Abstract

The polarimetric interference pattern on the surface of single-mode planar waveguides made by potassium ion exchange in soda-lime glass substrates can be observed through a 45° analyzer, which allows for the high-precision measurement of the modal birefringence of samples in a wide range of 0 to 5 × 10-4. Using this method, believed to be new, we investigated the effects of exchange temperature and time on the modal birefringence of single-mode potassium ion-exchanged waveguides. The modal birefringence profile was achieved by measurement of the variation of the phase difference between the TE0 and the TM0 modes with hydrofluoric-acid-etching depth of the sample.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. V. Ramswamy, R. Srivastava, “Ion-exchanged glass waveguides: a review,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 984–1002 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Klotz, C. Barzen, A. Brecht, R. D. Harris, G. R. Quigley, J. S. Wilkinson, G. Gauglitz, “Sensitivity enhancement of transducers for total internal reflection fluorescence,” in Integrated Optics Devices III, G. C. Righini, S. Najafi, eds., Proc. SPIE3620, 345–354 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Honkanen, A. Tervonen, M. McCourt, “Control of birefringence in ion-exchanged glass waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4710–4711 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. Z. Qi, K. Nishihiro, K. Itoh, M. Murabayashi, H. Yanagi, “A composite optical waveguide-based interferometer for chemical sensing II,” in Proceedings of the 30th Japanese Symposium on Chemical Sensors (Japan Association of Chemical Sensors, Nagoya, Japan, 2000), pp. 142–144.
  5. Z. Qi, K. Itoh, M. Murabayashi, H. Yanagi, “A composite optical waveguide-based polarimetric interferometer for chemical and biological sensing applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 1–5 (2000).
  6. L. B. Glebov, N. V. Nikonorov, G. T. Petrovskii, M. N. Filippova, “Effect of stresses on the refractive index of gradient layers in glass obtained by ion-exchange diffusion,” Sov. J. Glass Phys. Chem. 9, 477–481 (1983).
  7. L. Roiss, “Integrated optical components in substrate glasses,” Glastech. Ber. 62, 285–297 (1989).
  8. A. Brandenburg, “Stress in ion-exchanged glass waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1580–1593 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. De Bernard, R. De Franceschi, C. Malvicino, S. Morasca, L. Moro, M. Morra, A. Carnera, “Effects of potassium concentration and induced stress on the refractive index profile of K+–Na+ ion-exchanged glass waveguides,” J. Mod. Opt. 35, 907–917 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  10. L. G. Yip, J. Albert, “Characterization of planar optical waveguides by K+-ion exchange in glass,” Opt. Lett. 10, 151–153 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. Albert, G. L. Yip, “Stress-induced index change for K+–Na+ ion exchange in glass,” Electron. Lett. 22, 737–738 (1987).
    [CrossRef]

2000

Z. Qi, K. Itoh, M. Murabayashi, H. Yanagi, “A composite optical waveguide-based polarimetric interferometer for chemical and biological sensing applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 1–5 (2000).

1989

L. Roiss, “Integrated optical components in substrate glasses,” Glastech. Ber. 62, 285–297 (1989).

1988

C. De Bernard, R. De Franceschi, C. Malvicino, S. Morasca, L. Moro, M. Morra, A. Carnera, “Effects of potassium concentration and induced stress on the refractive index profile of K+–Na+ ion-exchanged glass waveguides,” J. Mod. Opt. 35, 907–917 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. V. Ramswamy, R. Srivastava, “Ion-exchanged glass waveguides: a review,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 984–1002 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987

J. Albert, G. L. Yip, “Stress-induced index change for K+–Na+ ion exchange in glass,” Electron. Lett. 22, 737–738 (1987).
[CrossRef]

S. Honkanen, A. Tervonen, M. McCourt, “Control of birefringence in ion-exchanged glass waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4710–4711 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986

A. Brandenburg, “Stress in ion-exchanged glass waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1580–1593 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985

1983

L. B. Glebov, N. V. Nikonorov, G. T. Petrovskii, M. N. Filippova, “Effect of stresses on the refractive index of gradient layers in glass obtained by ion-exchange diffusion,” Sov. J. Glass Phys. Chem. 9, 477–481 (1983).

Albert, J.

J. Albert, G. L. Yip, “Stress-induced index change for K+–Na+ ion exchange in glass,” Electron. Lett. 22, 737–738 (1987).
[CrossRef]

L. G. Yip, J. Albert, “Characterization of planar optical waveguides by K+-ion exchange in glass,” Opt. Lett. 10, 151–153 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barzen, C.

A. Klotz, C. Barzen, A. Brecht, R. D. Harris, G. R. Quigley, J. S. Wilkinson, G. Gauglitz, “Sensitivity enhancement of transducers for total internal reflection fluorescence,” in Integrated Optics Devices III, G. C. Righini, S. Najafi, eds., Proc. SPIE3620, 345–354 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brandenburg, A.

A. Brandenburg, “Stress in ion-exchanged glass waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1580–1593 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Brecht, A.

A. Klotz, C. Barzen, A. Brecht, R. D. Harris, G. R. Quigley, J. S. Wilkinson, G. Gauglitz, “Sensitivity enhancement of transducers for total internal reflection fluorescence,” in Integrated Optics Devices III, G. C. Righini, S. Najafi, eds., Proc. SPIE3620, 345–354 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Carnera, A.

C. De Bernard, R. De Franceschi, C. Malvicino, S. Morasca, L. Moro, M. Morra, A. Carnera, “Effects of potassium concentration and induced stress on the refractive index profile of K+–Na+ ion-exchanged glass waveguides,” J. Mod. Opt. 35, 907–917 (1988).
[CrossRef]

De Bernard, C.

C. De Bernard, R. De Franceschi, C. Malvicino, S. Morasca, L. Moro, M. Morra, A. Carnera, “Effects of potassium concentration and induced stress on the refractive index profile of K+–Na+ ion-exchanged glass waveguides,” J. Mod. Opt. 35, 907–917 (1988).
[CrossRef]

De Franceschi, R.

C. De Bernard, R. De Franceschi, C. Malvicino, S. Morasca, L. Moro, M. Morra, A. Carnera, “Effects of potassium concentration and induced stress on the refractive index profile of K+–Na+ ion-exchanged glass waveguides,” J. Mod. Opt. 35, 907–917 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Filippova, M. N.

L. B. Glebov, N. V. Nikonorov, G. T. Petrovskii, M. N. Filippova, “Effect of stresses on the refractive index of gradient layers in glass obtained by ion-exchange diffusion,” Sov. J. Glass Phys. Chem. 9, 477–481 (1983).

Gauglitz, G.

A. Klotz, C. Barzen, A. Brecht, R. D. Harris, G. R. Quigley, J. S. Wilkinson, G. Gauglitz, “Sensitivity enhancement of transducers for total internal reflection fluorescence,” in Integrated Optics Devices III, G. C. Righini, S. Najafi, eds., Proc. SPIE3620, 345–354 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Glebov, L. B.

L. B. Glebov, N. V. Nikonorov, G. T. Petrovskii, M. N. Filippova, “Effect of stresses on the refractive index of gradient layers in glass obtained by ion-exchange diffusion,” Sov. J. Glass Phys. Chem. 9, 477–481 (1983).

Harris, R. D.

A. Klotz, C. Barzen, A. Brecht, R. D. Harris, G. R. Quigley, J. S. Wilkinson, G. Gauglitz, “Sensitivity enhancement of transducers for total internal reflection fluorescence,” in Integrated Optics Devices III, G. C. Righini, S. Najafi, eds., Proc. SPIE3620, 345–354 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Honkanen, S.

Itoh, K.

Z. Qi, K. Itoh, M. Murabayashi, H. Yanagi, “A composite optical waveguide-based polarimetric interferometer for chemical and biological sensing applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 1–5 (2000).

Z. Qi, K. Nishihiro, K. Itoh, M. Murabayashi, H. Yanagi, “A composite optical waveguide-based interferometer for chemical sensing II,” in Proceedings of the 30th Japanese Symposium on Chemical Sensors (Japan Association of Chemical Sensors, Nagoya, Japan, 2000), pp. 142–144.

Klotz, A.

A. Klotz, C. Barzen, A. Brecht, R. D. Harris, G. R. Quigley, J. S. Wilkinson, G. Gauglitz, “Sensitivity enhancement of transducers for total internal reflection fluorescence,” in Integrated Optics Devices III, G. C. Righini, S. Najafi, eds., Proc. SPIE3620, 345–354 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Malvicino, C.

C. De Bernard, R. De Franceschi, C. Malvicino, S. Morasca, L. Moro, M. Morra, A. Carnera, “Effects of potassium concentration and induced stress on the refractive index profile of K+–Na+ ion-exchanged glass waveguides,” J. Mod. Opt. 35, 907–917 (1988).
[CrossRef]

McCourt, M.

Morasca, S.

C. De Bernard, R. De Franceschi, C. Malvicino, S. Morasca, L. Moro, M. Morra, A. Carnera, “Effects of potassium concentration and induced stress on the refractive index profile of K+–Na+ ion-exchanged glass waveguides,” J. Mod. Opt. 35, 907–917 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Moro, L.

C. De Bernard, R. De Franceschi, C. Malvicino, S. Morasca, L. Moro, M. Morra, A. Carnera, “Effects of potassium concentration and induced stress on the refractive index profile of K+–Na+ ion-exchanged glass waveguides,” J. Mod. Opt. 35, 907–917 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Morra, M.

C. De Bernard, R. De Franceschi, C. Malvicino, S. Morasca, L. Moro, M. Morra, A. Carnera, “Effects of potassium concentration and induced stress on the refractive index profile of K+–Na+ ion-exchanged glass waveguides,” J. Mod. Opt. 35, 907–917 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Murabayashi, M.

Z. Qi, K. Itoh, M. Murabayashi, H. Yanagi, “A composite optical waveguide-based polarimetric interferometer for chemical and biological sensing applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 1–5 (2000).

Z. Qi, K. Nishihiro, K. Itoh, M. Murabayashi, H. Yanagi, “A composite optical waveguide-based interferometer for chemical sensing II,” in Proceedings of the 30th Japanese Symposium on Chemical Sensors (Japan Association of Chemical Sensors, Nagoya, Japan, 2000), pp. 142–144.

Nikonorov, N. V.

L. B. Glebov, N. V. Nikonorov, G. T. Petrovskii, M. N. Filippova, “Effect of stresses on the refractive index of gradient layers in glass obtained by ion-exchange diffusion,” Sov. J. Glass Phys. Chem. 9, 477–481 (1983).

Nishihiro, K.

Z. Qi, K. Nishihiro, K. Itoh, M. Murabayashi, H. Yanagi, “A composite optical waveguide-based interferometer for chemical sensing II,” in Proceedings of the 30th Japanese Symposium on Chemical Sensors (Japan Association of Chemical Sensors, Nagoya, Japan, 2000), pp. 142–144.

Petrovskii, G. T.

L. B. Glebov, N. V. Nikonorov, G. T. Petrovskii, M. N. Filippova, “Effect of stresses on the refractive index of gradient layers in glass obtained by ion-exchange diffusion,” Sov. J. Glass Phys. Chem. 9, 477–481 (1983).

Qi, Z.

Z. Qi, K. Itoh, M. Murabayashi, H. Yanagi, “A composite optical waveguide-based polarimetric interferometer for chemical and biological sensing applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 1–5 (2000).

Z. Qi, K. Nishihiro, K. Itoh, M. Murabayashi, H. Yanagi, “A composite optical waveguide-based interferometer for chemical sensing II,” in Proceedings of the 30th Japanese Symposium on Chemical Sensors (Japan Association of Chemical Sensors, Nagoya, Japan, 2000), pp. 142–144.

Quigley, G. R.

A. Klotz, C. Barzen, A. Brecht, R. D. Harris, G. R. Quigley, J. S. Wilkinson, G. Gauglitz, “Sensitivity enhancement of transducers for total internal reflection fluorescence,” in Integrated Optics Devices III, G. C. Righini, S. Najafi, eds., Proc. SPIE3620, 345–354 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ramswamy, R. V.

R. V. Ramswamy, R. Srivastava, “Ion-exchanged glass waveguides: a review,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 984–1002 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Roiss, L.

L. Roiss, “Integrated optical components in substrate glasses,” Glastech. Ber. 62, 285–297 (1989).

Srivastava, R.

R. V. Ramswamy, R. Srivastava, “Ion-exchanged glass waveguides: a review,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 984–1002 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Tervonen, A.

Wilkinson, J. S.

A. Klotz, C. Barzen, A. Brecht, R. D. Harris, G. R. Quigley, J. S. Wilkinson, G. Gauglitz, “Sensitivity enhancement of transducers for total internal reflection fluorescence,” in Integrated Optics Devices III, G. C. Righini, S. Najafi, eds., Proc. SPIE3620, 345–354 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yanagi, H.

Z. Qi, K. Itoh, M. Murabayashi, H. Yanagi, “A composite optical waveguide-based polarimetric interferometer for chemical and biological sensing applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 1–5 (2000).

Z. Qi, K. Nishihiro, K. Itoh, M. Murabayashi, H. Yanagi, “A composite optical waveguide-based interferometer for chemical sensing II,” in Proceedings of the 30th Japanese Symposium on Chemical Sensors (Japan Association of Chemical Sensors, Nagoya, Japan, 2000), pp. 142–144.

Yip, G. L.

J. Albert, G. L. Yip, “Stress-induced index change for K+–Na+ ion exchange in glass,” Electron. Lett. 22, 737–738 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Yip, L. G.

Appl. Opt.

Electron. Lett.

J. Albert, G. L. Yip, “Stress-induced index change for K+–Na+ ion exchange in glass,” Electron. Lett. 22, 737–738 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Glastech. Ber.

L. Roiss, “Integrated optical components in substrate glasses,” Glastech. Ber. 62, 285–297 (1989).

J. Lightwave Technol.

A. Brandenburg, “Stress in ion-exchanged glass waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1580–1593 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Z. Qi, K. Itoh, M. Murabayashi, H. Yanagi, “A composite optical waveguide-based polarimetric interferometer for chemical and biological sensing applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 1–5 (2000).

R. V. Ramswamy, R. Srivastava, “Ion-exchanged glass waveguides: a review,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 984–1002 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt.

C. De Bernard, R. De Franceschi, C. Malvicino, S. Morasca, L. Moro, M. Morra, A. Carnera, “Effects of potassium concentration and induced stress on the refractive index profile of K+–Na+ ion-exchanged glass waveguides,” J. Mod. Opt. 35, 907–917 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Sov. J. Glass Phys. Chem.

L. B. Glebov, N. V. Nikonorov, G. T. Petrovskii, M. N. Filippova, “Effect of stresses on the refractive index of gradient layers in glass obtained by ion-exchange diffusion,” Sov. J. Glass Phys. Chem. 9, 477–481 (1983).

Other

A. Klotz, C. Barzen, A. Brecht, R. D. Harris, G. R. Quigley, J. S. Wilkinson, G. Gauglitz, “Sensitivity enhancement of transducers for total internal reflection fluorescence,” in Integrated Optics Devices III, G. C. Righini, S. Najafi, eds., Proc. SPIE3620, 345–354 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. Qi, K. Nishihiro, K. Itoh, M. Murabayashi, H. Yanagi, “A composite optical waveguide-based interferometer for chemical sensing II,” in Proceedings of the 30th Japanese Symposium on Chemical Sensors (Japan Association of Chemical Sensors, Nagoya, Japan, 2000), pp. 142–144.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for observing polarimetric interference pattern and measuring modal birefringence of single-mode K+ ion-exchanged planar OWG’s.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photographs of polarimetric interference patterns on surface of single-mode K+ ion-exchanged planar OWG’s. The modal birefringences of three samples are 4.75 × 10-4, 1.20 × 10-4 and 0.58 × 10-4, corresponding to the top, middle and bottom patterns, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dependence of the modal birefringence of single-mode K+ ion-exchanged planar OWG’s on the exchange temperature under a condition of the given exchange time.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dependence of modal birefringence of single-mode K+ ion-exchanged planar OWG’s on exchange time under a condition of given exchange temperature.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Etching depth of potassium ion-exchanged glass fabricated at 400 °C for 40 min as a function of etching time.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Polarimetric interference pattern induced by HF etching of potassium ion-exchanged OWG’s fabricated at 400 °C for 40 min.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Modal birefringence profile of potassium ion-exchanged OWG’s fabricated at 400 °C for 40 min.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Stress profile of potassium ion-exchanged OWG’s fabricated at 400 °C for 40 min.

Equations (2)

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Δϕ=2πd/λneff,TM-neff,TE.
σ=nTM-nTE/C2-C1,

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