Abstract

A short-wave infrared (700–2500-nm) radiometer has been designed and built to calibrate and cross calibrate spherical-integrating sources used in the calibration of satellite sensors residing on NASA’s Earth Observing System platforms. We describe the design, predicted and measured performance, and calibration of the transfer radiometer.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. J. Scolese, S. P. Neeck, F. Bordi, “EOS-AM1: current status,” in Platforms and Systems, B. J. Horais, ed., Proc. SPIE2317, 112–123 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. F. Biggar, P. N. Slater, “Measurements of the SPOT 1.6-m SIS by an EOS preflight transfer radiometer,” (Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales, Toulouse, France, 1993).
  3. J. L. Mueller, B. C. Johnson, C. L. Cromer, S. B. Hooker, J. T. McLean, S. F. Biggar, The Third SeaWiFS Intercalibration Round-Robin Experiment (SIRREX-3), 19–30 September 1994NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, Vol. 34, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, J. G. Acker, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1996).
  4. F. Sakuma, T. Bret-Dibat, H. Sakate, A. Ono, J. L. Perbos, J.-M. Martinuzzi, K. Imaoka, H. Oaku, T. Moriyama, T. Miyachi, Y. Tange, “POLDER-OCTS preflight cross-calibration experiment using round-robin radiometers,” Bull. Nat. Res. Lab. Metro. 45 (2), 22–29 (1996).
  5. F. Sakuma, B. C. Johnson, S. F. Biggar, J. J. Butler, J. W. Cooper, M. Hiramatsu, K. Suzuki, “EOS AM-1 preflight radiometric measurement comparison using the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer (ASTER) visible/near-infrared integrating sphere,” in Earth Observing System, W. L. Barnes, ed., Proc. SPIE2820, 184–196 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. F. Biggar, P. N. Slater, “Preflight cross-calibration radiometer for Eos AM-1 platform visible and near-IR sources,” in Sensor Systems for the Early Earth Observing System Platforms, W. L. Barnes, ed., Proc. SPIE1939, 243–249 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Kadel Engineering Corporation, 1627 East Main Street, Danville, Ind. 46122, telephone (317) 745-2798.
  8. Cincinnati Electronics Corporation, 1994 Catalog, 7500 Innovation Way, Mason, Ohio, 45040.
  9. R. Joyce, National Optical Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 210151, Tucson, Ariz. 85721 (personal communication, 3January1995).
  10. W. J. Smith, Modern Optical Engineering (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1966), pp. 128–131.
  11. C. L. Wyatt, Radiometric System Design (Macmillan, New York, 1987), pp. 208–226.
  12. Illinois Institute of Technology Research Institute, 10 West 35th Street, Chicago, Ill. 60616, telephone (312) 567-4432.
  13. Photo Sciences, Inc., 2542 W. 237th Street, Torrance, Calif. 90505, telephone (310) 784-7460.
  14. Barr Associates, Inc., 2 Lyberty Way, Westford, Mass. 01886, telephone (508) 692-7513.
  15. Optronic Laboratories, Inc., 4470 35th Street, Orlando, Fla. 32811, telephone (800) 899-3171.
  16. J. D. Vincent, Fundamental of Infrared Detector Operation and Testing (Wiley, New York, 1990), pp. 138–146.
  17. Ithaco, 735 West Clinton Street, P.O. Box 6437, Ithaca, N.Y., 14851, telephone (607) 272-7640.
  18. Stanford Research Systems, 1290 D Reamwood Avenue, Sunnyvale, Calif. 94089, telephone (408) 744-9040.
  19. P. R. Spyak, C. Lansard, “Reflectance properties of pressed Algoflon F6: a replacement reflectance-standard material for Halon,” Appl. Opt. 36, 2963–2970 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

F. Sakuma, T. Bret-Dibat, H. Sakate, A. Ono, J. L. Perbos, J.-M. Martinuzzi, K. Imaoka, H. Oaku, T. Moriyama, T. Miyachi, Y. Tange, “POLDER-OCTS preflight cross-calibration experiment using round-robin radiometers,” Bull. Nat. Res. Lab. Metro. 45 (2), 22–29 (1996).

Biggar, S. F.

S. F. Biggar, P. N. Slater, “Measurements of the SPOT 1.6-m SIS by an EOS preflight transfer radiometer,” (Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales, Toulouse, France, 1993).

J. L. Mueller, B. C. Johnson, C. L. Cromer, S. B. Hooker, J. T. McLean, S. F. Biggar, The Third SeaWiFS Intercalibration Round-Robin Experiment (SIRREX-3), 19–30 September 1994NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, Vol. 34, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, J. G. Acker, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1996).

F. Sakuma, B. C. Johnson, S. F. Biggar, J. J. Butler, J. W. Cooper, M. Hiramatsu, K. Suzuki, “EOS AM-1 preflight radiometric measurement comparison using the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer (ASTER) visible/near-infrared integrating sphere,” in Earth Observing System, W. L. Barnes, ed., Proc. SPIE2820, 184–196 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. F. Biggar, P. N. Slater, “Preflight cross-calibration radiometer for Eos AM-1 platform visible and near-IR sources,” in Sensor Systems for the Early Earth Observing System Platforms, W. L. Barnes, ed., Proc. SPIE1939, 243–249 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bordi, F.

C. J. Scolese, S. P. Neeck, F. Bordi, “EOS-AM1: current status,” in Platforms and Systems, B. J. Horais, ed., Proc. SPIE2317, 112–123 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bret-Dibat, T.

F. Sakuma, T. Bret-Dibat, H. Sakate, A. Ono, J. L. Perbos, J.-M. Martinuzzi, K. Imaoka, H. Oaku, T. Moriyama, T. Miyachi, Y. Tange, “POLDER-OCTS preflight cross-calibration experiment using round-robin radiometers,” Bull. Nat. Res. Lab. Metro. 45 (2), 22–29 (1996).

Butler, J. J.

F. Sakuma, B. C. Johnson, S. F. Biggar, J. J. Butler, J. W. Cooper, M. Hiramatsu, K. Suzuki, “EOS AM-1 preflight radiometric measurement comparison using the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer (ASTER) visible/near-infrared integrating sphere,” in Earth Observing System, W. L. Barnes, ed., Proc. SPIE2820, 184–196 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, J. W.

F. Sakuma, B. C. Johnson, S. F. Biggar, J. J. Butler, J. W. Cooper, M. Hiramatsu, K. Suzuki, “EOS AM-1 preflight radiometric measurement comparison using the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer (ASTER) visible/near-infrared integrating sphere,” in Earth Observing System, W. L. Barnes, ed., Proc. SPIE2820, 184–196 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cromer, C. L.

J. L. Mueller, B. C. Johnson, C. L. Cromer, S. B. Hooker, J. T. McLean, S. F. Biggar, The Third SeaWiFS Intercalibration Round-Robin Experiment (SIRREX-3), 19–30 September 1994NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, Vol. 34, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, J. G. Acker, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1996).

Hiramatsu, M.

F. Sakuma, B. C. Johnson, S. F. Biggar, J. J. Butler, J. W. Cooper, M. Hiramatsu, K. Suzuki, “EOS AM-1 preflight radiometric measurement comparison using the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer (ASTER) visible/near-infrared integrating sphere,” in Earth Observing System, W. L. Barnes, ed., Proc. SPIE2820, 184–196 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hooker, S. B.

J. L. Mueller, B. C. Johnson, C. L. Cromer, S. B. Hooker, J. T. McLean, S. F. Biggar, The Third SeaWiFS Intercalibration Round-Robin Experiment (SIRREX-3), 19–30 September 1994NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, Vol. 34, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, J. G. Acker, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1996).

Imaoka, K.

F. Sakuma, T. Bret-Dibat, H. Sakate, A. Ono, J. L. Perbos, J.-M. Martinuzzi, K. Imaoka, H. Oaku, T. Moriyama, T. Miyachi, Y. Tange, “POLDER-OCTS preflight cross-calibration experiment using round-robin radiometers,” Bull. Nat. Res. Lab. Metro. 45 (2), 22–29 (1996).

Johnson, B. C.

F. Sakuma, B. C. Johnson, S. F. Biggar, J. J. Butler, J. W. Cooper, M. Hiramatsu, K. Suzuki, “EOS AM-1 preflight radiometric measurement comparison using the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer (ASTER) visible/near-infrared integrating sphere,” in Earth Observing System, W. L. Barnes, ed., Proc. SPIE2820, 184–196 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Mueller, B. C. Johnson, C. L. Cromer, S. B. Hooker, J. T. McLean, S. F. Biggar, The Third SeaWiFS Intercalibration Round-Robin Experiment (SIRREX-3), 19–30 September 1994NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, Vol. 34, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, J. G. Acker, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1996).

Joyce, R.

R. Joyce, National Optical Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 210151, Tucson, Ariz. 85721 (personal communication, 3January1995).

Lansard, C.

Martinuzzi, J.-M.

F. Sakuma, T. Bret-Dibat, H. Sakate, A. Ono, J. L. Perbos, J.-M. Martinuzzi, K. Imaoka, H. Oaku, T. Moriyama, T. Miyachi, Y. Tange, “POLDER-OCTS preflight cross-calibration experiment using round-robin radiometers,” Bull. Nat. Res. Lab. Metro. 45 (2), 22–29 (1996).

McLean, J. T.

J. L. Mueller, B. C. Johnson, C. L. Cromer, S. B. Hooker, J. T. McLean, S. F. Biggar, The Third SeaWiFS Intercalibration Round-Robin Experiment (SIRREX-3), 19–30 September 1994NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, Vol. 34, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, J. G. Acker, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1996).

Miyachi, T.

F. Sakuma, T. Bret-Dibat, H. Sakate, A. Ono, J. L. Perbos, J.-M. Martinuzzi, K. Imaoka, H. Oaku, T. Moriyama, T. Miyachi, Y. Tange, “POLDER-OCTS preflight cross-calibration experiment using round-robin radiometers,” Bull. Nat. Res. Lab. Metro. 45 (2), 22–29 (1996).

Moriyama, T.

F. Sakuma, T. Bret-Dibat, H. Sakate, A. Ono, J. L. Perbos, J.-M. Martinuzzi, K. Imaoka, H. Oaku, T. Moriyama, T. Miyachi, Y. Tange, “POLDER-OCTS preflight cross-calibration experiment using round-robin radiometers,” Bull. Nat. Res. Lab. Metro. 45 (2), 22–29 (1996).

Mueller, J. L.

J. L. Mueller, B. C. Johnson, C. L. Cromer, S. B. Hooker, J. T. McLean, S. F. Biggar, The Third SeaWiFS Intercalibration Round-Robin Experiment (SIRREX-3), 19–30 September 1994NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, Vol. 34, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, J. G. Acker, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1996).

Neeck, S. P.

C. J. Scolese, S. P. Neeck, F. Bordi, “EOS-AM1: current status,” in Platforms and Systems, B. J. Horais, ed., Proc. SPIE2317, 112–123 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Oaku, H.

F. Sakuma, T. Bret-Dibat, H. Sakate, A. Ono, J. L. Perbos, J.-M. Martinuzzi, K. Imaoka, H. Oaku, T. Moriyama, T. Miyachi, Y. Tange, “POLDER-OCTS preflight cross-calibration experiment using round-robin radiometers,” Bull. Nat. Res. Lab. Metro. 45 (2), 22–29 (1996).

Ono, A.

F. Sakuma, T. Bret-Dibat, H. Sakate, A. Ono, J. L. Perbos, J.-M. Martinuzzi, K. Imaoka, H. Oaku, T. Moriyama, T. Miyachi, Y. Tange, “POLDER-OCTS preflight cross-calibration experiment using round-robin radiometers,” Bull. Nat. Res. Lab. Metro. 45 (2), 22–29 (1996).

Perbos, J. L.

F. Sakuma, T. Bret-Dibat, H. Sakate, A. Ono, J. L. Perbos, J.-M. Martinuzzi, K. Imaoka, H. Oaku, T. Moriyama, T. Miyachi, Y. Tange, “POLDER-OCTS preflight cross-calibration experiment using round-robin radiometers,” Bull. Nat. Res. Lab. Metro. 45 (2), 22–29 (1996).

Sakate, H.

F. Sakuma, T. Bret-Dibat, H. Sakate, A. Ono, J. L. Perbos, J.-M. Martinuzzi, K. Imaoka, H. Oaku, T. Moriyama, T. Miyachi, Y. Tange, “POLDER-OCTS preflight cross-calibration experiment using round-robin radiometers,” Bull. Nat. Res. Lab. Metro. 45 (2), 22–29 (1996).

Sakuma, F.

F. Sakuma, T. Bret-Dibat, H. Sakate, A. Ono, J. L. Perbos, J.-M. Martinuzzi, K. Imaoka, H. Oaku, T. Moriyama, T. Miyachi, Y. Tange, “POLDER-OCTS preflight cross-calibration experiment using round-robin radiometers,” Bull. Nat. Res. Lab. Metro. 45 (2), 22–29 (1996).

F. Sakuma, B. C. Johnson, S. F. Biggar, J. J. Butler, J. W. Cooper, M. Hiramatsu, K. Suzuki, “EOS AM-1 preflight radiometric measurement comparison using the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer (ASTER) visible/near-infrared integrating sphere,” in Earth Observing System, W. L. Barnes, ed., Proc. SPIE2820, 184–196 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Scolese, C. J.

C. J. Scolese, S. P. Neeck, F. Bordi, “EOS-AM1: current status,” in Platforms and Systems, B. J. Horais, ed., Proc. SPIE2317, 112–123 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Slater, P. N.

S. F. Biggar, P. N. Slater, “Measurements of the SPOT 1.6-m SIS by an EOS preflight transfer radiometer,” (Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales, Toulouse, France, 1993).

S. F. Biggar, P. N. Slater, “Preflight cross-calibration radiometer for Eos AM-1 platform visible and near-IR sources,” in Sensor Systems for the Early Earth Observing System Platforms, W. L. Barnes, ed., Proc. SPIE1939, 243–249 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Smith, W. J.

W. J. Smith, Modern Optical Engineering (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1966), pp. 128–131.

Spyak, P. R.

Suzuki, K.

F. Sakuma, B. C. Johnson, S. F. Biggar, J. J. Butler, J. W. Cooper, M. Hiramatsu, K. Suzuki, “EOS AM-1 preflight radiometric measurement comparison using the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer (ASTER) visible/near-infrared integrating sphere,” in Earth Observing System, W. L. Barnes, ed., Proc. SPIE2820, 184–196 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tange, Y.

F. Sakuma, T. Bret-Dibat, H. Sakate, A. Ono, J. L. Perbos, J.-M. Martinuzzi, K. Imaoka, H. Oaku, T. Moriyama, T. Miyachi, Y. Tange, “POLDER-OCTS preflight cross-calibration experiment using round-robin radiometers,” Bull. Nat. Res. Lab. Metro. 45 (2), 22–29 (1996).

Vincent, J. D.

J. D. Vincent, Fundamental of Infrared Detector Operation and Testing (Wiley, New York, 1990), pp. 138–146.

Wyatt, C. L.

C. L. Wyatt, Radiometric System Design (Macmillan, New York, 1987), pp. 208–226.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Bull. Nat. Res. Lab. Metro. (1)

F. Sakuma, T. Bret-Dibat, H. Sakate, A. Ono, J. L. Perbos, J.-M. Martinuzzi, K. Imaoka, H. Oaku, T. Moriyama, T. Miyachi, Y. Tange, “POLDER-OCTS preflight cross-calibration experiment using round-robin radiometers,” Bull. Nat. Res. Lab. Metro. 45 (2), 22–29 (1996).

Other (17)

F. Sakuma, B. C. Johnson, S. F. Biggar, J. J. Butler, J. W. Cooper, M. Hiramatsu, K. Suzuki, “EOS AM-1 preflight radiometric measurement comparison using the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer (ASTER) visible/near-infrared integrating sphere,” in Earth Observing System, W. L. Barnes, ed., Proc. SPIE2820, 184–196 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. F. Biggar, P. N. Slater, “Preflight cross-calibration radiometer for Eos AM-1 platform visible and near-IR sources,” in Sensor Systems for the Early Earth Observing System Platforms, W. L. Barnes, ed., Proc. SPIE1939, 243–249 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kadel Engineering Corporation, 1627 East Main Street, Danville, Ind. 46122, telephone (317) 745-2798.

Cincinnati Electronics Corporation, 1994 Catalog, 7500 Innovation Way, Mason, Ohio, 45040.

R. Joyce, National Optical Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 210151, Tucson, Ariz. 85721 (personal communication, 3January1995).

W. J. Smith, Modern Optical Engineering (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1966), pp. 128–131.

C. L. Wyatt, Radiometric System Design (Macmillan, New York, 1987), pp. 208–226.

Illinois Institute of Technology Research Institute, 10 West 35th Street, Chicago, Ill. 60616, telephone (312) 567-4432.

Photo Sciences, Inc., 2542 W. 237th Street, Torrance, Calif. 90505, telephone (310) 784-7460.

Barr Associates, Inc., 2 Lyberty Way, Westford, Mass. 01886, telephone (508) 692-7513.

Optronic Laboratories, Inc., 4470 35th Street, Orlando, Fla. 32811, telephone (800) 899-3171.

J. D. Vincent, Fundamental of Infrared Detector Operation and Testing (Wiley, New York, 1990), pp. 138–146.

Ithaco, 735 West Clinton Street, P.O. Box 6437, Ithaca, N.Y., 14851, telephone (607) 272-7640.

Stanford Research Systems, 1290 D Reamwood Avenue, Sunnyvale, Calif. 94089, telephone (408) 744-9040.

C. J. Scolese, S. P. Neeck, F. Bordi, “EOS-AM1: current status,” in Platforms and Systems, B. J. Horais, ed., Proc. SPIE2317, 112–123 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. F. Biggar, P. N. Slater, “Measurements of the SPOT 1.6-m SIS by an EOS preflight transfer radiometer,” (Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales, Toulouse, France, 1993).

J. L. Mueller, B. C. Johnson, C. L. Cromer, S. B. Hooker, J. T. McLean, S. F. Biggar, The Third SeaWiFS Intercalibration Round-Robin Experiment (SIRREX-3), 19–30 September 1994NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, Vol. 34, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, J. G. Acker, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1996).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

SWIR transfer radiometer schematic. LN2, liquid nitrogen.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Detector and baffle system schematic. To Det., values indicate the vane distance from the detector. [3.975 in. (10 cm), 2.800 in. (7.11 cm), 0.521 in. (1.32 cm), 0.231 in. (0.59 cm), 0.005 in. (0.013 cm).]

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Predicted detector antireflection coating transmittances.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectral transmittance of bandpass filters, Dewar window, and cold filter in the spectral region of most interest.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

PK-50 cold filter spectral transmittance illustrating the out-of-band rejection.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Transfer radiometer’s measured normalized response versus chopping frequency.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

FOV of Dewar alone and transfer radiometer with the 1243.5- and 1646.0-nm filters.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Normalized integrated FOV.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Measured SWIR Transfer Radiometer Bandpass Filter Data

Tables Icon

Table 2 Transfer Radiometer Calibration Uncertainties

Tables Icon

Table 3 Noise-Equivalent Spectral Radiance and Saturation Spectral Radiance

Tables Icon

Table 4 SWIR Transfer Radiometer Performance Summary

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

λavg=iλiτii τi,
normalized integrated FOV = θ=angledesired anglenormalized FOV responseθ × solid angleθθ=angleall anglesnormalized FOV responseθ × solid angleθ.
Lλ=Eλat 50 cm5022332BRF0°, 45°π,
Eaverage inband= Eλat 50 cmτλdλ τλdλ,

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