Abstract

We present the design of a harmonic resonant filter that can be used with a Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) for simultaneous measurement of a series of lines in the CO rotational ladder. To enable studies of both broad CO absorptions in Venus and modestly red-shifted CO emission from external galaxies, relatively broad (approximately 10–30-GHz FWHM) transmission passbands are desirable. Because a single low-finesse Fabry–Perot (FP) etalon has insufficient interline rejection, a dual-FP etalon was considered. Such a design provides significantly better interband rejection and somewhat more flattopped transmission spikes. A prototype filter of this type, made of two thin silicon disks spaced by an air gap, has been constructed and used with our FTS at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory for simultaneous measurement of the four submillimeter CO transitions in the atmosphere of Venus that are accessible from the ground.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. L. Wright, J. C. Mather, C. L. Bennett, E. S. Cheng, R. A. Shafer, D. J. Fixsen, R. E. Eplee, R. B. Isaacman, S. M. Read, N. W. Boggess, S. Gulkis, M. G. Hauser, M. Janssen, T. Kelsall, P. M. Lubin, S. S. Meyer, S. H. Moseley, T. L. Murdock, R. F. Silverberg, G. F. Smoot, R. Weiss, D. T. Wilkinson, “Preliminary spectral observations of the galaxy with a 7° beam by the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE),” Astrophys. J. 381, 200–209 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  2. E. Serabyn, E. W. Weisstein, “Fourier-transform spectroscopy of the Orion molecular cloud core,” Astrophys. J. 451, 238–251 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. E. Jennings, D. Deming, G. R. Wiedemann, J. J. Keady, “Detection of 12 micron Mg I and OH lines in stellar spectra,” Astrophys. J. 310, L39–L43 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. F. Campbell, L. Haser, S. Drapatz, “Fabry–Perot etalons as prefilters for astronomical far-infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy,” Infrared Phys. 29, 947–959 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. T. Clancy, D. O. Muhleman, “Long-term (1979–1990) changes in the thermal, dynamical, and compositional structure of the Venus mesosphere as inferred from microwave spectral line observations of C-12O, C-13O, and CO-18,” Icarus 89, 129–146 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. A. Gurwell, D. O. Muhleman, K. P. Shah, G. L. Berge, D. J. Rudy, “Observations of the CO bulge on Venus and implications for mesospheric winds,” Icarus 115, 141–158 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. E. Serabyn, E. W. Weisstein, D. C. Lis, J. R. Pardo, “Submillimeter Fourier-transform spectrometer measurements of atmospheric opacity above Mauna Kea,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2185–2198 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. W. Lamb, “Miscellaneous data on materials for millimetre and submillimetre optics,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 17, 1997–2034 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

M. Bin, D. J. Benford, M. C. Gaidis, T. H. Büttgenbach, J. Zmuidzinas, E. Serabyn, T. G. Phillips, “A large throughput high resolution Fourier transform spectrometer for submillimeter applications,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 20, 383–400 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1996 (2)

1995 (3)

J. J. Bock, M. Kawada, H. Matsuhara, P. L. Richards, A. E. Lange, “Silicon-gap Fabry–Perot filter for far-infrared wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 34, 3651–3657 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Gurwell, D. O. Muhleman, K. P. Shah, G. L. Berge, D. J. Rudy, “Observations of the CO bulge on Venus and implications for mesospheric winds,” Icarus 115, 141–158 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. Serabyn, E. W. Weisstein, “Fourier-transform spectroscopy of the Orion molecular cloud core,” Astrophys. J. 451, 238–251 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

E. L. Wright, J. C. Mather, C. L. Bennett, E. S. Cheng, R. A. Shafer, D. J. Fixsen, R. E. Eplee, R. B. Isaacman, S. M. Read, N. W. Boggess, S. Gulkis, M. G. Hauser, M. Janssen, T. Kelsall, P. M. Lubin, S. S. Meyer, S. H. Moseley, T. L. Murdock, R. F. Silverberg, G. F. Smoot, R. Weiss, D. T. Wilkinson, “Preliminary spectral observations of the galaxy with a 7° beam by the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE),” Astrophys. J. 381, 200–209 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Clancy, D. O. Muhleman, “Long-term (1979–1990) changes in the thermal, dynamical, and compositional structure of the Venus mesosphere as inferred from microwave spectral line observations of C-12O, C-13O, and CO-18,” Icarus 89, 129–146 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

M. F. Campbell, L. Haser, S. Drapatz, “Fabry–Perot etalons as prefilters for astronomical far-infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy,” Infrared Phys. 29, 947–959 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

D. E. Jennings, D. Deming, G. R. Wiedemann, J. J. Keady, “Detection of 12 micron Mg I and OH lines in stellar spectra,” Astrophys. J. 310, L39–L43 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

Benford, D. J.

M. Bin, D. J. Benford, M. C. Gaidis, T. H. Büttgenbach, J. Zmuidzinas, E. Serabyn, T. G. Phillips, “A large throughput high resolution Fourier transform spectrometer for submillimeter applications,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 20, 383–400 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, C. L.

E. L. Wright, J. C. Mather, C. L. Bennett, E. S. Cheng, R. A. Shafer, D. J. Fixsen, R. E. Eplee, R. B. Isaacman, S. M. Read, N. W. Boggess, S. Gulkis, M. G. Hauser, M. Janssen, T. Kelsall, P. M. Lubin, S. S. Meyer, S. H. Moseley, T. L. Murdock, R. F. Silverberg, G. F. Smoot, R. Weiss, D. T. Wilkinson, “Preliminary spectral observations of the galaxy with a 7° beam by the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE),” Astrophys. J. 381, 200–209 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Berge, G. L.

M. A. Gurwell, D. O. Muhleman, K. P. Shah, G. L. Berge, D. J. Rudy, “Observations of the CO bulge on Venus and implications for mesospheric winds,” Icarus 115, 141–158 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bin, M.

M. Bin, D. J. Benford, M. C. Gaidis, T. H. Büttgenbach, J. Zmuidzinas, E. Serabyn, T. G. Phillips, “A large throughput high resolution Fourier transform spectrometer for submillimeter applications,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 20, 383–400 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bock, J. J.

Boggess, N. W.

E. L. Wright, J. C. Mather, C. L. Bennett, E. S. Cheng, R. A. Shafer, D. J. Fixsen, R. E. Eplee, R. B. Isaacman, S. M. Read, N. W. Boggess, S. Gulkis, M. G. Hauser, M. Janssen, T. Kelsall, P. M. Lubin, S. S. Meyer, S. H. Moseley, T. L. Murdock, R. F. Silverberg, G. F. Smoot, R. Weiss, D. T. Wilkinson, “Preliminary spectral observations of the galaxy with a 7° beam by the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE),” Astrophys. J. 381, 200–209 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon Press, London, 1959), Chap. 1.

Büttgenbach, T. H.

M. Bin, D. J. Benford, M. C. Gaidis, T. H. Büttgenbach, J. Zmuidzinas, E. Serabyn, T. G. Phillips, “A large throughput high resolution Fourier transform spectrometer for submillimeter applications,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 20, 383–400 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, M. F.

M. F. Campbell, L. Haser, S. Drapatz, “Fabry–Perot etalons as prefilters for astronomical far-infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy,” Infrared Phys. 29, 947–959 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, E. S.

E. L. Wright, J. C. Mather, C. L. Bennett, E. S. Cheng, R. A. Shafer, D. J. Fixsen, R. E. Eplee, R. B. Isaacman, S. M. Read, N. W. Boggess, S. Gulkis, M. G. Hauser, M. Janssen, T. Kelsall, P. M. Lubin, S. S. Meyer, S. H. Moseley, T. L. Murdock, R. F. Silverberg, G. F. Smoot, R. Weiss, D. T. Wilkinson, “Preliminary spectral observations of the galaxy with a 7° beam by the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE),” Astrophys. J. 381, 200–209 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Clancy, R. T.

R. T. Clancy, D. O. Muhleman, “Long-term (1979–1990) changes in the thermal, dynamical, and compositional structure of the Venus mesosphere as inferred from microwave spectral line observations of C-12O, C-13O, and CO-18,” Icarus 89, 129–146 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Deming, D.

D. E. Jennings, D. Deming, G. R. Wiedemann, J. J. Keady, “Detection of 12 micron Mg I and OH lines in stellar spectra,” Astrophys. J. 310, L39–L43 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Drapatz, S.

M. F. Campbell, L. Haser, S. Drapatz, “Fabry–Perot etalons as prefilters for astronomical far-infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy,” Infrared Phys. 29, 947–959 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Eplee, R. E.

E. L. Wright, J. C. Mather, C. L. Bennett, E. S. Cheng, R. A. Shafer, D. J. Fixsen, R. E. Eplee, R. B. Isaacman, S. M. Read, N. W. Boggess, S. Gulkis, M. G. Hauser, M. Janssen, T. Kelsall, P. M. Lubin, S. S. Meyer, S. H. Moseley, T. L. Murdock, R. F. Silverberg, G. F. Smoot, R. Weiss, D. T. Wilkinson, “Preliminary spectral observations of the galaxy with a 7° beam by the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE),” Astrophys. J. 381, 200–209 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Fixsen, D. J.

E. L. Wright, J. C. Mather, C. L. Bennett, E. S. Cheng, R. A. Shafer, D. J. Fixsen, R. E. Eplee, R. B. Isaacman, S. M. Read, N. W. Boggess, S. Gulkis, M. G. Hauser, M. Janssen, T. Kelsall, P. M. Lubin, S. S. Meyer, S. H. Moseley, T. L. Murdock, R. F. Silverberg, G. F. Smoot, R. Weiss, D. T. Wilkinson, “Preliminary spectral observations of the galaxy with a 7° beam by the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE),” Astrophys. J. 381, 200–209 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gaidis, M. C.

M. Bin, D. J. Benford, M. C. Gaidis, T. H. Büttgenbach, J. Zmuidzinas, E. Serabyn, T. G. Phillips, “A large throughput high resolution Fourier transform spectrometer for submillimeter applications,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 20, 383–400 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gulkis, S.

E. L. Wright, J. C. Mather, C. L. Bennett, E. S. Cheng, R. A. Shafer, D. J. Fixsen, R. E. Eplee, R. B. Isaacman, S. M. Read, N. W. Boggess, S. Gulkis, M. G. Hauser, M. Janssen, T. Kelsall, P. M. Lubin, S. S. Meyer, S. H. Moseley, T. L. Murdock, R. F. Silverberg, G. F. Smoot, R. Weiss, D. T. Wilkinson, “Preliminary spectral observations of the galaxy with a 7° beam by the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE),” Astrophys. J. 381, 200–209 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gurwell, M. A.

M. A. Gurwell, D. O. Muhleman, K. P. Shah, G. L. Berge, D. J. Rudy, “Observations of the CO bulge on Venus and implications for mesospheric winds,” Icarus 115, 141–158 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Haser, L.

M. F. Campbell, L. Haser, S. Drapatz, “Fabry–Perot etalons as prefilters for astronomical far-infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy,” Infrared Phys. 29, 947–959 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hauser, M. G.

E. L. Wright, J. C. Mather, C. L. Bennett, E. S. Cheng, R. A. Shafer, D. J. Fixsen, R. E. Eplee, R. B. Isaacman, S. M. Read, N. W. Boggess, S. Gulkis, M. G. Hauser, M. Janssen, T. Kelsall, P. M. Lubin, S. S. Meyer, S. H. Moseley, T. L. Murdock, R. F. Silverberg, G. F. Smoot, R. Weiss, D. T. Wilkinson, “Preliminary spectral observations of the galaxy with a 7° beam by the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE),” Astrophys. J. 381, 200–209 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hecht, E.

E. Hecht, Optics (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1997), Chap. 9.

Hernandez, G.

G. Hernandez, Fabry–Perot Interferometers (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1986).

Isaacman, R. B.

E. L. Wright, J. C. Mather, C. L. Bennett, E. S. Cheng, R. A. Shafer, D. J. Fixsen, R. E. Eplee, R. B. Isaacman, S. M. Read, N. W. Boggess, S. Gulkis, M. G. Hauser, M. Janssen, T. Kelsall, P. M. Lubin, S. S. Meyer, S. H. Moseley, T. L. Murdock, R. F. Silverberg, G. F. Smoot, R. Weiss, D. T. Wilkinson, “Preliminary spectral observations of the galaxy with a 7° beam by the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE),” Astrophys. J. 381, 200–209 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Janssen, M.

E. L. Wright, J. C. Mather, C. L. Bennett, E. S. Cheng, R. A. Shafer, D. J. Fixsen, R. E. Eplee, R. B. Isaacman, S. M. Read, N. W. Boggess, S. Gulkis, M. G. Hauser, M. Janssen, T. Kelsall, P. M. Lubin, S. S. Meyer, S. H. Moseley, T. L. Murdock, R. F. Silverberg, G. F. Smoot, R. Weiss, D. T. Wilkinson, “Preliminary spectral observations of the galaxy with a 7° beam by the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE),” Astrophys. J. 381, 200–209 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Jennings, D. E.

D. E. Jennings, D. Deming, G. R. Wiedemann, J. J. Keady, “Detection of 12 micron Mg I and OH lines in stellar spectra,” Astrophys. J. 310, L39–L43 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Kawada, M.

Keady, J. J.

D. E. Jennings, D. Deming, G. R. Wiedemann, J. J. Keady, “Detection of 12 micron Mg I and OH lines in stellar spectra,” Astrophys. J. 310, L39–L43 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Kelsall, T.

E. L. Wright, J. C. Mather, C. L. Bennett, E. S. Cheng, R. A. Shafer, D. J. Fixsen, R. E. Eplee, R. B. Isaacman, S. M. Read, N. W. Boggess, S. Gulkis, M. G. Hauser, M. Janssen, T. Kelsall, P. M. Lubin, S. S. Meyer, S. H. Moseley, T. L. Murdock, R. F. Silverberg, G. F. Smoot, R. Weiss, D. T. Wilkinson, “Preliminary spectral observations of the galaxy with a 7° beam by the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE),” Astrophys. J. 381, 200–209 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lamb, J. W.

J. W. Lamb, “Miscellaneous data on materials for millimetre and submillimetre optics,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 17, 1997–2034 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lange, A. E.

Lis, D. C.

Loewenstein, E. V.

Lubin, P. M.

E. L. Wright, J. C. Mather, C. L. Bennett, E. S. Cheng, R. A. Shafer, D. J. Fixsen, R. E. Eplee, R. B. Isaacman, S. M. Read, N. W. Boggess, S. Gulkis, M. G. Hauser, M. Janssen, T. Kelsall, P. M. Lubin, S. S. Meyer, S. H. Moseley, T. L. Murdock, R. F. Silverberg, G. F. Smoot, R. Weiss, D. T. Wilkinson, “Preliminary spectral observations of the galaxy with a 7° beam by the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE),” Astrophys. J. 381, 200–209 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Mather, J. C.

E. L. Wright, J. C. Mather, C. L. Bennett, E. S. Cheng, R. A. Shafer, D. J. Fixsen, R. E. Eplee, R. B. Isaacman, S. M. Read, N. W. Boggess, S. Gulkis, M. G. Hauser, M. Janssen, T. Kelsall, P. M. Lubin, S. S. Meyer, S. H. Moseley, T. L. Murdock, R. F. Silverberg, G. F. Smoot, R. Weiss, D. T. Wilkinson, “Preliminary spectral observations of the galaxy with a 7° beam by the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE),” Astrophys. J. 381, 200–209 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Matsuhara, H.

Meyer, S. S.

E. L. Wright, J. C. Mather, C. L. Bennett, E. S. Cheng, R. A. Shafer, D. J. Fixsen, R. E. Eplee, R. B. Isaacman, S. M. Read, N. W. Boggess, S. Gulkis, M. G. Hauser, M. Janssen, T. Kelsall, P. M. Lubin, S. S. Meyer, S. H. Moseley, T. L. Murdock, R. F. Silverberg, G. F. Smoot, R. Weiss, D. T. Wilkinson, “Preliminary spectral observations of the galaxy with a 7° beam by the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE),” Astrophys. J. 381, 200–209 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Morgan, R. L.

Moseley, S. H.

E. L. Wright, J. C. Mather, C. L. Bennett, E. S. Cheng, R. A. Shafer, D. J. Fixsen, R. E. Eplee, R. B. Isaacman, S. M. Read, N. W. Boggess, S. Gulkis, M. G. Hauser, M. Janssen, T. Kelsall, P. M. Lubin, S. S. Meyer, S. H. Moseley, T. L. Murdock, R. F. Silverberg, G. F. Smoot, R. Weiss, D. T. Wilkinson, “Preliminary spectral observations of the galaxy with a 7° beam by the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE),” Astrophys. J. 381, 200–209 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Muhleman, D. O.

M. A. Gurwell, D. O. Muhleman, K. P. Shah, G. L. Berge, D. J. Rudy, “Observations of the CO bulge on Venus and implications for mesospheric winds,” Icarus 115, 141–158 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Clancy, D. O. Muhleman, “Long-term (1979–1990) changes in the thermal, dynamical, and compositional structure of the Venus mesosphere as inferred from microwave spectral line observations of C-12O, C-13O, and CO-18,” Icarus 89, 129–146 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Murdock, T. L.

E. L. Wright, J. C. Mather, C. L. Bennett, E. S. Cheng, R. A. Shafer, D. J. Fixsen, R. E. Eplee, R. B. Isaacman, S. M. Read, N. W. Boggess, S. Gulkis, M. G. Hauser, M. Janssen, T. Kelsall, P. M. Lubin, S. S. Meyer, S. H. Moseley, T. L. Murdock, R. F. Silverberg, G. F. Smoot, R. Weiss, D. T. Wilkinson, “Preliminary spectral observations of the galaxy with a 7° beam by the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE),” Astrophys. J. 381, 200–209 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Pardo, J. R.

Phillips, T. G.

M. Bin, D. J. Benford, M. C. Gaidis, T. H. Büttgenbach, J. Zmuidzinas, E. Serabyn, T. G. Phillips, “A large throughput high resolution Fourier transform spectrometer for submillimeter applications,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 20, 383–400 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Read, S. M.

E. L. Wright, J. C. Mather, C. L. Bennett, E. S. Cheng, R. A. Shafer, D. J. Fixsen, R. E. Eplee, R. B. Isaacman, S. M. Read, N. W. Boggess, S. Gulkis, M. G. Hauser, M. Janssen, T. Kelsall, P. M. Lubin, S. S. Meyer, S. H. Moseley, T. L. Murdock, R. F. Silverberg, G. F. Smoot, R. Weiss, D. T. Wilkinson, “Preliminary spectral observations of the galaxy with a 7° beam by the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE),” Astrophys. J. 381, 200–209 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Richards, P. L.

Rudy, D. J.

M. A. Gurwell, D. O. Muhleman, K. P. Shah, G. L. Berge, D. J. Rudy, “Observations of the CO bulge on Venus and implications for mesospheric winds,” Icarus 115, 141–158 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Serabyn, E.

M. Bin, D. J. Benford, M. C. Gaidis, T. H. Büttgenbach, J. Zmuidzinas, E. Serabyn, T. G. Phillips, “A large throughput high resolution Fourier transform spectrometer for submillimeter applications,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 20, 383–400 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Serabyn, E. W. Weisstein, D. C. Lis, J. R. Pardo, “Submillimeter Fourier-transform spectrometer measurements of atmospheric opacity above Mauna Kea,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2185–2198 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Serabyn, E. W. Weisstein, “Calibration of planetary brightness temperature Spectra at near-millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths with a Fourier-transform spectrometer,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2752–2763 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Serabyn, E. W. Weisstein, “Fourier-transform spectroscopy of the Orion molecular cloud core,” Astrophys. J. 451, 238–251 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shafer, R. A.

E. L. Wright, J. C. Mather, C. L. Bennett, E. S. Cheng, R. A. Shafer, D. J. Fixsen, R. E. Eplee, R. B. Isaacman, S. M. Read, N. W. Boggess, S. Gulkis, M. G. Hauser, M. Janssen, T. Kelsall, P. M. Lubin, S. S. Meyer, S. H. Moseley, T. L. Murdock, R. F. Silverberg, G. F. Smoot, R. Weiss, D. T. Wilkinson, “Preliminary spectral observations of the galaxy with a 7° beam by the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE),” Astrophys. J. 381, 200–209 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Shah, K. P.

M. A. Gurwell, D. O. Muhleman, K. P. Shah, G. L. Berge, D. J. Rudy, “Observations of the CO bulge on Venus and implications for mesospheric winds,” Icarus 115, 141–158 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Silverberg, R. F.

E. L. Wright, J. C. Mather, C. L. Bennett, E. S. Cheng, R. A. Shafer, D. J. Fixsen, R. E. Eplee, R. B. Isaacman, S. M. Read, N. W. Boggess, S. Gulkis, M. G. Hauser, M. Janssen, T. Kelsall, P. M. Lubin, S. S. Meyer, S. H. Moseley, T. L. Murdock, R. F. Silverberg, G. F. Smoot, R. Weiss, D. T. Wilkinson, “Preliminary spectral observations of the galaxy with a 7° beam by the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE),” Astrophys. J. 381, 200–209 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. R.

Smoot, G. F.

E. L. Wright, J. C. Mather, C. L. Bennett, E. S. Cheng, R. A. Shafer, D. J. Fixsen, R. E. Eplee, R. B. Isaacman, S. M. Read, N. W. Boggess, S. Gulkis, M. G. Hauser, M. Janssen, T. Kelsall, P. M. Lubin, S. S. Meyer, S. H. Moseley, T. L. Murdock, R. F. Silverberg, G. F. Smoot, R. Weiss, D. T. Wilkinson, “Preliminary spectral observations of the galaxy with a 7° beam by the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE),” Astrophys. J. 381, 200–209 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Weiss, R.

E. L. Wright, J. C. Mather, C. L. Bennett, E. S. Cheng, R. A. Shafer, D. J. Fixsen, R. E. Eplee, R. B. Isaacman, S. M. Read, N. W. Boggess, S. Gulkis, M. G. Hauser, M. Janssen, T. Kelsall, P. M. Lubin, S. S. Meyer, S. H. Moseley, T. L. Murdock, R. F. Silverberg, G. F. Smoot, R. Weiss, D. T. Wilkinson, “Preliminary spectral observations of the galaxy with a 7° beam by the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE),” Astrophys. J. 381, 200–209 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Weisstein, E. W.

Wiedemann, G. R.

D. E. Jennings, D. Deming, G. R. Wiedemann, J. J. Keady, “Detection of 12 micron Mg I and OH lines in stellar spectra,” Astrophys. J. 310, L39–L43 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Wilkinson, D. T.

E. L. Wright, J. C. Mather, C. L. Bennett, E. S. Cheng, R. A. Shafer, D. J. Fixsen, R. E. Eplee, R. B. Isaacman, S. M. Read, N. W. Boggess, S. Gulkis, M. G. Hauser, M. Janssen, T. Kelsall, P. M. Lubin, S. S. Meyer, S. H. Moseley, T. L. Murdock, R. F. Silverberg, G. F. Smoot, R. Weiss, D. T. Wilkinson, “Preliminary spectral observations of the galaxy with a 7° beam by the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE),” Astrophys. J. 381, 200–209 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon Press, London, 1959), Chap. 1.

Wright, E. L.

E. L. Wright, J. C. Mather, C. L. Bennett, E. S. Cheng, R. A. Shafer, D. J. Fixsen, R. E. Eplee, R. B. Isaacman, S. M. Read, N. W. Boggess, S. Gulkis, M. G. Hauser, M. Janssen, T. Kelsall, P. M. Lubin, S. S. Meyer, S. H. Moseley, T. L. Murdock, R. F. Silverberg, G. F. Smoot, R. Weiss, D. T. Wilkinson, “Preliminary spectral observations of the galaxy with a 7° beam by the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE),” Astrophys. J. 381, 200–209 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Zmuidzinas, J.

M. Bin, D. J. Benford, M. C. Gaidis, T. H. Büttgenbach, J. Zmuidzinas, E. Serabyn, T. G. Phillips, “A large throughput high resolution Fourier transform spectrometer for submillimeter applications,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 20, 383–400 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Astrophys. J. (3)

E. L. Wright, J. C. Mather, C. L. Bennett, E. S. Cheng, R. A. Shafer, D. J. Fixsen, R. E. Eplee, R. B. Isaacman, S. M. Read, N. W. Boggess, S. Gulkis, M. G. Hauser, M. Janssen, T. Kelsall, P. M. Lubin, S. S. Meyer, S. H. Moseley, T. L. Murdock, R. F. Silverberg, G. F. Smoot, R. Weiss, D. T. Wilkinson, “Preliminary spectral observations of the galaxy with a 7° beam by the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE),” Astrophys. J. 381, 200–209 (1991).
[CrossRef]

E. Serabyn, E. W. Weisstein, “Fourier-transform spectroscopy of the Orion molecular cloud core,” Astrophys. J. 451, 238–251 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Jennings, D. Deming, G. R. Wiedemann, J. J. Keady, “Detection of 12 micron Mg I and OH lines in stellar spectra,” Astrophys. J. 310, L39–L43 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Icarus (2)

R. T. Clancy, D. O. Muhleman, “Long-term (1979–1990) changes in the thermal, dynamical, and compositional structure of the Venus mesosphere as inferred from microwave spectral line observations of C-12O, C-13O, and CO-18,” Icarus 89, 129–146 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Gurwell, D. O. Muhleman, K. P. Shah, G. L. Berge, D. J. Rudy, “Observations of the CO bulge on Venus and implications for mesospheric winds,” Icarus 115, 141–158 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Infrared Phys. (1)

M. F. Campbell, L. Haser, S. Drapatz, “Fabry–Perot etalons as prefilters for astronomical far-infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy,” Infrared Phys. 29, 947–959 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves (2)

J. W. Lamb, “Miscellaneous data on materials for millimetre and submillimetre optics,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 17, 1997–2034 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Bin, D. J. Benford, M. C. Gaidis, T. H. Büttgenbach, J. Zmuidzinas, E. Serabyn, T. G. Phillips, “A large throughput high resolution Fourier transform spectrometer for submillimeter applications,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 20, 383–400 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (8)

E. Hecht, Optics (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1997), Chap. 9.

G. Hernandez, Fabry–Perot Interferometers (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1986).

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon Press, London, 1959), Chap. 1.

Virginia Semiconductor, 1501 Powhatan Street, Fredericksburg, Va. 22401; telephone 540-373-2900.

Nicolet 60SX spectrometer, Nicolet Instruments, 5225 Verona Rd., Madison, Wis. 53711; telephone 800-232-1472.

E. D. Palik, ed., Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, New York, 1983).

Accurate Instrument Repair, 1650-A N. Glassell St., Orange, Calif. 92667; telephone 714-637-5030.

Infrared Labs, 1808 East 17th St., Tucson, Ariz. 85719-6505; telephone 520-622-7074.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Theoretical transmission of a single- (dotted curve) versus a dual- (solid curve) FP etalon, comprised of silicon disks of refractive index 3.42 and thickness 385 µm. The dual FP has a 140-µm air gap.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Enlargement of Fig. 1 for the region of prime interest, with CO line positions labeled. Note the shift of the passbands relative to the CO line frequencies in the dual-etalon case.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Diagram of the FP layout. The component thicknesses have been substantially enhanced for clarity. The components are, from left to right, Be–Cu spring washer, Si disk (386-µm thick), stainless-steel spacer ring (140 µm), Si disk (385 µm), aluminum mounting cup.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured absolute filter transmission (solid curve) versus theoretical (dotted curve), with CO transitions labeled. The peak transmissions are >96%. The data below 150 GHz have been smoothed to account for the decreasing signal at longer wavelengths, and a few other regions of poor SNR have been blanked out.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured spectra of Venus in the vicinity of the four accessible CO lines. (The 5–4 and the 8–7 transitions are blocked by atmospheric water-vapor lines). The spectra have been divided by that of Jupiter. 10% absorption levels are indicated. The spectra are somewhat noisy, but all four spectra show a feature at the appropriate CO transition frequency.

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