G. Sharma, H. J. Trussell, M. J. Vrhel, “Optimal nonnegative color scanning filters,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 7, 129–133 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sugiura, H.

H. Sugiura, T. Kuno, N. Watanabe, N. Matoba, J. Hayashi, Y. Miyake, “Development of highly accurate multispectral cameras,” in International Symposium on Multispectral Imaging and Color Reproduction for Digital Archives (Society of Multispectral Imaging of Japan, Chiba, Japan, 1999), pp. 73–80.

Tajima, J.

J. Tajima, “Huge spectral characteristics database and its application to color imaging device design,” in Proceedings of the Sixth Color Imaging Conference (Scottsdale,Ariz., Nov. 17–20, 1998), pp. 86–89.

J. Tajima, M. Tsukada, Y. Miyake, H. Haneishi, N. Tsumura, M. Nakajima, Y. Azuma, T. Iga, M. Inui, N. Ohta, N. Ojima, S. Sanada, “Development and standardization of a spectral characteristics data base for evaluating color reproduction in image input devices,” in Electronic Imaging: Processing, Printing, and Publishing in color, J. Bares, ed., Proc. SPIE3409, 42–50 (1998).

Teukolsky, S. A.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C, 2nd Ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1994), pp. 444–455.

Trussell, B. J.

P. L. Vola, B. J. Trussell, “Mathematical methods for the design of color scanning filters,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 6, 312–320 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Trussell, H. J.

G. Sharma, H. J. Trussell, M. J. Vrhel, “Optimal nonnegative color scanning filters,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 7, 129–133 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Vrhel, H. J. Trussell, Jack Bosch, “Design and realization of optimal color filters for multi-illuminant color correction,” J. Electron. Imaging 4, 6–14 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Vrhel, H. J. Trussell, “Optimal color filters in the presence of noise,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 4, 814–823 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Vrhel, H. J. Trussell, “Filter considerations in color correction,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 3, 147–161 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Vrhel, H. J. Trussell, “Color correction using principal components,” Color Res. Appl. 17, 328–338 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tsukada, M.

J. Tajima, M. Tsukada, Y. Miyake, H. Haneishi, N. Tsumura, M. Nakajima, Y. Azuma, T. Iga, M. Inui, N. Ohta, N. Ojima, S. Sanada, “Development and standardization of a spectral characteristics data base for evaluating color reproduction in image input devices,” in Electronic Imaging: Processing, Printing, and Publishing in color, J. Bares, ed., Proc. SPIE3409, 42–50 (1998).

Tsumura, N.

J. Tajima, M. Tsukada, Y. Miyake, H. Haneishi, N. Tsumura, M. Nakajima, Y. Azuma, T. Iga, M. Inui, N. Ohta, N. Ojima, S. Sanada, “Development and standardization of a spectral characteristics data base for evaluating color reproduction in image input devices,” in Electronic Imaging: Processing, Printing, and Publishing in color, J. Bares, ed., Proc. SPIE3409, 42–50 (1998).

H. Haneishi, T. Hasegawa, N. Tsumura, Y. Miyake, “Design of color filters for recording artworks,” in Proceedings of the 50th Annual Conference of Imaging Science and Technology (Cambridge, Mass., May 18–23, 1997), pp. 369–372.

Tzeng, D.-Y.

D.-Y. Tzeng, R. S. Berns, “Spectral-based ink selection for multiple-ink printing. I. Colorant estimation of original objects,” in Proceedings of the Sixth Color Imaging Conference (Scottsdale, Ariz., Nov. 17–20, 1998), pp. 106–111.

Vecchi, M. P.

S. Kirkpatrick, C. D. Gelatt, M. P. Vecchi, “Optimization by simulated annealing,” Science 220, 671–680 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vetterling, W. T.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C, 2nd Ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1994), pp. 444–455.

Vola, P. L.

P. L. Vola, B. J. Trussell, “Mathematical methods for the design of color scanning filters,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 6, 312–320 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vrhel, M. J.

G. Sharma, H. J. Trussell, M. J. Vrhel, “Optimal nonnegative color scanning filters,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 7, 129–133 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Vrhel, H. J. Trussell, Jack Bosch, “Design and realization of optimal color filters for multi-illuminant color correction,” J. Electron. Imaging 4, 6–14 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Vrhel, H. J. Trussell, “Optimal color filters in the presence of noise,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 4, 814–823 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Multichannel imaging system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Reflectance spectra of three sets of paint patches. Sets A and B, oil paint; set C, watercolor paint.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

First six principal components of three sets of paint patches.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Noise characteristics relative to average pixel value. The pixel value of CV-04 is converted from 16 to 8 bits for comparison with DCS420. S.S., shutter speed.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic illustration of division of the sensor response space into subblocks for a signal-dependent Wiener estimation.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Transmittance spectra of 22 commercially available color filters.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Color-filter optimization procedure.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Estimation accuracy of spectral reflectance. (a) Spectral color difference ΔE spec, (b) colorimetric color difference ΔE uv*. C. A., commercially available.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Best combination of 5 filters from among 22 commercially available filters.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Five optimally designed color filters.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Typical examples of spectral reflectance estimation.

Tables (5)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Cumulative Contribution Ratioa

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Table 2 Dark-Current Noise

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Table 3 Estimation Accuracy with the Noise Effecta

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Table 4 Robustness Evaluation of the Wiener Estimation

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Table 5 Estimation Accuracy

Equations (15)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

gix, y= tiλEλSλfx, y; λdλ+nix, y, i=1,, m,
gx, y=TtES · fx, y+nx, y,
g=Hf+n.
fˆ=Wg.
f-fˆ2=f-Wg2  min.
W=RffHtHRffHt+Rnn-1,
Rff=fft,  Rnn=nnt,
ni=NDC+NR+NS.
NDC=N¯DC+nDC,
ni=N¯DC+NC+NS,
σn2=σC2+σS2,
ΔEspec1l fˆ-f2,
ΔEuv*Lˆ*-L*2+uˆ*-u*2+vˆ*-v*21/2,
p=exp-ΔE/T,
H-=HTHHT-1.

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