Abstract

A single-laser Raman differential absorption lidar (DIAL) for ozone measurements in clouds is proposed. An injection-locked XeCl excimer laser serves as the radiation source. The ozone molecule number density is calculated from the differential absorption of the anti-Stokes rotational Raman return signals from molecular nitrogen and oxygen as the on-resonance wavelength and the vibrational–rotational Raman backscattering from molecular nitrogen or oxygen as the off-resonance wavelength. Model calculations show that the main advantage of the new rotational vibrational–rotational (RVR) Raman DIAL over conventional Raman DIAL is a 70–85% reduction in the wavelength-dependent effects of cloud-particle scattering on the measured ozone concentration; furthermore the complexity of the apparatus is reduced substantially. We describe a RVR Raman DIAL setup that uses a narrow-band interference-filter polychromator as the lidar receiver. Single-laser ozone measurements in the troposphere and lower stratosphere are presented, and it is shown that on further improvement of the receiver performance, ozone measurements in clouds are attainable with the filter–polychromator approach.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. J. McGee, M. Gross, R. Ferrare, W. Heaps, U. Singh, “Raman DIAL measurements of stratospheric ozone in the presence of volcanic aerosols,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 955–958 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Reichardt, U. Wandinger, M. Serwazi, C. Weitkamp, “Combined Raman lidar for aerosol, ozone, and moisture measurements,” Opt. Eng. 35, 1457–1465 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Reichardt, “Optische Fernmessung von Ozon in Zirruswolken,” Ph.D. dissertation, Rep. GKSS 98/E/11 (1998) (Universität Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany, 1997).
  4. J. Reichardt, “Error analysis of Raman differential absorption lidar ozone measurements in ice clouds,” Appl. Opt. 39, 6058–6071 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. R. Dickerson, G. J. Huffman, W. T. Luke, L. J. Nunnermacker, K. E. Pickering, A. C. D. Leslie, C. G. Lindsey, W. G. N. Slinn, T. J. Kelly, P. H. Daum, A. C. Delany, J. P. Greenberg, P. R. Zimmerman, J. F. Boatman, J. D. Ray, D. H. Stedman, “Thunderstorms: an important mechanism in the transport of air pollutants,” Science 235, 460–465 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. Lelieveld, P. J. Crutzen, “Influences of cloud photochemical processes on tropospheric ozone,” Nature (London) 343, 227–233 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, “Measurement of atmospheric aerosol extinction profiles with a Raman lidar,” Opt. Lett. 15, 746–748 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. Reichardt, M. Hess, A. Macke, “Lidar inelastic multiple-scattering parameters of cirrus particle ensembles determined with geometrical-optics crystal phase functions,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1895–1910 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. E. Pickering, A. M. Thompson, J. R. Scala, W.-K. Tao, R. R. Dickerson, J. Simpson, “Free troposphere ozone production following entrainment of urban plumes into deep convection,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 17,985–18,000 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  10. E. V. Browell, M. A. Fenn, C. F. Butler, W. B. Grant, J. T. Merrill, R. E. Newell, J. D. Bradshaw, S. T. Sandholm, B. E. Anderson, A. R. Bandy, A. S. Bachmeier, D. R. Blake, D. D. Davis, G. L. Gregory, B. G. Heikes, Y. Kondo, S. C. Liu, F. S. Rowland, G. W. Sachse, H. B. Singh, R. W. Talbot, D. C. Thornton, “Large-scale air mass characteristics observed over Western Pacific during the summertime,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1691–1712 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Reichardt, A. Ansmann, M. Serwazi, C. Weitkamp, W. Michaelis, “Unexpectedly low ozone concentration in mid-latitude tropospheric ice clouds: a case study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 1929–1932 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. Sassen, G. G. Mace, J. Hallett, M. R. Poellet, “Corona-producing ice clouds: a case study of a cold mid-latitude cirrus layer,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1477–1485 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. L. T. Molina, M. J. Molina, “Absolute absorption cross sections of ozone in the 185- to 350-nm wavelength range,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 14,501–14,508 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Hess, R. B. A. Koelemeijer, P. Stammes, “Scattering matrices of imperfect hexagonal ice crystals,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 301–308 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. J. Heymsfield, C. M. R. Platt, “A parameterization of the particle size spectrum of ice clouds in terms of the ambient temperature and the ice water content,” J. Atmos. Sci. 41, 846–855 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. E. Bisson, J. E. M. Goldsmith, M. G. Mitchell, “Narrow-band, narrow-field-of-view Raman lidar with combined day and night capability for tropospheric water-vapor profile measurements,” Appl. Opt. 38, 1841–1849 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. Reichardt, C. Weitkamp, S. Krumbholz, “Rotational vibrational–rotational (RVR) Raman DIAL: a novel lidar technique for atmospheric ozone measurements,” in Proceedings of the 13th ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programmes and Related Research, ESA SP-397 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1997), pp. 237–241.

2000 (2)

1999 (1)

1998 (2)

M. Hess, R. B. A. Koelemeijer, P. Stammes, “Scattering matrices of imperfect hexagonal ice crystals,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 301–308 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Sassen, G. G. Mace, J. Hallett, M. R. Poellet, “Corona-producing ice clouds: a case study of a cold mid-latitude cirrus layer,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1477–1485 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

E. V. Browell, M. A. Fenn, C. F. Butler, W. B. Grant, J. T. Merrill, R. E. Newell, J. D. Bradshaw, S. T. Sandholm, B. E. Anderson, A. R. Bandy, A. S. Bachmeier, D. R. Blake, D. D. Davis, G. L. Gregory, B. G. Heikes, Y. Kondo, S. C. Liu, F. S. Rowland, G. W. Sachse, H. B. Singh, R. W. Talbot, D. C. Thornton, “Large-scale air mass characteristics observed over Western Pacific during the summertime,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1691–1712 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Reichardt, A. Ansmann, M. Serwazi, C. Weitkamp, W. Michaelis, “Unexpectedly low ozone concentration in mid-latitude tropospheric ice clouds: a case study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 1929–1932 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Reichardt, U. Wandinger, M. Serwazi, C. Weitkamp, “Combined Raman lidar for aerosol, ozone, and moisture measurements,” Opt. Eng. 35, 1457–1465 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

T. J. McGee, M. Gross, R. Ferrare, W. Heaps, U. Singh, “Raman DIAL measurements of stratospheric ozone in the presence of volcanic aerosols,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 955–958 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

K. E. Pickering, A. M. Thompson, J. R. Scala, W.-K. Tao, R. R. Dickerson, J. Simpson, “Free troposphere ozone production following entrainment of urban plumes into deep convection,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 17,985–18,000 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (2)

J. Lelieveld, P. J. Crutzen, “Influences of cloud photochemical processes on tropospheric ozone,” Nature (London) 343, 227–233 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, “Measurement of atmospheric aerosol extinction profiles with a Raman lidar,” Opt. Lett. 15, 746–748 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

R. R. Dickerson, G. J. Huffman, W. T. Luke, L. J. Nunnermacker, K. E. Pickering, A. C. D. Leslie, C. G. Lindsey, W. G. N. Slinn, T. J. Kelly, P. H. Daum, A. C. Delany, J. P. Greenberg, P. R. Zimmerman, J. F. Boatman, J. D. Ray, D. H. Stedman, “Thunderstorms: an important mechanism in the transport of air pollutants,” Science 235, 460–465 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

L. T. Molina, M. J. Molina, “Absolute absorption cross sections of ozone in the 185- to 350-nm wavelength range,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 14,501–14,508 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

A. J. Heymsfield, C. M. R. Platt, “A parameterization of the particle size spectrum of ice clouds in terms of the ambient temperature and the ice water content,” J. Atmos. Sci. 41, 846–855 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, B. E.

E. V. Browell, M. A. Fenn, C. F. Butler, W. B. Grant, J. T. Merrill, R. E. Newell, J. D. Bradshaw, S. T. Sandholm, B. E. Anderson, A. R. Bandy, A. S. Bachmeier, D. R. Blake, D. D. Davis, G. L. Gregory, B. G. Heikes, Y. Kondo, S. C. Liu, F. S. Rowland, G. W. Sachse, H. B. Singh, R. W. Talbot, D. C. Thornton, “Large-scale air mass characteristics observed over Western Pacific during the summertime,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1691–1712 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ansmann, A.

J. Reichardt, A. Ansmann, M. Serwazi, C. Weitkamp, W. Michaelis, “Unexpectedly low ozone concentration in mid-latitude tropospheric ice clouds: a case study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 1929–1932 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, “Measurement of atmospheric aerosol extinction profiles with a Raman lidar,” Opt. Lett. 15, 746–748 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bachmeier, A. S.

E. V. Browell, M. A. Fenn, C. F. Butler, W. B. Grant, J. T. Merrill, R. E. Newell, J. D. Bradshaw, S. T. Sandholm, B. E. Anderson, A. R. Bandy, A. S. Bachmeier, D. R. Blake, D. D. Davis, G. L. Gregory, B. G. Heikes, Y. Kondo, S. C. Liu, F. S. Rowland, G. W. Sachse, H. B. Singh, R. W. Talbot, D. C. Thornton, “Large-scale air mass characteristics observed over Western Pacific during the summertime,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1691–1712 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bandy, A. R.

E. V. Browell, M. A. Fenn, C. F. Butler, W. B. Grant, J. T. Merrill, R. E. Newell, J. D. Bradshaw, S. T. Sandholm, B. E. Anderson, A. R. Bandy, A. S. Bachmeier, D. R. Blake, D. D. Davis, G. L. Gregory, B. G. Heikes, Y. Kondo, S. C. Liu, F. S. Rowland, G. W. Sachse, H. B. Singh, R. W. Talbot, D. C. Thornton, “Large-scale air mass characteristics observed over Western Pacific during the summertime,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1691–1712 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bisson, S. E.

Blake, D. R.

E. V. Browell, M. A. Fenn, C. F. Butler, W. B. Grant, J. T. Merrill, R. E. Newell, J. D. Bradshaw, S. T. Sandholm, B. E. Anderson, A. R. Bandy, A. S. Bachmeier, D. R. Blake, D. D. Davis, G. L. Gregory, B. G. Heikes, Y. Kondo, S. C. Liu, F. S. Rowland, G. W. Sachse, H. B. Singh, R. W. Talbot, D. C. Thornton, “Large-scale air mass characteristics observed over Western Pacific during the summertime,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1691–1712 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Boatman, J. F.

R. R. Dickerson, G. J. Huffman, W. T. Luke, L. J. Nunnermacker, K. E. Pickering, A. C. D. Leslie, C. G. Lindsey, W. G. N. Slinn, T. J. Kelly, P. H. Daum, A. C. Delany, J. P. Greenberg, P. R. Zimmerman, J. F. Boatman, J. D. Ray, D. H. Stedman, “Thunderstorms: an important mechanism in the transport of air pollutants,” Science 235, 460–465 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bradshaw, J. D.

E. V. Browell, M. A. Fenn, C. F. Butler, W. B. Grant, J. T. Merrill, R. E. Newell, J. D. Bradshaw, S. T. Sandholm, B. E. Anderson, A. R. Bandy, A. S. Bachmeier, D. R. Blake, D. D. Davis, G. L. Gregory, B. G. Heikes, Y. Kondo, S. C. Liu, F. S. Rowland, G. W. Sachse, H. B. Singh, R. W. Talbot, D. C. Thornton, “Large-scale air mass characteristics observed over Western Pacific during the summertime,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1691–1712 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Browell, E. V.

E. V. Browell, M. A. Fenn, C. F. Butler, W. B. Grant, J. T. Merrill, R. E. Newell, J. D. Bradshaw, S. T. Sandholm, B. E. Anderson, A. R. Bandy, A. S. Bachmeier, D. R. Blake, D. D. Davis, G. L. Gregory, B. G. Heikes, Y. Kondo, S. C. Liu, F. S. Rowland, G. W. Sachse, H. B. Singh, R. W. Talbot, D. C. Thornton, “Large-scale air mass characteristics observed over Western Pacific during the summertime,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1691–1712 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Butler, C. F.

E. V. Browell, M. A. Fenn, C. F. Butler, W. B. Grant, J. T. Merrill, R. E. Newell, J. D. Bradshaw, S. T. Sandholm, B. E. Anderson, A. R. Bandy, A. S. Bachmeier, D. R. Blake, D. D. Davis, G. L. Gregory, B. G. Heikes, Y. Kondo, S. C. Liu, F. S. Rowland, G. W. Sachse, H. B. Singh, R. W. Talbot, D. C. Thornton, “Large-scale air mass characteristics observed over Western Pacific during the summertime,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1691–1712 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Crutzen, P. J.

J. Lelieveld, P. J. Crutzen, “Influences of cloud photochemical processes on tropospheric ozone,” Nature (London) 343, 227–233 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Daum, P. H.

R. R. Dickerson, G. J. Huffman, W. T. Luke, L. J. Nunnermacker, K. E. Pickering, A. C. D. Leslie, C. G. Lindsey, W. G. N. Slinn, T. J. Kelly, P. H. Daum, A. C. Delany, J. P. Greenberg, P. R. Zimmerman, J. F. Boatman, J. D. Ray, D. H. Stedman, “Thunderstorms: an important mechanism in the transport of air pollutants,” Science 235, 460–465 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davis, D. D.

E. V. Browell, M. A. Fenn, C. F. Butler, W. B. Grant, J. T. Merrill, R. E. Newell, J. D. Bradshaw, S. T. Sandholm, B. E. Anderson, A. R. Bandy, A. S. Bachmeier, D. R. Blake, D. D. Davis, G. L. Gregory, B. G. Heikes, Y. Kondo, S. C. Liu, F. S. Rowland, G. W. Sachse, H. B. Singh, R. W. Talbot, D. C. Thornton, “Large-scale air mass characteristics observed over Western Pacific during the summertime,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1691–1712 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Delany, A. C.

R. R. Dickerson, G. J. Huffman, W. T. Luke, L. J. Nunnermacker, K. E. Pickering, A. C. D. Leslie, C. G. Lindsey, W. G. N. Slinn, T. J. Kelly, P. H. Daum, A. C. Delany, J. P. Greenberg, P. R. Zimmerman, J. F. Boatman, J. D. Ray, D. H. Stedman, “Thunderstorms: an important mechanism in the transport of air pollutants,” Science 235, 460–465 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dickerson, R. R.

K. E. Pickering, A. M. Thompson, J. R. Scala, W.-K. Tao, R. R. Dickerson, J. Simpson, “Free troposphere ozone production following entrainment of urban plumes into deep convection,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 17,985–18,000 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Dickerson, G. J. Huffman, W. T. Luke, L. J. Nunnermacker, K. E. Pickering, A. C. D. Leslie, C. G. Lindsey, W. G. N. Slinn, T. J. Kelly, P. H. Daum, A. C. Delany, J. P. Greenberg, P. R. Zimmerman, J. F. Boatman, J. D. Ray, D. H. Stedman, “Thunderstorms: an important mechanism in the transport of air pollutants,” Science 235, 460–465 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fenn, M. A.

E. V. Browell, M. A. Fenn, C. F. Butler, W. B. Grant, J. T. Merrill, R. E. Newell, J. D. Bradshaw, S. T. Sandholm, B. E. Anderson, A. R. Bandy, A. S. Bachmeier, D. R. Blake, D. D. Davis, G. L. Gregory, B. G. Heikes, Y. Kondo, S. C. Liu, F. S. Rowland, G. W. Sachse, H. B. Singh, R. W. Talbot, D. C. Thornton, “Large-scale air mass characteristics observed over Western Pacific during the summertime,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1691–1712 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ferrare, R.

T. J. McGee, M. Gross, R. Ferrare, W. Heaps, U. Singh, “Raman DIAL measurements of stratospheric ozone in the presence of volcanic aerosols,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 955–958 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Goldsmith, J. E. M.

Grant, W. B.

E. V. Browell, M. A. Fenn, C. F. Butler, W. B. Grant, J. T. Merrill, R. E. Newell, J. D. Bradshaw, S. T. Sandholm, B. E. Anderson, A. R. Bandy, A. S. Bachmeier, D. R. Blake, D. D. Davis, G. L. Gregory, B. G. Heikes, Y. Kondo, S. C. Liu, F. S. Rowland, G. W. Sachse, H. B. Singh, R. W. Talbot, D. C. Thornton, “Large-scale air mass characteristics observed over Western Pacific during the summertime,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1691–1712 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Greenberg, J. P.

R. R. Dickerson, G. J. Huffman, W. T. Luke, L. J. Nunnermacker, K. E. Pickering, A. C. D. Leslie, C. G. Lindsey, W. G. N. Slinn, T. J. Kelly, P. H. Daum, A. C. Delany, J. P. Greenberg, P. R. Zimmerman, J. F. Boatman, J. D. Ray, D. H. Stedman, “Thunderstorms: an important mechanism in the transport of air pollutants,” Science 235, 460–465 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gregory, G. L.

E. V. Browell, M. A. Fenn, C. F. Butler, W. B. Grant, J. T. Merrill, R. E. Newell, J. D. Bradshaw, S. T. Sandholm, B. E. Anderson, A. R. Bandy, A. S. Bachmeier, D. R. Blake, D. D. Davis, G. L. Gregory, B. G. Heikes, Y. Kondo, S. C. Liu, F. S. Rowland, G. W. Sachse, H. B. Singh, R. W. Talbot, D. C. Thornton, “Large-scale air mass characteristics observed over Western Pacific during the summertime,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1691–1712 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gross, M.

T. J. McGee, M. Gross, R. Ferrare, W. Heaps, U. Singh, “Raman DIAL measurements of stratospheric ozone in the presence of volcanic aerosols,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 955–958 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hallett, J.

Heaps, W.

T. J. McGee, M. Gross, R. Ferrare, W. Heaps, U. Singh, “Raman DIAL measurements of stratospheric ozone in the presence of volcanic aerosols,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 955–958 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Heikes, B. G.

E. V. Browell, M. A. Fenn, C. F. Butler, W. B. Grant, J. T. Merrill, R. E. Newell, J. D. Bradshaw, S. T. Sandholm, B. E. Anderson, A. R. Bandy, A. S. Bachmeier, D. R. Blake, D. D. Davis, G. L. Gregory, B. G. Heikes, Y. Kondo, S. C. Liu, F. S. Rowland, G. W. Sachse, H. B. Singh, R. W. Talbot, D. C. Thornton, “Large-scale air mass characteristics observed over Western Pacific during the summertime,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1691–1712 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hess, M.

J. Reichardt, M. Hess, A. Macke, “Lidar inelastic multiple-scattering parameters of cirrus particle ensembles determined with geometrical-optics crystal phase functions,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1895–1910 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Hess, R. B. A. Koelemeijer, P. Stammes, “Scattering matrices of imperfect hexagonal ice crystals,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 301–308 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Heymsfield, A. J.

A. J. Heymsfield, C. M. R. Platt, “A parameterization of the particle size spectrum of ice clouds in terms of the ambient temperature and the ice water content,” J. Atmos. Sci. 41, 846–855 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Huffman, G. J.

R. R. Dickerson, G. J. Huffman, W. T. Luke, L. J. Nunnermacker, K. E. Pickering, A. C. D. Leslie, C. G. Lindsey, W. G. N. Slinn, T. J. Kelly, P. H. Daum, A. C. Delany, J. P. Greenberg, P. R. Zimmerman, J. F. Boatman, J. D. Ray, D. H. Stedman, “Thunderstorms: an important mechanism in the transport of air pollutants,” Science 235, 460–465 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kelly, T. J.

R. R. Dickerson, G. J. Huffman, W. T. Luke, L. J. Nunnermacker, K. E. Pickering, A. C. D. Leslie, C. G. Lindsey, W. G. N. Slinn, T. J. Kelly, P. H. Daum, A. C. Delany, J. P. Greenberg, P. R. Zimmerman, J. F. Boatman, J. D. Ray, D. H. Stedman, “Thunderstorms: an important mechanism in the transport of air pollutants,” Science 235, 460–465 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koelemeijer, R. B. A.

M. Hess, R. B. A. Koelemeijer, P. Stammes, “Scattering matrices of imperfect hexagonal ice crystals,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 301–308 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kondo, Y.

E. V. Browell, M. A. Fenn, C. F. Butler, W. B. Grant, J. T. Merrill, R. E. Newell, J. D. Bradshaw, S. T. Sandholm, B. E. Anderson, A. R. Bandy, A. S. Bachmeier, D. R. Blake, D. D. Davis, G. L. Gregory, B. G. Heikes, Y. Kondo, S. C. Liu, F. S. Rowland, G. W. Sachse, H. B. Singh, R. W. Talbot, D. C. Thornton, “Large-scale air mass characteristics observed over Western Pacific during the summertime,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1691–1712 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Krumbholz, S.

J. Reichardt, C. Weitkamp, S. Krumbholz, “Rotational vibrational–rotational (RVR) Raman DIAL: a novel lidar technique for atmospheric ozone measurements,” in Proceedings of the 13th ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programmes and Related Research, ESA SP-397 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1997), pp. 237–241.

Lelieveld, J.

J. Lelieveld, P. J. Crutzen, “Influences of cloud photochemical processes on tropospheric ozone,” Nature (London) 343, 227–233 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Leslie, A. C. D.

R. R. Dickerson, G. J. Huffman, W. T. Luke, L. J. Nunnermacker, K. E. Pickering, A. C. D. Leslie, C. G. Lindsey, W. G. N. Slinn, T. J. Kelly, P. H. Daum, A. C. Delany, J. P. Greenberg, P. R. Zimmerman, J. F. Boatman, J. D. Ray, D. H. Stedman, “Thunderstorms: an important mechanism in the transport of air pollutants,” Science 235, 460–465 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lindsey, C. G.

R. R. Dickerson, G. J. Huffman, W. T. Luke, L. J. Nunnermacker, K. E. Pickering, A. C. D. Leslie, C. G. Lindsey, W. G. N. Slinn, T. J. Kelly, P. H. Daum, A. C. Delany, J. P. Greenberg, P. R. Zimmerman, J. F. Boatman, J. D. Ray, D. H. Stedman, “Thunderstorms: an important mechanism in the transport of air pollutants,” Science 235, 460–465 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, S. C.

E. V. Browell, M. A. Fenn, C. F. Butler, W. B. Grant, J. T. Merrill, R. E. Newell, J. D. Bradshaw, S. T. Sandholm, B. E. Anderson, A. R. Bandy, A. S. Bachmeier, D. R. Blake, D. D. Davis, G. L. Gregory, B. G. Heikes, Y. Kondo, S. C. Liu, F. S. Rowland, G. W. Sachse, H. B. Singh, R. W. Talbot, D. C. Thornton, “Large-scale air mass characteristics observed over Western Pacific during the summertime,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1691–1712 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Luke, W. T.

R. R. Dickerson, G. J. Huffman, W. T. Luke, L. J. Nunnermacker, K. E. Pickering, A. C. D. Leslie, C. G. Lindsey, W. G. N. Slinn, T. J. Kelly, P. H. Daum, A. C. Delany, J. P. Greenberg, P. R. Zimmerman, J. F. Boatman, J. D. Ray, D. H. Stedman, “Thunderstorms: an important mechanism in the transport of air pollutants,” Science 235, 460–465 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mace, G. G.

Macke, A.

McGee, T. J.

T. J. McGee, M. Gross, R. Ferrare, W. Heaps, U. Singh, “Raman DIAL measurements of stratospheric ozone in the presence of volcanic aerosols,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 955–958 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Merrill, J. T.

E. V. Browell, M. A. Fenn, C. F. Butler, W. B. Grant, J. T. Merrill, R. E. Newell, J. D. Bradshaw, S. T. Sandholm, B. E. Anderson, A. R. Bandy, A. S. Bachmeier, D. R. Blake, D. D. Davis, G. L. Gregory, B. G. Heikes, Y. Kondo, S. C. Liu, F. S. Rowland, G. W. Sachse, H. B. Singh, R. W. Talbot, D. C. Thornton, “Large-scale air mass characteristics observed over Western Pacific during the summertime,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1691–1712 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Michaelis, W.

J. Reichardt, A. Ansmann, M. Serwazi, C. Weitkamp, W. Michaelis, “Unexpectedly low ozone concentration in mid-latitude tropospheric ice clouds: a case study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 1929–1932 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, M. G.

Molina, L. T.

L. T. Molina, M. J. Molina, “Absolute absorption cross sections of ozone in the 185- to 350-nm wavelength range,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 14,501–14,508 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Molina, M. J.

L. T. Molina, M. J. Molina, “Absolute absorption cross sections of ozone in the 185- to 350-nm wavelength range,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 14,501–14,508 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Newell, R. E.

E. V. Browell, M. A. Fenn, C. F. Butler, W. B. Grant, J. T. Merrill, R. E. Newell, J. D. Bradshaw, S. T. Sandholm, B. E. Anderson, A. R. Bandy, A. S. Bachmeier, D. R. Blake, D. D. Davis, G. L. Gregory, B. G. Heikes, Y. Kondo, S. C. Liu, F. S. Rowland, G. W. Sachse, H. B. Singh, R. W. Talbot, D. C. Thornton, “Large-scale air mass characteristics observed over Western Pacific during the summertime,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1691–1712 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nunnermacker, L. J.

R. R. Dickerson, G. J. Huffman, W. T. Luke, L. J. Nunnermacker, K. E. Pickering, A. C. D. Leslie, C. G. Lindsey, W. G. N. Slinn, T. J. Kelly, P. H. Daum, A. C. Delany, J. P. Greenberg, P. R. Zimmerman, J. F. Boatman, J. D. Ray, D. H. Stedman, “Thunderstorms: an important mechanism in the transport of air pollutants,” Science 235, 460–465 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pickering, K. E.

K. E. Pickering, A. M. Thompson, J. R. Scala, W.-K. Tao, R. R. Dickerson, J. Simpson, “Free troposphere ozone production following entrainment of urban plumes into deep convection,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 17,985–18,000 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Dickerson, G. J. Huffman, W. T. Luke, L. J. Nunnermacker, K. E. Pickering, A. C. D. Leslie, C. G. Lindsey, W. G. N. Slinn, T. J. Kelly, P. H. Daum, A. C. Delany, J. P. Greenberg, P. R. Zimmerman, J. F. Boatman, J. D. Ray, D. H. Stedman, “Thunderstorms: an important mechanism in the transport of air pollutants,” Science 235, 460–465 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Platt, C. M. R.

A. J. Heymsfield, C. M. R. Platt, “A parameterization of the particle size spectrum of ice clouds in terms of the ambient temperature and the ice water content,” J. Atmos. Sci. 41, 846–855 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Poellet, M. R.

Ray, J. D.

R. R. Dickerson, G. J. Huffman, W. T. Luke, L. J. Nunnermacker, K. E. Pickering, A. C. D. Leslie, C. G. Lindsey, W. G. N. Slinn, T. J. Kelly, P. H. Daum, A. C. Delany, J. P. Greenberg, P. R. Zimmerman, J. F. Boatman, J. D. Ray, D. H. Stedman, “Thunderstorms: an important mechanism in the transport of air pollutants,” Science 235, 460–465 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reichardt, J.

J. Reichardt, M. Hess, A. Macke, “Lidar inelastic multiple-scattering parameters of cirrus particle ensembles determined with geometrical-optics crystal phase functions,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1895–1910 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Reichardt, “Error analysis of Raman differential absorption lidar ozone measurements in ice clouds,” Appl. Opt. 39, 6058–6071 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Reichardt, U. Wandinger, M. Serwazi, C. Weitkamp, “Combined Raman lidar for aerosol, ozone, and moisture measurements,” Opt. Eng. 35, 1457–1465 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Reichardt, A. Ansmann, M. Serwazi, C. Weitkamp, W. Michaelis, “Unexpectedly low ozone concentration in mid-latitude tropospheric ice clouds: a case study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 1929–1932 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Reichardt, “Optische Fernmessung von Ozon in Zirruswolken,” Ph.D. dissertation, Rep. GKSS 98/E/11 (1998) (Universität Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany, 1997).

J. Reichardt, C. Weitkamp, S. Krumbholz, “Rotational vibrational–rotational (RVR) Raman DIAL: a novel lidar technique for atmospheric ozone measurements,” in Proceedings of the 13th ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programmes and Related Research, ESA SP-397 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1997), pp. 237–241.

Riebesell, M.

Rowland, F. S.

E. V. Browell, M. A. Fenn, C. F. Butler, W. B. Grant, J. T. Merrill, R. E. Newell, J. D. Bradshaw, S. T. Sandholm, B. E. Anderson, A. R. Bandy, A. S. Bachmeier, D. R. Blake, D. D. Davis, G. L. Gregory, B. G. Heikes, Y. Kondo, S. C. Liu, F. S. Rowland, G. W. Sachse, H. B. Singh, R. W. Talbot, D. C. Thornton, “Large-scale air mass characteristics observed over Western Pacific during the summertime,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1691–1712 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sachse, G. W.

E. V. Browell, M. A. Fenn, C. F. Butler, W. B. Grant, J. T. Merrill, R. E. Newell, J. D. Bradshaw, S. T. Sandholm, B. E. Anderson, A. R. Bandy, A. S. Bachmeier, D. R. Blake, D. D. Davis, G. L. Gregory, B. G. Heikes, Y. Kondo, S. C. Liu, F. S. Rowland, G. W. Sachse, H. B. Singh, R. W. Talbot, D. C. Thornton, “Large-scale air mass characteristics observed over Western Pacific during the summertime,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1691–1712 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sandholm, S. T.

E. V. Browell, M. A. Fenn, C. F. Butler, W. B. Grant, J. T. Merrill, R. E. Newell, J. D. Bradshaw, S. T. Sandholm, B. E. Anderson, A. R. Bandy, A. S. Bachmeier, D. R. Blake, D. D. Davis, G. L. Gregory, B. G. Heikes, Y. Kondo, S. C. Liu, F. S. Rowland, G. W. Sachse, H. B. Singh, R. W. Talbot, D. C. Thornton, “Large-scale air mass characteristics observed over Western Pacific during the summertime,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1691–1712 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sassen, K.

Scala, J. R.

K. E. Pickering, A. M. Thompson, J. R. Scala, W.-K. Tao, R. R. Dickerson, J. Simpson, “Free troposphere ozone production following entrainment of urban plumes into deep convection,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 17,985–18,000 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Serwazi, M.

J. Reichardt, A. Ansmann, M. Serwazi, C. Weitkamp, W. Michaelis, “Unexpectedly low ozone concentration in mid-latitude tropospheric ice clouds: a case study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 1929–1932 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Reichardt, U. Wandinger, M. Serwazi, C. Weitkamp, “Combined Raman lidar for aerosol, ozone, and moisture measurements,” Opt. Eng. 35, 1457–1465 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Simpson, J.

K. E. Pickering, A. M. Thompson, J. R. Scala, W.-K. Tao, R. R. Dickerson, J. Simpson, “Free troposphere ozone production following entrainment of urban plumes into deep convection,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 17,985–18,000 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Singh, H. B.

E. V. Browell, M. A. Fenn, C. F. Butler, W. B. Grant, J. T. Merrill, R. E. Newell, J. D. Bradshaw, S. T. Sandholm, B. E. Anderson, A. R. Bandy, A. S. Bachmeier, D. R. Blake, D. D. Davis, G. L. Gregory, B. G. Heikes, Y. Kondo, S. C. Liu, F. S. Rowland, G. W. Sachse, H. B. Singh, R. W. Talbot, D. C. Thornton, “Large-scale air mass characteristics observed over Western Pacific during the summertime,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1691–1712 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Singh, U.

T. J. McGee, M. Gross, R. Ferrare, W. Heaps, U. Singh, “Raman DIAL measurements of stratospheric ozone in the presence of volcanic aerosols,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 955–958 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Slinn, W. G. N.

R. R. Dickerson, G. J. Huffman, W. T. Luke, L. J. Nunnermacker, K. E. Pickering, A. C. D. Leslie, C. G. Lindsey, W. G. N. Slinn, T. J. Kelly, P. H. Daum, A. C. Delany, J. P. Greenberg, P. R. Zimmerman, J. F. Boatman, J. D. Ray, D. H. Stedman, “Thunderstorms: an important mechanism in the transport of air pollutants,” Science 235, 460–465 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stammes, P.

M. Hess, R. B. A. Koelemeijer, P. Stammes, “Scattering matrices of imperfect hexagonal ice crystals,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 301–308 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stedman, D. H.

R. R. Dickerson, G. J. Huffman, W. T. Luke, L. J. Nunnermacker, K. E. Pickering, A. C. D. Leslie, C. G. Lindsey, W. G. N. Slinn, T. J. Kelly, P. H. Daum, A. C. Delany, J. P. Greenberg, P. R. Zimmerman, J. F. Boatman, J. D. Ray, D. H. Stedman, “Thunderstorms: an important mechanism in the transport of air pollutants,” Science 235, 460–465 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Talbot, R. W.

E. V. Browell, M. A. Fenn, C. F. Butler, W. B. Grant, J. T. Merrill, R. E. Newell, J. D. Bradshaw, S. T. Sandholm, B. E. Anderson, A. R. Bandy, A. S. Bachmeier, D. R. Blake, D. D. Davis, G. L. Gregory, B. G. Heikes, Y. Kondo, S. C. Liu, F. S. Rowland, G. W. Sachse, H. B. Singh, R. W. Talbot, D. C. Thornton, “Large-scale air mass characteristics observed over Western Pacific during the summertime,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1691–1712 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tao, W.-K.

K. E. Pickering, A. M. Thompson, J. R. Scala, W.-K. Tao, R. R. Dickerson, J. Simpson, “Free troposphere ozone production following entrainment of urban plumes into deep convection,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 17,985–18,000 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, A. M.

K. E. Pickering, A. M. Thompson, J. R. Scala, W.-K. Tao, R. R. Dickerson, J. Simpson, “Free troposphere ozone production following entrainment of urban plumes into deep convection,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 17,985–18,000 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Thornton, D. C.

E. V. Browell, M. A. Fenn, C. F. Butler, W. B. Grant, J. T. Merrill, R. E. Newell, J. D. Bradshaw, S. T. Sandholm, B. E. Anderson, A. R. Bandy, A. S. Bachmeier, D. R. Blake, D. D. Davis, G. L. Gregory, B. G. Heikes, Y. Kondo, S. C. Liu, F. S. Rowland, G. W. Sachse, H. B. Singh, R. W. Talbot, D. C. Thornton, “Large-scale air mass characteristics observed over Western Pacific during the summertime,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1691–1712 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wandinger, U.

J. Reichardt, U. Wandinger, M. Serwazi, C. Weitkamp, “Combined Raman lidar for aerosol, ozone, and moisture measurements,” Opt. Eng. 35, 1457–1465 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Weitkamp, C.

J. Reichardt, U. Wandinger, M. Serwazi, C. Weitkamp, “Combined Raman lidar for aerosol, ozone, and moisture measurements,” Opt. Eng. 35, 1457–1465 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Reichardt, A. Ansmann, M. Serwazi, C. Weitkamp, W. Michaelis, “Unexpectedly low ozone concentration in mid-latitude tropospheric ice clouds: a case study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 1929–1932 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, “Measurement of atmospheric aerosol extinction profiles with a Raman lidar,” Opt. Lett. 15, 746–748 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Reichardt, C. Weitkamp, S. Krumbholz, “Rotational vibrational–rotational (RVR) Raman DIAL: a novel lidar technique for atmospheric ozone measurements,” in Proceedings of the 13th ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programmes and Related Research, ESA SP-397 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1997), pp. 237–241.

Zimmerman, P. R.

R. R. Dickerson, G. J. Huffman, W. T. Luke, L. J. Nunnermacker, K. E. Pickering, A. C. D. Leslie, C. G. Lindsey, W. G. N. Slinn, T. J. Kelly, P. H. Daum, A. C. Delany, J. P. Greenberg, P. R. Zimmerman, J. F. Boatman, J. D. Ray, D. H. Stedman, “Thunderstorms: an important mechanism in the transport of air pollutants,” Science 235, 460–465 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Geophys. Res. Lett. (2)

J. Reichardt, A. Ansmann, M. Serwazi, C. Weitkamp, W. Michaelis, “Unexpectedly low ozone concentration in mid-latitude tropospheric ice clouds: a case study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 1929–1932 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. J. McGee, M. Gross, R. Ferrare, W. Heaps, U. Singh, “Raman DIAL measurements of stratospheric ozone in the presence of volcanic aerosols,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 955–958 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci. (1)

A. J. Heymsfield, C. M. R. Platt, “A parameterization of the particle size spectrum of ice clouds in terms of the ambient temperature and the ice water content,” J. Atmos. Sci. 41, 846–855 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (3)

L. T. Molina, M. J. Molina, “Absolute absorption cross sections of ozone in the 185- to 350-nm wavelength range,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 14,501–14,508 (1986).
[CrossRef]

K. E. Pickering, A. M. Thompson, J. R. Scala, W.-K. Tao, R. R. Dickerson, J. Simpson, “Free troposphere ozone production following entrainment of urban plumes into deep convection,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 17,985–18,000 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Browell, M. A. Fenn, C. F. Butler, W. B. Grant, J. T. Merrill, R. E. Newell, J. D. Bradshaw, S. T. Sandholm, B. E. Anderson, A. R. Bandy, A. S. Bachmeier, D. R. Blake, D. D. Davis, G. L. Gregory, B. G. Heikes, Y. Kondo, S. C. Liu, F. S. Rowland, G. W. Sachse, H. B. Singh, R. W. Talbot, D. C. Thornton, “Large-scale air mass characteristics observed over Western Pacific during the summertime,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1691–1712 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

M. Hess, R. B. A. Koelemeijer, P. Stammes, “Scattering matrices of imperfect hexagonal ice crystals,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 301–308 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London) (1)

J. Lelieveld, P. J. Crutzen, “Influences of cloud photochemical processes on tropospheric ozone,” Nature (London) 343, 227–233 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

J. Reichardt, U. Wandinger, M. Serwazi, C. Weitkamp, “Combined Raman lidar for aerosol, ozone, and moisture measurements,” Opt. Eng. 35, 1457–1465 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Science (1)

R. R. Dickerson, G. J. Huffman, W. T. Luke, L. J. Nunnermacker, K. E. Pickering, A. C. D. Leslie, C. G. Lindsey, W. G. N. Slinn, T. J. Kelly, P. H. Daum, A. C. Delany, J. P. Greenberg, P. R. Zimmerman, J. F. Boatman, J. D. Ray, D. H. Stedman, “Thunderstorms: an important mechanism in the transport of air pollutants,” Science 235, 460–465 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

J. Reichardt, “Optische Fernmessung von Ozon in Zirruswolken,” Ph.D. dissertation, Rep. GKSS 98/E/11 (1998) (Universität Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany, 1997).

J. Reichardt, C. Weitkamp, S. Krumbholz, “Rotational vibrational–rotational (RVR) Raman DIAL: a novel lidar technique for atmospheric ozone measurements,” in Proceedings of the 13th ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programmes and Related Research, ESA SP-397 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1997), pp. 237–241.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Relation between the particle extinction coefficient and uncertainty in κ for a given ozone systematic uncertainty: RD, Raman DIAL.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Particle correction functions Φ0 of imperfect hexagonal columns (left) and plates (center) for O2 RVR Raman DIAL (curves with squares), N2 RVR Raman DIAL (curves with circles) and conventional Raman DIAL (solid curves), and ratios of conventional Raman DIAL Φ0 to corresponding RVR Raman DIAL Φ0 (right) in cirrus. Index 0 indicates the presupposed wavelength independence of the particle extinction coefficient. Cirrus-crystal diameters range between 20 and 200 µm. A size distribution from Ref. 15 was used. The receiver field of view is 0.6 mrad.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

RVR Raman DIAL receiver: D, diaphragm; L, lens; DBS, dichroic beam splitter; BS, beam splitter; ND, neutral-density filter; IF, interference filter; S, flexible shield. Atmospheric rotational Raman, elastic, and N2 vibrational–rotational Raman backscattering signals are detected in channels R, L, and VR. The center wavelength of the channel-R interference filter can be tuned by rotating the filter around the vertical axis.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dependence of channel-R interference filter center wavelength on the FTA.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Intensity and dependence on the atmospheric temperature of the rotational Raman signal impinging on the detector as a function of the channel-R interference filter CWL. The intensity is given relative to the integrated anti-Stokes and Stokes rotational Raman backscattering cross section of N2 and O2 with atmospheric mixing ratios. The temperature dependence is obtained from computations carried out for 200- and 250-K atmospheric temperature. For the calculations we used the measured transmission curve of the channel-R filter.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Ratio of channel-R and channel-L signals as a function of the tilt angle of the channel-R interference filter. Normal incidence corresponds to 0°. The measured values are integrals over the height interval from 9.5 to 14 km. During the measurement no clouds were present.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Time series of R/ R 0 (the normalized ratio of the channel-R signal and the channel-VR signal) and of the elastic backscatter ratio S measured during a cirrus event on 17 September 1997. From left to right, the tilt angle of the channel-R interference filter is 3°, 5°, and 7°. The temporal resolution of the profiles is 480 s; the lidar signals are smoothed with a sliding average window length of 600 m. Error bars indicate statistical noise.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Suppression U/TL) (left) and transmissivity TL) (right) of the channel-R interference filter as a function of the FTA.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Ozone molecule number density (solid curve) and backscatter ratio (dashed curve) measured above Livermore, Calif., (37.7 °N, 121.8 °W) on 30 September 1997 between 2154 and 0112 local time. The transmitted laser power was 5 W, and the tilt angle of the channel-R filter was 2.8°. For the ozone calculation the rotational and vibrational–rotational Raman signals are smoothed with sliding average window lengths of 1500 and 2475 m below and above 9.8 km, respectively; values are calculated with a step width of 75 m. Error bars indicate statistical noise. Temperature (dotted curve) and tropopause height (thin dotted line) measured around midnight with a local radiosonde are shown as well.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Parameters of the Conventional Raman DIAL and the RVR Raman DIAL’sa

Equations (13)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

nz=RVRN - RVRM - RVRP,
RVRN=d/dzlnNλVR, z/NλR, zCO3absλR, T-CO3absλVR, T,RVRM=αmolscaλR, z - αmolscaλVR, zCO3absλR, T-CO3absλVR, T,RVRP=αparscaλR, z-αparscaλVR, zCO3absλR, T-CO3absλVR, T.
ddzln NλVR, z=αparscaλL, z+αparscaλVR, z+nz×CO3absλL, T+CO3absλVR, T.
RVRP=αparsca,effλL, z+αparsca,effλVR, zCO3absλR, T-CO3absλVR, T×ΦFRλL, z, FVRλL, z, κ,
ΦFRλL, z, FVRλL, z, κ=1-FRλL, z1-FVRλL, z× 21+λVR/λRκ-1.
UTλL=SzciRz0-RzciRzci-Rz0V,
NRz=Kz-2UβN2Rz+TλLSzβairLz×exp-τλL, z,
V=cN2dCN2b,R/dΩ/dCairb,L/dΩ,
NRz=Kz-2UV+TλLSz×βairLzexp-τλL, z.
NVRz=Kz-2βairLzexp-τλL, λVR, z,
Rz=KUV+TλLSz×exp-τλL, z-τλL, λVR, z,
RzciRz0=UV+TλLSzciUV+TλL.
UTλL=SzciRz0-RzciRzci-Rz0V.

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