Abstract

We implemented a laser system to be used in an optical transduction chain for the gravitational-wave bar detector AURIGA (Antenna Ultracriogenica Risonante per l’Indagine Gravitazionale Astronomica; Ultracryogenic Resonant Antenna for Astronomical Gravitational Investigation). This system is based on a Nd:YAG laser and includes quantum-limited power stabilization in the acoustic range, deep phase modulation and near-quantum-limited rf detection for locking onto optical cavities, and coupling to a single-mode polarization-maintaining optical fiber without deterioration of performance. Such a system has wide applications in optical metrology.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Cerdonio, L. Baggio, V. Crivelli Visconti, L. Taffarello, J. P. Zendri, G. A. Prodi, L. Conti, R. Mezzena, S. Vitale, M. Bonaldi, P. Falferi, V. Martinucci, A. Ortolan, G. Vedovato, P. L. Fortini, in Gravitation and Relativity: at the Turn of the Millennium, Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on General Relativity and Gravitation, N. Dadhich, J. Narlikar, eds. (Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pune, India, 1998).
  2. J.-P. Richard, “Laser instrumentation for one-phonon sensitivity and wide bandwidth with multimode gravitational radiation detectors,” J. Appl. Phys. 64, 2202–2205 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J.-P. Richard, “Approaching the quantum limit with optically instrumented multimode gravitational-wave bar detectors,” Phys. Rev. D 64, 2309–2317 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. Pang, J.-P. Richard, “Room-temperature tests of an optical transducer for resonant gravitational wave detectors,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4982–4988 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. Seel, R. Storz, G. Ruoso, J. Mlynek, S. Schiller, “Cryogenic optical resonator: a new tool for laser frequency stabilisation at the 1 Hz level,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4741–4744 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Cerdonio, M. Bonaldi, D. Carlesso, E. Cavallini, S. Caruso, A. Colombo, P. Falferi, G. Fontana, P. L. Fortini, R. Mezzena, A. Ortolan, G. A. Prodi, L. Taffarello, G. Vedovato, S. Vitale, J. P. Zendri, “The ultracryogenic gravitational-wave detector AURIGA,” Class. Quantum Grav. 14, 1491–1494 (1997); G. A. Prodi, L. Conti, R. Mezzena, S. Vitale, L. Taffarello, J. P. Zendri, L. Baggio, M. Cerdonio, A. Colombo, V. Crivelli Visconti, R. Macchietto, P. Falferi, M. Bonaldi, A. Ortolan, G. Vedovato, E. Cavallini, P. Fortini, “Initial operation of the gravitational wave detector AURIGA,” in Proceedings of the 2nd E. Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Waves, E. Coccia, G. Pizzella, G. Veneziano, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1998), pp. 148–158.
  7. L. Conti, M. Cerdonio, L. Taffarello, J. P. Zendri, A. Ortolan, C. Rizzo, G. Ruoso, G. A. Prodi, S. Vitale, G. Cantatore, E. Zavattini, “Optical transduction chain for gravitational wave bar detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 554–558 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization with an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. Hills, J. L. Hall, “Response of a Fabry–Perot cavity to phase modulated light,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 1406–1412 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. P. Yuen, V. W. S. Chan, “Noise in homodyne and heterodyne detection,” Opt. Lett. 8, 177–179 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. E. Giacobino, F. Marin, A. Bramati, V. Jost, “Quantum noise reduction in lasers,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 5, 863–877 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

1998 (1)

L. Conti, M. Cerdonio, L. Taffarello, J. P. Zendri, A. Ortolan, C. Rizzo, G. Ruoso, G. A. Prodi, S. Vitale, G. Cantatore, E. Zavattini, “Optical transduction chain for gravitational wave bar detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 554–558 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

S. Seel, R. Storz, G. Ruoso, J. Mlynek, S. Schiller, “Cryogenic optical resonator: a new tool for laser frequency stabilisation at the 1 Hz level,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4741–4744 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Cerdonio, M. Bonaldi, D. Carlesso, E. Cavallini, S. Caruso, A. Colombo, P. Falferi, G. Fontana, P. L. Fortini, R. Mezzena, A. Ortolan, G. A. Prodi, L. Taffarello, G. Vedovato, S. Vitale, J. P. Zendri, “The ultracryogenic gravitational-wave detector AURIGA,” Class. Quantum Grav. 14, 1491–1494 (1997); G. A. Prodi, L. Conti, R. Mezzena, S. Vitale, L. Taffarello, J. P. Zendri, L. Baggio, M. Cerdonio, A. Colombo, V. Crivelli Visconti, R. Macchietto, P. Falferi, M. Bonaldi, A. Ortolan, G. Vedovato, E. Cavallini, P. Fortini, “Initial operation of the gravitational wave detector AURIGA,” in Proceedings of the 2nd E. Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Waves, E. Coccia, G. Pizzella, G. Veneziano, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1998), pp. 148–158.

1996 (1)

E. Giacobino, F. Marin, A. Bramati, V. Jost, “Quantum noise reduction in lasers,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 5, 863–877 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1992 (1)

J.-P. Richard, “Approaching the quantum limit with optically instrumented multimode gravitational-wave bar detectors,” Phys. Rev. D 64, 2309–2317 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

J.-P. Richard, “Laser instrumentation for one-phonon sensitivity and wide bandwidth with multimode gravitational radiation detectors,” J. Appl. Phys. 64, 2202–2205 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

D. Hills, J. L. Hall, “Response of a Fabry–Perot cavity to phase modulated light,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 1406–1412 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1983 (2)

H. P. Yuen, V. W. S. Chan, “Noise in homodyne and heterodyne detection,” Opt. Lett. 8, 177–179 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization with an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Baggio, L.

M. Cerdonio, L. Baggio, V. Crivelli Visconti, L. Taffarello, J. P. Zendri, G. A. Prodi, L. Conti, R. Mezzena, S. Vitale, M. Bonaldi, P. Falferi, V. Martinucci, A. Ortolan, G. Vedovato, P. L. Fortini, in Gravitation and Relativity: at the Turn of the Millennium, Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on General Relativity and Gravitation, N. Dadhich, J. Narlikar, eds. (Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pune, India, 1998).

Bonaldi, M.

M. Cerdonio, M. Bonaldi, D. Carlesso, E. Cavallini, S. Caruso, A. Colombo, P. Falferi, G. Fontana, P. L. Fortini, R. Mezzena, A. Ortolan, G. A. Prodi, L. Taffarello, G. Vedovato, S. Vitale, J. P. Zendri, “The ultracryogenic gravitational-wave detector AURIGA,” Class. Quantum Grav. 14, 1491–1494 (1997); G. A. Prodi, L. Conti, R. Mezzena, S. Vitale, L. Taffarello, J. P. Zendri, L. Baggio, M. Cerdonio, A. Colombo, V. Crivelli Visconti, R. Macchietto, P. Falferi, M. Bonaldi, A. Ortolan, G. Vedovato, E. Cavallini, P. Fortini, “Initial operation of the gravitational wave detector AURIGA,” in Proceedings of the 2nd E. Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Waves, E. Coccia, G. Pizzella, G. Veneziano, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1998), pp. 148–158.

M. Cerdonio, L. Baggio, V. Crivelli Visconti, L. Taffarello, J. P. Zendri, G. A. Prodi, L. Conti, R. Mezzena, S. Vitale, M. Bonaldi, P. Falferi, V. Martinucci, A. Ortolan, G. Vedovato, P. L. Fortini, in Gravitation and Relativity: at the Turn of the Millennium, Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on General Relativity and Gravitation, N. Dadhich, J. Narlikar, eds. (Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pune, India, 1998).

Bramati, A.

E. Giacobino, F. Marin, A. Bramati, V. Jost, “Quantum noise reduction in lasers,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 5, 863–877 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cantatore, G.

L. Conti, M. Cerdonio, L. Taffarello, J. P. Zendri, A. Ortolan, C. Rizzo, G. Ruoso, G. A. Prodi, S. Vitale, G. Cantatore, E. Zavattini, “Optical transduction chain for gravitational wave bar detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 554–558 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Carlesso, D.

M. Cerdonio, M. Bonaldi, D. Carlesso, E. Cavallini, S. Caruso, A. Colombo, P. Falferi, G. Fontana, P. L. Fortini, R. Mezzena, A. Ortolan, G. A. Prodi, L. Taffarello, G. Vedovato, S. Vitale, J. P. Zendri, “The ultracryogenic gravitational-wave detector AURIGA,” Class. Quantum Grav. 14, 1491–1494 (1997); G. A. Prodi, L. Conti, R. Mezzena, S. Vitale, L. Taffarello, J. P. Zendri, L. Baggio, M. Cerdonio, A. Colombo, V. Crivelli Visconti, R. Macchietto, P. Falferi, M. Bonaldi, A. Ortolan, G. Vedovato, E. Cavallini, P. Fortini, “Initial operation of the gravitational wave detector AURIGA,” in Proceedings of the 2nd E. Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Waves, E. Coccia, G. Pizzella, G. Veneziano, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1998), pp. 148–158.

Caruso, S.

M. Cerdonio, M. Bonaldi, D. Carlesso, E. Cavallini, S. Caruso, A. Colombo, P. Falferi, G. Fontana, P. L. Fortini, R. Mezzena, A. Ortolan, G. A. Prodi, L. Taffarello, G. Vedovato, S. Vitale, J. P. Zendri, “The ultracryogenic gravitational-wave detector AURIGA,” Class. Quantum Grav. 14, 1491–1494 (1997); G. A. Prodi, L. Conti, R. Mezzena, S. Vitale, L. Taffarello, J. P. Zendri, L. Baggio, M. Cerdonio, A. Colombo, V. Crivelli Visconti, R. Macchietto, P. Falferi, M. Bonaldi, A. Ortolan, G. Vedovato, E. Cavallini, P. Fortini, “Initial operation of the gravitational wave detector AURIGA,” in Proceedings of the 2nd E. Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Waves, E. Coccia, G. Pizzella, G. Veneziano, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1998), pp. 148–158.

Cavallini, E.

M. Cerdonio, M. Bonaldi, D. Carlesso, E. Cavallini, S. Caruso, A. Colombo, P. Falferi, G. Fontana, P. L. Fortini, R. Mezzena, A. Ortolan, G. A. Prodi, L. Taffarello, G. Vedovato, S. Vitale, J. P. Zendri, “The ultracryogenic gravitational-wave detector AURIGA,” Class. Quantum Grav. 14, 1491–1494 (1997); G. A. Prodi, L. Conti, R. Mezzena, S. Vitale, L. Taffarello, J. P. Zendri, L. Baggio, M. Cerdonio, A. Colombo, V. Crivelli Visconti, R. Macchietto, P. Falferi, M. Bonaldi, A. Ortolan, G. Vedovato, E. Cavallini, P. Fortini, “Initial operation of the gravitational wave detector AURIGA,” in Proceedings of the 2nd E. Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Waves, E. Coccia, G. Pizzella, G. Veneziano, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1998), pp. 148–158.

Cerdonio, M.

L. Conti, M. Cerdonio, L. Taffarello, J. P. Zendri, A. Ortolan, C. Rizzo, G. Ruoso, G. A. Prodi, S. Vitale, G. Cantatore, E. Zavattini, “Optical transduction chain for gravitational wave bar detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 554–558 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Cerdonio, M. Bonaldi, D. Carlesso, E. Cavallini, S. Caruso, A. Colombo, P. Falferi, G. Fontana, P. L. Fortini, R. Mezzena, A. Ortolan, G. A. Prodi, L. Taffarello, G. Vedovato, S. Vitale, J. P. Zendri, “The ultracryogenic gravitational-wave detector AURIGA,” Class. Quantum Grav. 14, 1491–1494 (1997); G. A. Prodi, L. Conti, R. Mezzena, S. Vitale, L. Taffarello, J. P. Zendri, L. Baggio, M. Cerdonio, A. Colombo, V. Crivelli Visconti, R. Macchietto, P. Falferi, M. Bonaldi, A. Ortolan, G. Vedovato, E. Cavallini, P. Fortini, “Initial operation of the gravitational wave detector AURIGA,” in Proceedings of the 2nd E. Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Waves, E. Coccia, G. Pizzella, G. Veneziano, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1998), pp. 148–158.

M. Cerdonio, L. Baggio, V. Crivelli Visconti, L. Taffarello, J. P. Zendri, G. A. Prodi, L. Conti, R. Mezzena, S. Vitale, M. Bonaldi, P. Falferi, V. Martinucci, A. Ortolan, G. Vedovato, P. L. Fortini, in Gravitation and Relativity: at the Turn of the Millennium, Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on General Relativity and Gravitation, N. Dadhich, J. Narlikar, eds. (Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pune, India, 1998).

Chan, V. W. S.

Colombo, A.

M. Cerdonio, M. Bonaldi, D. Carlesso, E. Cavallini, S. Caruso, A. Colombo, P. Falferi, G. Fontana, P. L. Fortini, R. Mezzena, A. Ortolan, G. A. Prodi, L. Taffarello, G. Vedovato, S. Vitale, J. P. Zendri, “The ultracryogenic gravitational-wave detector AURIGA,” Class. Quantum Grav. 14, 1491–1494 (1997); G. A. Prodi, L. Conti, R. Mezzena, S. Vitale, L. Taffarello, J. P. Zendri, L. Baggio, M. Cerdonio, A. Colombo, V. Crivelli Visconti, R. Macchietto, P. Falferi, M. Bonaldi, A. Ortolan, G. Vedovato, E. Cavallini, P. Fortini, “Initial operation of the gravitational wave detector AURIGA,” in Proceedings of the 2nd E. Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Waves, E. Coccia, G. Pizzella, G. Veneziano, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1998), pp. 148–158.

Conti, L.

L. Conti, M. Cerdonio, L. Taffarello, J. P. Zendri, A. Ortolan, C. Rizzo, G. Ruoso, G. A. Prodi, S. Vitale, G. Cantatore, E. Zavattini, “Optical transduction chain for gravitational wave bar detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 554–558 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Cerdonio, L. Baggio, V. Crivelli Visconti, L. Taffarello, J. P. Zendri, G. A. Prodi, L. Conti, R. Mezzena, S. Vitale, M. Bonaldi, P. Falferi, V. Martinucci, A. Ortolan, G. Vedovato, P. L. Fortini, in Gravitation and Relativity: at the Turn of the Millennium, Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on General Relativity and Gravitation, N. Dadhich, J. Narlikar, eds. (Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pune, India, 1998).

Crivelli Visconti, V.

M. Cerdonio, L. Baggio, V. Crivelli Visconti, L. Taffarello, J. P. Zendri, G. A. Prodi, L. Conti, R. Mezzena, S. Vitale, M. Bonaldi, P. Falferi, V. Martinucci, A. Ortolan, G. Vedovato, P. L. Fortini, in Gravitation and Relativity: at the Turn of the Millennium, Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on General Relativity and Gravitation, N. Dadhich, J. Narlikar, eds. (Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pune, India, 1998).

Drever, R. W. P.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization with an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Falferi, P.

M. Cerdonio, M. Bonaldi, D. Carlesso, E. Cavallini, S. Caruso, A. Colombo, P. Falferi, G. Fontana, P. L. Fortini, R. Mezzena, A. Ortolan, G. A. Prodi, L. Taffarello, G. Vedovato, S. Vitale, J. P. Zendri, “The ultracryogenic gravitational-wave detector AURIGA,” Class. Quantum Grav. 14, 1491–1494 (1997); G. A. Prodi, L. Conti, R. Mezzena, S. Vitale, L. Taffarello, J. P. Zendri, L. Baggio, M. Cerdonio, A. Colombo, V. Crivelli Visconti, R. Macchietto, P. Falferi, M. Bonaldi, A. Ortolan, G. Vedovato, E. Cavallini, P. Fortini, “Initial operation of the gravitational wave detector AURIGA,” in Proceedings of the 2nd E. Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Waves, E. Coccia, G. Pizzella, G. Veneziano, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1998), pp. 148–158.

M. Cerdonio, L. Baggio, V. Crivelli Visconti, L. Taffarello, J. P. Zendri, G. A. Prodi, L. Conti, R. Mezzena, S. Vitale, M. Bonaldi, P. Falferi, V. Martinucci, A. Ortolan, G. Vedovato, P. L. Fortini, in Gravitation and Relativity: at the Turn of the Millennium, Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on General Relativity and Gravitation, N. Dadhich, J. Narlikar, eds. (Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pune, India, 1998).

Fontana, G.

M. Cerdonio, M. Bonaldi, D. Carlesso, E. Cavallini, S. Caruso, A. Colombo, P. Falferi, G. Fontana, P. L. Fortini, R. Mezzena, A. Ortolan, G. A. Prodi, L. Taffarello, G. Vedovato, S. Vitale, J. P. Zendri, “The ultracryogenic gravitational-wave detector AURIGA,” Class. Quantum Grav. 14, 1491–1494 (1997); G. A. Prodi, L. Conti, R. Mezzena, S. Vitale, L. Taffarello, J. P. Zendri, L. Baggio, M. Cerdonio, A. Colombo, V. Crivelli Visconti, R. Macchietto, P. Falferi, M. Bonaldi, A. Ortolan, G. Vedovato, E. Cavallini, P. Fortini, “Initial operation of the gravitational wave detector AURIGA,” in Proceedings of the 2nd E. Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Waves, E. Coccia, G. Pizzella, G. Veneziano, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1998), pp. 148–158.

Ford, G. M.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization with an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Fortini, P. L.

M. Cerdonio, M. Bonaldi, D. Carlesso, E. Cavallini, S. Caruso, A. Colombo, P. Falferi, G. Fontana, P. L. Fortini, R. Mezzena, A. Ortolan, G. A. Prodi, L. Taffarello, G. Vedovato, S. Vitale, J. P. Zendri, “The ultracryogenic gravitational-wave detector AURIGA,” Class. Quantum Grav. 14, 1491–1494 (1997); G. A. Prodi, L. Conti, R. Mezzena, S. Vitale, L. Taffarello, J. P. Zendri, L. Baggio, M. Cerdonio, A. Colombo, V. Crivelli Visconti, R. Macchietto, P. Falferi, M. Bonaldi, A. Ortolan, G. Vedovato, E. Cavallini, P. Fortini, “Initial operation of the gravitational wave detector AURIGA,” in Proceedings of the 2nd E. Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Waves, E. Coccia, G. Pizzella, G. Veneziano, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1998), pp. 148–158.

M. Cerdonio, L. Baggio, V. Crivelli Visconti, L. Taffarello, J. P. Zendri, G. A. Prodi, L. Conti, R. Mezzena, S. Vitale, M. Bonaldi, P. Falferi, V. Martinucci, A. Ortolan, G. Vedovato, P. L. Fortini, in Gravitation and Relativity: at the Turn of the Millennium, Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on General Relativity and Gravitation, N. Dadhich, J. Narlikar, eds. (Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pune, India, 1998).

Giacobino, E.

E. Giacobino, F. Marin, A. Bramati, V. Jost, “Quantum noise reduction in lasers,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 5, 863–877 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hall, J. L.

D. Hills, J. L. Hall, “Response of a Fabry–Perot cavity to phase modulated light,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 1406–1412 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization with an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Hills, D.

D. Hills, J. L. Hall, “Response of a Fabry–Perot cavity to phase modulated light,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 1406–1412 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Hough, J.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization with an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Jost, V.

E. Giacobino, F. Marin, A. Bramati, V. Jost, “Quantum noise reduction in lasers,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 5, 863–877 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kowalski, F. V.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization with an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Marin, F.

E. Giacobino, F. Marin, A. Bramati, V. Jost, “Quantum noise reduction in lasers,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 5, 863–877 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Martinucci, V.

M. Cerdonio, L. Baggio, V. Crivelli Visconti, L. Taffarello, J. P. Zendri, G. A. Prodi, L. Conti, R. Mezzena, S. Vitale, M. Bonaldi, P. Falferi, V. Martinucci, A. Ortolan, G. Vedovato, P. L. Fortini, in Gravitation and Relativity: at the Turn of the Millennium, Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on General Relativity and Gravitation, N. Dadhich, J. Narlikar, eds. (Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pune, India, 1998).

Mezzena, R.

M. Cerdonio, M. Bonaldi, D. Carlesso, E. Cavallini, S. Caruso, A. Colombo, P. Falferi, G. Fontana, P. L. Fortini, R. Mezzena, A. Ortolan, G. A. Prodi, L. Taffarello, G. Vedovato, S. Vitale, J. P. Zendri, “The ultracryogenic gravitational-wave detector AURIGA,” Class. Quantum Grav. 14, 1491–1494 (1997); G. A. Prodi, L. Conti, R. Mezzena, S. Vitale, L. Taffarello, J. P. Zendri, L. Baggio, M. Cerdonio, A. Colombo, V. Crivelli Visconti, R. Macchietto, P. Falferi, M. Bonaldi, A. Ortolan, G. Vedovato, E. Cavallini, P. Fortini, “Initial operation of the gravitational wave detector AURIGA,” in Proceedings of the 2nd E. Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Waves, E. Coccia, G. Pizzella, G. Veneziano, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1998), pp. 148–158.

M. Cerdonio, L. Baggio, V. Crivelli Visconti, L. Taffarello, J. P. Zendri, G. A. Prodi, L. Conti, R. Mezzena, S. Vitale, M. Bonaldi, P. Falferi, V. Martinucci, A. Ortolan, G. Vedovato, P. L. Fortini, in Gravitation and Relativity: at the Turn of the Millennium, Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on General Relativity and Gravitation, N. Dadhich, J. Narlikar, eds. (Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pune, India, 1998).

Mlynek, J.

S. Seel, R. Storz, G. Ruoso, J. Mlynek, S. Schiller, “Cryogenic optical resonator: a new tool for laser frequency stabilisation at the 1 Hz level,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4741–4744 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Munley, A. J.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization with an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Ortolan, A.

L. Conti, M. Cerdonio, L. Taffarello, J. P. Zendri, A. Ortolan, C. Rizzo, G. Ruoso, G. A. Prodi, S. Vitale, G. Cantatore, E. Zavattini, “Optical transduction chain for gravitational wave bar detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 554–558 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Cerdonio, M. Bonaldi, D. Carlesso, E. Cavallini, S. Caruso, A. Colombo, P. Falferi, G. Fontana, P. L. Fortini, R. Mezzena, A. Ortolan, G. A. Prodi, L. Taffarello, G. Vedovato, S. Vitale, J. P. Zendri, “The ultracryogenic gravitational-wave detector AURIGA,” Class. Quantum Grav. 14, 1491–1494 (1997); G. A. Prodi, L. Conti, R. Mezzena, S. Vitale, L. Taffarello, J. P. Zendri, L. Baggio, M. Cerdonio, A. Colombo, V. Crivelli Visconti, R. Macchietto, P. Falferi, M. Bonaldi, A. Ortolan, G. Vedovato, E. Cavallini, P. Fortini, “Initial operation of the gravitational wave detector AURIGA,” in Proceedings of the 2nd E. Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Waves, E. Coccia, G. Pizzella, G. Veneziano, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1998), pp. 148–158.

M. Cerdonio, L. Baggio, V. Crivelli Visconti, L. Taffarello, J. P. Zendri, G. A. Prodi, L. Conti, R. Mezzena, S. Vitale, M. Bonaldi, P. Falferi, V. Martinucci, A. Ortolan, G. Vedovato, P. L. Fortini, in Gravitation and Relativity: at the Turn of the Millennium, Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on General Relativity and Gravitation, N. Dadhich, J. Narlikar, eds. (Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pune, India, 1998).

Pang, Y.

Prodi, G. A.

L. Conti, M. Cerdonio, L. Taffarello, J. P. Zendri, A. Ortolan, C. Rizzo, G. Ruoso, G. A. Prodi, S. Vitale, G. Cantatore, E. Zavattini, “Optical transduction chain for gravitational wave bar detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 554–558 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Cerdonio, M. Bonaldi, D. Carlesso, E. Cavallini, S. Caruso, A. Colombo, P. Falferi, G. Fontana, P. L. Fortini, R. Mezzena, A. Ortolan, G. A. Prodi, L. Taffarello, G. Vedovato, S. Vitale, J. P. Zendri, “The ultracryogenic gravitational-wave detector AURIGA,” Class. Quantum Grav. 14, 1491–1494 (1997); G. A. Prodi, L. Conti, R. Mezzena, S. Vitale, L. Taffarello, J. P. Zendri, L. Baggio, M. Cerdonio, A. Colombo, V. Crivelli Visconti, R. Macchietto, P. Falferi, M. Bonaldi, A. Ortolan, G. Vedovato, E. Cavallini, P. Fortini, “Initial operation of the gravitational wave detector AURIGA,” in Proceedings of the 2nd E. Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Waves, E. Coccia, G. Pizzella, G. Veneziano, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1998), pp. 148–158.

M. Cerdonio, L. Baggio, V. Crivelli Visconti, L. Taffarello, J. P. Zendri, G. A. Prodi, L. Conti, R. Mezzena, S. Vitale, M. Bonaldi, P. Falferi, V. Martinucci, A. Ortolan, G. Vedovato, P. L. Fortini, in Gravitation and Relativity: at the Turn of the Millennium, Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on General Relativity and Gravitation, N. Dadhich, J. Narlikar, eds. (Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pune, India, 1998).

Richard, J.-P.

Y. Pang, J.-P. Richard, “Room-temperature tests of an optical transducer for resonant gravitational wave detectors,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4982–4988 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-P. Richard, “Approaching the quantum limit with optically instrumented multimode gravitational-wave bar detectors,” Phys. Rev. D 64, 2309–2317 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J.-P. Richard, “Laser instrumentation for one-phonon sensitivity and wide bandwidth with multimode gravitational radiation detectors,” J. Appl. Phys. 64, 2202–2205 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Rizzo, C.

L. Conti, M. Cerdonio, L. Taffarello, J. P. Zendri, A. Ortolan, C. Rizzo, G. Ruoso, G. A. Prodi, S. Vitale, G. Cantatore, E. Zavattini, “Optical transduction chain for gravitational wave bar detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 554–558 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ruoso, G.

L. Conti, M. Cerdonio, L. Taffarello, J. P. Zendri, A. Ortolan, C. Rizzo, G. Ruoso, G. A. Prodi, S. Vitale, G. Cantatore, E. Zavattini, “Optical transduction chain for gravitational wave bar detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 554–558 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Seel, R. Storz, G. Ruoso, J. Mlynek, S. Schiller, “Cryogenic optical resonator: a new tool for laser frequency stabilisation at the 1 Hz level,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4741–4744 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schiller, S.

S. Seel, R. Storz, G. Ruoso, J. Mlynek, S. Schiller, “Cryogenic optical resonator: a new tool for laser frequency stabilisation at the 1 Hz level,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4741–4744 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Seel, S.

S. Seel, R. Storz, G. Ruoso, J. Mlynek, S. Schiller, “Cryogenic optical resonator: a new tool for laser frequency stabilisation at the 1 Hz level,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4741–4744 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Storz, R.

S. Seel, R. Storz, G. Ruoso, J. Mlynek, S. Schiller, “Cryogenic optical resonator: a new tool for laser frequency stabilisation at the 1 Hz level,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4741–4744 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Taffarello, L.

L. Conti, M. Cerdonio, L. Taffarello, J. P. Zendri, A. Ortolan, C. Rizzo, G. Ruoso, G. A. Prodi, S. Vitale, G. Cantatore, E. Zavattini, “Optical transduction chain for gravitational wave bar detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 554–558 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Cerdonio, M. Bonaldi, D. Carlesso, E. Cavallini, S. Caruso, A. Colombo, P. Falferi, G. Fontana, P. L. Fortini, R. Mezzena, A. Ortolan, G. A. Prodi, L. Taffarello, G. Vedovato, S. Vitale, J. P. Zendri, “The ultracryogenic gravitational-wave detector AURIGA,” Class. Quantum Grav. 14, 1491–1494 (1997); G. A. Prodi, L. Conti, R. Mezzena, S. Vitale, L. Taffarello, J. P. Zendri, L. Baggio, M. Cerdonio, A. Colombo, V. Crivelli Visconti, R. Macchietto, P. Falferi, M. Bonaldi, A. Ortolan, G. Vedovato, E. Cavallini, P. Fortini, “Initial operation of the gravitational wave detector AURIGA,” in Proceedings of the 2nd E. Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Waves, E. Coccia, G. Pizzella, G. Veneziano, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1998), pp. 148–158.

M. Cerdonio, L. Baggio, V. Crivelli Visconti, L. Taffarello, J. P. Zendri, G. A. Prodi, L. Conti, R. Mezzena, S. Vitale, M. Bonaldi, P. Falferi, V. Martinucci, A. Ortolan, G. Vedovato, P. L. Fortini, in Gravitation and Relativity: at the Turn of the Millennium, Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on General Relativity and Gravitation, N. Dadhich, J. Narlikar, eds. (Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pune, India, 1998).

Vedovato, G.

M. Cerdonio, M. Bonaldi, D. Carlesso, E. Cavallini, S. Caruso, A. Colombo, P. Falferi, G. Fontana, P. L. Fortini, R. Mezzena, A. Ortolan, G. A. Prodi, L. Taffarello, G. Vedovato, S. Vitale, J. P. Zendri, “The ultracryogenic gravitational-wave detector AURIGA,” Class. Quantum Grav. 14, 1491–1494 (1997); G. A. Prodi, L. Conti, R. Mezzena, S. Vitale, L. Taffarello, J. P. Zendri, L. Baggio, M. Cerdonio, A. Colombo, V. Crivelli Visconti, R. Macchietto, P. Falferi, M. Bonaldi, A. Ortolan, G. Vedovato, E. Cavallini, P. Fortini, “Initial operation of the gravitational wave detector AURIGA,” in Proceedings of the 2nd E. Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Waves, E. Coccia, G. Pizzella, G. Veneziano, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1998), pp. 148–158.

M. Cerdonio, L. Baggio, V. Crivelli Visconti, L. Taffarello, J. P. Zendri, G. A. Prodi, L. Conti, R. Mezzena, S. Vitale, M. Bonaldi, P. Falferi, V. Martinucci, A. Ortolan, G. Vedovato, P. L. Fortini, in Gravitation and Relativity: at the Turn of the Millennium, Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on General Relativity and Gravitation, N. Dadhich, J. Narlikar, eds. (Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pune, India, 1998).

Vitale, S.

L. Conti, M. Cerdonio, L. Taffarello, J. P. Zendri, A. Ortolan, C. Rizzo, G. Ruoso, G. A. Prodi, S. Vitale, G. Cantatore, E. Zavattini, “Optical transduction chain for gravitational wave bar detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 554–558 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Cerdonio, M. Bonaldi, D. Carlesso, E. Cavallini, S. Caruso, A. Colombo, P. Falferi, G. Fontana, P. L. Fortini, R. Mezzena, A. Ortolan, G. A. Prodi, L. Taffarello, G. Vedovato, S. Vitale, J. P. Zendri, “The ultracryogenic gravitational-wave detector AURIGA,” Class. Quantum Grav. 14, 1491–1494 (1997); G. A. Prodi, L. Conti, R. Mezzena, S. Vitale, L. Taffarello, J. P. Zendri, L. Baggio, M. Cerdonio, A. Colombo, V. Crivelli Visconti, R. Macchietto, P. Falferi, M. Bonaldi, A. Ortolan, G. Vedovato, E. Cavallini, P. Fortini, “Initial operation of the gravitational wave detector AURIGA,” in Proceedings of the 2nd E. Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Waves, E. Coccia, G. Pizzella, G. Veneziano, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1998), pp. 148–158.

M. Cerdonio, L. Baggio, V. Crivelli Visconti, L. Taffarello, J. P. Zendri, G. A. Prodi, L. Conti, R. Mezzena, S. Vitale, M. Bonaldi, P. Falferi, V. Martinucci, A. Ortolan, G. Vedovato, P. L. Fortini, in Gravitation and Relativity: at the Turn of the Millennium, Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on General Relativity and Gravitation, N. Dadhich, J. Narlikar, eds. (Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pune, India, 1998).

Ward, H.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization with an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Yuen, H. P.

Zavattini, E.

L. Conti, M. Cerdonio, L. Taffarello, J. P. Zendri, A. Ortolan, C. Rizzo, G. Ruoso, G. A. Prodi, S. Vitale, G. Cantatore, E. Zavattini, “Optical transduction chain for gravitational wave bar detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 554–558 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zendri, J. P.

L. Conti, M. Cerdonio, L. Taffarello, J. P. Zendri, A. Ortolan, C. Rizzo, G. Ruoso, G. A. Prodi, S. Vitale, G. Cantatore, E. Zavattini, “Optical transduction chain for gravitational wave bar detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 554–558 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Cerdonio, M. Bonaldi, D. Carlesso, E. Cavallini, S. Caruso, A. Colombo, P. Falferi, G. Fontana, P. L. Fortini, R. Mezzena, A. Ortolan, G. A. Prodi, L. Taffarello, G. Vedovato, S. Vitale, J. P. Zendri, “The ultracryogenic gravitational-wave detector AURIGA,” Class. Quantum Grav. 14, 1491–1494 (1997); G. A. Prodi, L. Conti, R. Mezzena, S. Vitale, L. Taffarello, J. P. Zendri, L. Baggio, M. Cerdonio, A. Colombo, V. Crivelli Visconti, R. Macchietto, P. Falferi, M. Bonaldi, A. Ortolan, G. Vedovato, E. Cavallini, P. Fortini, “Initial operation of the gravitational wave detector AURIGA,” in Proceedings of the 2nd E. Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Waves, E. Coccia, G. Pizzella, G. Veneziano, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1998), pp. 148–158.

M. Cerdonio, L. Baggio, V. Crivelli Visconti, L. Taffarello, J. P. Zendri, G. A. Prodi, L. Conti, R. Mezzena, S. Vitale, M. Bonaldi, P. Falferi, V. Martinucci, A. Ortolan, G. Vedovato, P. L. Fortini, in Gravitation and Relativity: at the Turn of the Millennium, Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on General Relativity and Gravitation, N. Dadhich, J. Narlikar, eds. (Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pune, India, 1998).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization with an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Class. Quantum Grav. (1)

M. Cerdonio, M. Bonaldi, D. Carlesso, E. Cavallini, S. Caruso, A. Colombo, P. Falferi, G. Fontana, P. L. Fortini, R. Mezzena, A. Ortolan, G. A. Prodi, L. Taffarello, G. Vedovato, S. Vitale, J. P. Zendri, “The ultracryogenic gravitational-wave detector AURIGA,” Class. Quantum Grav. 14, 1491–1494 (1997); G. A. Prodi, L. Conti, R. Mezzena, S. Vitale, L. Taffarello, J. P. Zendri, L. Baggio, M. Cerdonio, A. Colombo, V. Crivelli Visconti, R. Macchietto, P. Falferi, M. Bonaldi, A. Ortolan, G. Vedovato, E. Cavallini, P. Fortini, “Initial operation of the gravitational wave detector AURIGA,” in Proceedings of the 2nd E. Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Waves, E. Coccia, G. Pizzella, G. Veneziano, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1998), pp. 148–158.

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J.-P. Richard, “Laser instrumentation for one-phonon sensitivity and wide bandwidth with multimode gravitational radiation detectors,” J. Appl. Phys. 64, 2202–2205 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. (1)

E. Giacobino, F. Marin, A. Bramati, V. Jost, “Quantum noise reduction in lasers,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 5, 863–877 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. D (1)

J.-P. Richard, “Approaching the quantum limit with optically instrumented multimode gravitational-wave bar detectors,” Phys. Rev. D 64, 2309–2317 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

S. Seel, R. Storz, G. Ruoso, J. Mlynek, S. Schiller, “Cryogenic optical resonator: a new tool for laser frequency stabilisation at the 1 Hz level,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4741–4744 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

L. Conti, M. Cerdonio, L. Taffarello, J. P. Zendri, A. Ortolan, C. Rizzo, G. Ruoso, G. A. Prodi, S. Vitale, G. Cantatore, E. Zavattini, “Optical transduction chain for gravitational wave bar detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 554–558 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Hills, J. L. Hall, “Response of a Fabry–Perot cavity to phase modulated light,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 1406–1412 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

M. Cerdonio, L. Baggio, V. Crivelli Visconti, L. Taffarello, J. P. Zendri, G. A. Prodi, L. Conti, R. Mezzena, S. Vitale, M. Bonaldi, P. Falferi, V. Martinucci, A. Ortolan, G. Vedovato, P. L. Fortini, in Gravitation and Relativity: at the Turn of the Millennium, Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on General Relativity and Gravitation, N. Dadhich, J. Narlikar, eds. (Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pune, India, 1998).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup: λ/2, half-wave plate; Pol, polarizer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Upper curve, intensity noise power for 9 mW impinging on the detector; middle curve, shot-noise calibration obtained with a halogen lamp; lower curve, detector electronic noise.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Power spectral density at 10 MHz of the intensity noise as a function of the photocurrent generated by a halogen lamp (lower curve, fitted with a straight line) and by the laser (upper curve, fitted with a second-order polynomial). P1, P2, and P3 are the coefficients of the zero-, first-, and second-order terms in the fitting function, respectively. (b) Laser power density normalized to shot noise as a function of the photocurrent. Percentage deviations from the fitting curves are shown on the bottom: (c) halogen lamp, (d) laser, (e) noise ratio.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Intensity noise spectrum measured after detection at 13.3 MHz and demodulation in a double-balanced mixer. Upper curve, phase-modulated laser; middle curve, without modulation; lower curve, electronic noise.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Ratio of intensity noise spectral density to shot noise, as a function of the transmissivity of BS1. The experimental data are fitted with Eq. (9). Thick curve, theoretical limit for infinite gain.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Intensity noise spectra in the acoustic range, taken with the balanced detection for 30-mW laser power. Upper curve, laser noise (balanced detection in the sum position) without active stabilization; middle curve, the same, with the stabilization loop on; lower curve, shot-noise reference, measured with the balanced detection in the difference position.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Same spectra as in Fig. 6, measured after the optical fiber for 15-mW laser power.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Parameters Used for the Reported Calculations

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

SBA=4/c2SPc,
SPc=SPinPc/Pin2.
Pc=PinT1F/π2,
SL=D+aI+bI2,
P=P01-sin2 2α sin2 ϕ/2,
GEOM=12πΔVVπsin2 2α sin ϕ0.
Gel=GpdGloopGEOM,
Gtot=TGel,
S0R1+TGel2+T1+Gel21+TGel2,

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