Abstract

For data analysis of the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) atmospheric limb emission spectroscopic experiment on Environmental Satellite microwindows, i.e., small spectral regions for data analysis, have been defined and optimized. A novel optimization scheme has been developed for this purpose that adjusts microwindow boundaries such that the total retrieval error with respect to measurement noise, parameter uncertainties, and systematic errors is minimized. Dedicated databases that contain optimized microwindows for retrieval of vertical profiles of pressure and temperature, H2O, O3, HNO3, CH4, N2O, and NO2 have been generated. Furthermore, a tool for optimal selection of subsets of predefined microwindows for specific retrieval situations has been provided. This tool can be used further for estimating total retrieval errors for a selected microwindow subset. It has been shown by use of this tool that an altitude-dependent definition of microwindows is superior to an altitude-independent definition. For computational efficiency a dedicated microwindow-related list of spectral lines has been defined that contains only those spectral lines that are of relevance for MIPAS limb sounding observations.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Endemann, H. Fischer, “Envisat’s high-resolution limb sounder: mipas,” ESA Bull. 76, 47–52 (1993).
  2. G. Echle, H. Oelhaf, A. Wegner, “On the potential of I.R. limb emission spectroscopy for the measurement of the stratospheric composition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 253–265 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. Echle, H. Oelhaf, A. Wegner, “Measurement of atmospheric parameters with MIPAS,” (European Space Agency, Paris, 1992).
  4. M. Ridolfi, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, B. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. Höpfner, P. E. Morris, P. Raspollini, G. Stiller, R. J. Wells, “Optimized forward model and retrieval scheme for MIPAS near-real-time data processing,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1323–1340 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. Beer, T. A. Glavich, “Remote sensing of the troposphere by infrared emission spectroscopy,” in Advanced Optical Instrumentation for Remote Sensing of the Earth’s Surface from Space, G. Duchossois, F. L. Herr, R. Zander, eds., Proc. SPIE1129, 42–51 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. Echle, H. Oelhaf, T. von Clarmann, M. Schmidt, “Definition of spectral intervals for the retrieval of trace gas concentrations from MIPAS limb emission spectra,” (European Space Agency, Paris, 1995).
  7. T. von Clarmann, A. Linden, G. Echle, “The retrieval of pressure and temperature from MIPAS limb emission spectra,” tech. rep., final rep. of ESA purchase order 142957 (European Space Agency, Paris, 1995).
  8. T. von Clarmann, A. Linden, G. Echle, A. Wegner, H. Fischer, M. López-Puertas, “The retrieval of pressure and temperature from MIPAS-ENVISAT limb emission spectra,” in IRS ’96: Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation, W. L. Smith, K. Stamnes, eds., (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1997), pp. 557–560.
  9. T. von Clarmann, A. Linden, G. Echle, A. Wegner, H. Fischer, “Retrieval of pressure and temperature from MIPAS-ENVISAT limb emission spectra,” in Satellite Remote Sensing and Modeling of Clouds and the Atmosphere, J. Fischer, ed., Proc. SPIE2961, 128–135 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. López-Puertas, G. Zaragoza, M. López-Valverde, F. J. Martín-Torres, G. Shved, R. O. Manuilova, A. A. Kutepov, O. Gusev, T. von Clarmann, A. Linden, G. Stiller, A. Wegner, H. Oelhaf, J.-M. Flaud, “Evaluation of non-LTE effects in MIPAS pressure, temperature and volume mixing ratio retrievals (non-NLE study),” (European Space Agency, Paris, 1996).
  11. T. von Clarmann, A. Dudhia, G. Echle, J.-M. Flaud, C. Harrold, B. Kerridge, A. Koutoulaki, A. Linden, M. López-Puertas, M. Á. López-Valverde, F. J. Martín-Torres, J. Reburn, J. Remedios, C. D. Rodgers, R. Siddans, R. J. Wells, G. Zaragoza, “Study on the simulation of atmospheric infrared spectra,” (European Space Agency, Paris, 1998).
  12. T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, “Selection of optimized microwindows for atmospheric spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 37, 7661–7669 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. J. Remedios, “Extreme atmospheric constituent profiles for MIPAS,” in Proceedings of the European Symposium on Atmospheric Measurements from Space, ESAMS’99, (European Space Agency, Paris, 1999), pp. 779–782.
  14. T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, “The Karlsruhe Occupation Matrix Algorithm (KOMA),” (European Space Agency, Paris, 1998).
  15. D. P. Edwards, M. López-Puertas, M. Á. López-Valverde, “Non-local thermodynamic equilibrium studies of the 15 µm bands of CO2 for atmospheric remote sensing,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 14,955–14,977 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, G. P. Anderson, “Atmospheric radiance and transmittance: FASCOD2,” in Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Atmospheric Radiation (American Meteorological Society, Boston, Mass., 1986), pp. 141–146.
  17. G. P. Adrian, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, H. Oelhaf, “Trace gas measurements with the ground-based MIPAS experiment during the arctic winters 1990 to 1992,” in IRS ’92: Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation, S. Keevallik, O. Kärner, eds. (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1993), pp. 359–362.
  18. G. P. Stiller, M. Höpfner, M. Kuntz, T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, H. Fischer, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, F. Hase, H. Kemnitzer, S. Zorn, “The Karlsruhe optimized and precise radiative transfer algorithm. I. Requirements, justification, and model error estimation,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds AE01, J. Wang, B. Wu, T. Ogawa, Z. Guan, eds., Proc. SPIE3501, 257–268 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. Höpfner, G. P. Stiller, M. Kuntz, T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, F. Hase, H. Kemnitzer, S. Zorn, “The Karlsruhe optimized and precise radiative transfer algorithm. Part II: Interface to retrieval applications,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds AE01, J. Wang, B. Wu, T. Ogawa, Z. Guan, eds., Proc. SPIE3501, 186–195 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  20. M. Kuntz, M. Höpfner, G. P. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, F. Hase, H. Kemnitzer, S. Zorn, “The Karlsruhe optimized and precise radiative transfer algorithm. III. ADDLIN and TRANSF algorithms for modeling spectral transmittance and radiance,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds AE01, J. Wang, B. Wu, T. Ogawa, Z. Guan, eds., Proc. SPIE3501, 247–256 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  21. L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  22. V. L. Bennett, A. Dudhia, C. D. Rodgers, “Microwindow selection for MIPAS using information content,” in Proceedings of the European Symposium on Atmospheric Measurements from Space, ESAMS ’99 (European Space Agency, Munich, 1999), pp. 265–270.
  23. C. D. Rodgers, “Information content and optimisation of high spectral resolution remote measurements,” Adv. Space Res. 21, 361–367 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  24. C. E. Shannon, W. Weaver, The Mathematical Theory of Communication (U. Illinois Press, Champaign, Ill., 1949).

2000 (1)

1998 (3)

T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, “Selection of optimized microwindows for atmospheric spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 37, 7661–7669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Rodgers, “Information content and optimisation of high spectral resolution remote measurements,” Adv. Space Res. 21, 361–367 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

G. Echle, H. Oelhaf, A. Wegner, “On the potential of I.R. limb emission spectroscopy for the measurement of the stratospheric composition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 253–265 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

M. Endemann, H. Fischer, “Envisat’s high-resolution limb sounder: mipas,” ESA Bull. 76, 47–52 (1993).

D. P. Edwards, M. López-Puertas, M. Á. López-Valverde, “Non-local thermodynamic equilibrium studies of the 15 µm bands of CO2 for atmospheric remote sensing,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 14,955–14,977 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Adrian, G. P.

G. P. Adrian, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, H. Oelhaf, “Trace gas measurements with the ground-based MIPAS experiment during the arctic winters 1990 to 1992,” in IRS ’92: Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation, S. Keevallik, O. Kärner, eds. (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1993), pp. 359–362.

Anderson, G. P.

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, G. P. Anderson, “Atmospheric radiance and transmittance: FASCOD2,” in Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Atmospheric Radiation (American Meteorological Society, Boston, Mass., 1986), pp. 141–146.

Beer, R.

R. Beer, T. A. Glavich, “Remote sensing of the troposphere by infrared emission spectroscopy,” in Advanced Optical Instrumentation for Remote Sensing of the Earth’s Surface from Space, G. Duchossois, F. L. Herr, R. Zander, eds., Proc. SPIE1129, 42–51 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, V. L.

V. L. Bennett, A. Dudhia, C. D. Rodgers, “Microwindow selection for MIPAS using information content,” in Proceedings of the European Symposium on Atmospheric Measurements from Space, ESAMS ’99 (European Space Agency, Munich, 1999), pp. 265–270.

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Camy-Peyret, C.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Carli, B.

Carlotti, M.

Chance, K. V.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Clarmann, T. von

M. Ridolfi, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, B. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. Höpfner, P. E. Morris, P. Raspollini, G. Stiller, R. J. Wells, “Optimized forward model and retrieval scheme for MIPAS near-real-time data processing,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1323–1340 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, “Selection of optimized microwindows for atmospheric spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 37, 7661–7669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. López-Puertas, G. Zaragoza, M. López-Valverde, F. J. Martín-Torres, G. Shved, R. O. Manuilova, A. A. Kutepov, O. Gusev, T. von Clarmann, A. Linden, G. Stiller, A. Wegner, H. Oelhaf, J.-M. Flaud, “Evaluation of non-LTE effects in MIPAS pressure, temperature and volume mixing ratio retrievals (non-NLE study),” (European Space Agency, Paris, 1996).

T. von Clarmann, A. Linden, G. Echle, A. Wegner, H. Fischer, M. López-Puertas, “The retrieval of pressure and temperature from MIPAS-ENVISAT limb emission spectra,” in IRS ’96: Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation, W. L. Smith, K. Stamnes, eds., (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1997), pp. 557–560.

T. von Clarmann, A. Linden, G. Echle, A. Wegner, H. Fischer, “Retrieval of pressure and temperature from MIPAS-ENVISAT limb emission spectra,” in Satellite Remote Sensing and Modeling of Clouds and the Atmosphere, J. Fischer, ed., Proc. SPIE2961, 128–135 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. von Clarmann, A. Dudhia, G. Echle, J.-M. Flaud, C. Harrold, B. Kerridge, A. Koutoulaki, A. Linden, M. López-Puertas, M. Á. López-Valverde, F. J. Martín-Torres, J. Reburn, J. Remedios, C. D. Rodgers, R. Siddans, R. J. Wells, G. Zaragoza, “Study on the simulation of atmospheric infrared spectra,” (European Space Agency, Paris, 1998).

G. Echle, H. Oelhaf, T. von Clarmann, M. Schmidt, “Definition of spectral intervals for the retrieval of trace gas concentrations from MIPAS limb emission spectra,” (European Space Agency, Paris, 1995).

T. von Clarmann, A. Linden, G. Echle, “The retrieval of pressure and temperature from MIPAS limb emission spectra,” tech. rep., final rep. of ESA purchase order 142957 (European Space Agency, Paris, 1995).

M. Kuntz, M. Höpfner, G. P. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, F. Hase, H. Kemnitzer, S. Zorn, “The Karlsruhe optimized and precise radiative transfer algorithm. III. ADDLIN and TRANSF algorithms for modeling spectral transmittance and radiance,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds AE01, J. Wang, B. Wu, T. Ogawa, Z. Guan, eds., Proc. SPIE3501, 247–256 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, “The Karlsruhe Occupation Matrix Algorithm (KOMA),” (European Space Agency, Paris, 1998).

G. P. Stiller, M. Höpfner, M. Kuntz, T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, H. Fischer, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, F. Hase, H. Kemnitzer, S. Zorn, “The Karlsruhe optimized and precise radiative transfer algorithm. I. Requirements, justification, and model error estimation,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds AE01, J. Wang, B. Wu, T. Ogawa, Z. Guan, eds., Proc. SPIE3501, 257–268 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Adrian, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, H. Oelhaf, “Trace gas measurements with the ground-based MIPAS experiment during the arctic winters 1990 to 1992,” in IRS ’92: Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation, S. Keevallik, O. Kärner, eds. (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1993), pp. 359–362.

M. Höpfner, G. P. Stiller, M. Kuntz, T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, F. Hase, H. Kemnitzer, S. Zorn, “The Karlsruhe optimized and precise radiative transfer algorithm. Part II: Interface to retrieval applications,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds AE01, J. Wang, B. Wu, T. Ogawa, Z. Guan, eds., Proc. SPIE3501, 186–195 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Clough, S. A.

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, G. P. Anderson, “Atmospheric radiance and transmittance: FASCOD2,” in Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Atmospheric Radiation (American Meteorological Society, Boston, Mass., 1986), pp. 141–146.

Dana, V.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dinelli, B.

Dudhia, A.

M. Ridolfi, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, B. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. Höpfner, P. E. Morris, P. Raspollini, G. Stiller, R. J. Wells, “Optimized forward model and retrieval scheme for MIPAS near-real-time data processing,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1323–1340 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. von Clarmann, A. Dudhia, G. Echle, J.-M. Flaud, C. Harrold, B. Kerridge, A. Koutoulaki, A. Linden, M. López-Puertas, M. Á. López-Valverde, F. J. Martín-Torres, J. Reburn, J. Remedios, C. D. Rodgers, R. Siddans, R. J. Wells, G. Zaragoza, “Study on the simulation of atmospheric infrared spectra,” (European Space Agency, Paris, 1998).

V. L. Bennett, A. Dudhia, C. D. Rodgers, “Microwindow selection for MIPAS using information content,” in Proceedings of the European Symposium on Atmospheric Measurements from Space, ESAMS ’99 (European Space Agency, Munich, 1999), pp. 265–270.

Echle, G.

T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, “Selection of optimized microwindows for atmospheric spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 37, 7661–7669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Echle, H. Oelhaf, A. Wegner, “On the potential of I.R. limb emission spectroscopy for the measurement of the stratospheric composition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 253–265 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. Echle, H. Oelhaf, A. Wegner, “Measurement of atmospheric parameters with MIPAS,” (European Space Agency, Paris, 1992).

T. von Clarmann, A. Dudhia, G. Echle, J.-M. Flaud, C. Harrold, B. Kerridge, A. Koutoulaki, A. Linden, M. López-Puertas, M. Á. López-Valverde, F. J. Martín-Torres, J. Reburn, J. Remedios, C. D. Rodgers, R. Siddans, R. J. Wells, G. Zaragoza, “Study on the simulation of atmospheric infrared spectra,” (European Space Agency, Paris, 1998).

T. von Clarmann, A. Linden, G. Echle, A. Wegner, H. Fischer, “Retrieval of pressure and temperature from MIPAS-ENVISAT limb emission spectra,” in Satellite Remote Sensing and Modeling of Clouds and the Atmosphere, J. Fischer, ed., Proc. SPIE2961, 128–135 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. von Clarmann, A. Linden, G. Echle, “The retrieval of pressure and temperature from MIPAS limb emission spectra,” tech. rep., final rep. of ESA purchase order 142957 (European Space Agency, Paris, 1995).

T. von Clarmann, A. Linden, G. Echle, A. Wegner, H. Fischer, M. López-Puertas, “The retrieval of pressure and temperature from MIPAS-ENVISAT limb emission spectra,” in IRS ’96: Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation, W. L. Smith, K. Stamnes, eds., (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1997), pp. 557–560.

G. Echle, H. Oelhaf, T. von Clarmann, M. Schmidt, “Definition of spectral intervals for the retrieval of trace gas concentrations from MIPAS limb emission spectra,” (European Space Agency, Paris, 1995).

M. Kuntz, M. Höpfner, G. P. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, F. Hase, H. Kemnitzer, S. Zorn, “The Karlsruhe optimized and precise radiative transfer algorithm. III. ADDLIN and TRANSF algorithms for modeling spectral transmittance and radiance,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds AE01, J. Wang, B. Wu, T. Ogawa, Z. Guan, eds., Proc. SPIE3501, 247–256 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, “The Karlsruhe Occupation Matrix Algorithm (KOMA),” (European Space Agency, Paris, 1998).

G. P. Stiller, M. Höpfner, M. Kuntz, T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, H. Fischer, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, F. Hase, H. Kemnitzer, S. Zorn, “The Karlsruhe optimized and precise radiative transfer algorithm. I. Requirements, justification, and model error estimation,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds AE01, J. Wang, B. Wu, T. Ogawa, Z. Guan, eds., Proc. SPIE3501, 257–268 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Höpfner, G. P. Stiller, M. Kuntz, T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, F. Hase, H. Kemnitzer, S. Zorn, “The Karlsruhe optimized and precise radiative transfer algorithm. Part II: Interface to retrieval applications,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds AE01, J. Wang, B. Wu, T. Ogawa, Z. Guan, eds., Proc. SPIE3501, 186–195 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Edwards, D. P.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Edwards, M. López-Puertas, M. Á. López-Valverde, “Non-local thermodynamic equilibrium studies of the 15 µm bands of CO2 for atmospheric remote sensing,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 14,955–14,977 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Endemann, M.

M. Endemann, H. Fischer, “Envisat’s high-resolution limb sounder: mipas,” ESA Bull. 76, 47–52 (1993).

Fischer, H.

M. Endemann, H. Fischer, “Envisat’s high-resolution limb sounder: mipas,” ESA Bull. 76, 47–52 (1993).

T. von Clarmann, A. Linden, G. Echle, A. Wegner, H. Fischer, M. López-Puertas, “The retrieval of pressure and temperature from MIPAS-ENVISAT limb emission spectra,” in IRS ’96: Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation, W. L. Smith, K. Stamnes, eds., (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1997), pp. 557–560.

T. von Clarmann, A. Linden, G. Echle, A. Wegner, H. Fischer, “Retrieval of pressure and temperature from MIPAS-ENVISAT limb emission spectra,” in Satellite Remote Sensing and Modeling of Clouds and the Atmosphere, J. Fischer, ed., Proc. SPIE2961, 128–135 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Stiller, M. Höpfner, M. Kuntz, T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, H. Fischer, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, F. Hase, H. Kemnitzer, S. Zorn, “The Karlsruhe optimized and precise radiative transfer algorithm. I. Requirements, justification, and model error estimation,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds AE01, J. Wang, B. Wu, T. Ogawa, Z. Guan, eds., Proc. SPIE3501, 257–268 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Adrian, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, H. Oelhaf, “Trace gas measurements with the ground-based MIPAS experiment during the arctic winters 1990 to 1992,” in IRS ’92: Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation, S. Keevallik, O. Kärner, eds. (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1993), pp. 359–362.

Flaud, J.-M.

M. Ridolfi, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, B. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. Höpfner, P. E. Morris, P. Raspollini, G. Stiller, R. J. Wells, “Optimized forward model and retrieval scheme for MIPAS near-real-time data processing,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1323–1340 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. López-Puertas, G. Zaragoza, M. López-Valverde, F. J. Martín-Torres, G. Shved, R. O. Manuilova, A. A. Kutepov, O. Gusev, T. von Clarmann, A. Linden, G. Stiller, A. Wegner, H. Oelhaf, J.-M. Flaud, “Evaluation of non-LTE effects in MIPAS pressure, temperature and volume mixing ratio retrievals (non-NLE study),” (European Space Agency, Paris, 1996).

T. von Clarmann, A. Dudhia, G. Echle, J.-M. Flaud, C. Harrold, B. Kerridge, A. Koutoulaki, A. Linden, M. López-Puertas, M. Á. López-Valverde, F. J. Martín-Torres, J. Reburn, J. Remedios, C. D. Rodgers, R. Siddans, R. J. Wells, G. Zaragoza, “Study on the simulation of atmospheric infrared spectra,” (European Space Agency, Paris, 1998).

Funke, B.

M. Kuntz, M. Höpfner, G. P. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, F. Hase, H. Kemnitzer, S. Zorn, “The Karlsruhe optimized and precise radiative transfer algorithm. III. ADDLIN and TRANSF algorithms for modeling spectral transmittance and radiance,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds AE01, J. Wang, B. Wu, T. Ogawa, Z. Guan, eds., Proc. SPIE3501, 247–256 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Höpfner, G. P. Stiller, M. Kuntz, T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, F. Hase, H. Kemnitzer, S. Zorn, “The Karlsruhe optimized and precise radiative transfer algorithm. Part II: Interface to retrieval applications,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds AE01, J. Wang, B. Wu, T. Ogawa, Z. Guan, eds., Proc. SPIE3501, 186–195 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Stiller, M. Höpfner, M. Kuntz, T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, H. Fischer, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, F. Hase, H. Kemnitzer, S. Zorn, “The Karlsruhe optimized and precise radiative transfer algorithm. I. Requirements, justification, and model error estimation,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds AE01, J. Wang, B. Wu, T. Ogawa, Z. Guan, eds., Proc. SPIE3501, 257–268 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
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Glatthor, N.

M. Kuntz, M. Höpfner, G. P. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, F. Hase, H. Kemnitzer, S. Zorn, “The Karlsruhe optimized and precise radiative transfer algorithm. III. ADDLIN and TRANSF algorithms for modeling spectral transmittance and radiance,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds AE01, J. Wang, B. Wu, T. Ogawa, Z. Guan, eds., Proc. SPIE3501, 247–256 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Stiller, M. Höpfner, M. Kuntz, T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, H. Fischer, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, F. Hase, H. Kemnitzer, S. Zorn, “The Karlsruhe optimized and precise radiative transfer algorithm. I. Requirements, justification, and model error estimation,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds AE01, J. Wang, B. Wu, T. Ogawa, Z. Guan, eds., Proc. SPIE3501, 257–268 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Höpfner, G. P. Stiller, M. Kuntz, T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, F. Hase, H. Kemnitzer, S. Zorn, “The Karlsruhe optimized and precise radiative transfer algorithm. Part II: Interface to retrieval applications,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds AE01, J. Wang, B. Wu, T. Ogawa, Z. Guan, eds., Proc. SPIE3501, 186–195 (1998).
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Glavich, T. A.

R. Beer, T. A. Glavich, “Remote sensing of the troposphere by infrared emission spectroscopy,” in Advanced Optical Instrumentation for Remote Sensing of the Earth’s Surface from Space, G. Duchossois, F. L. Herr, R. Zander, eds., Proc. SPIE1129, 42–51 (1989).
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Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
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Gusev, O.

M. López-Puertas, G. Zaragoza, M. López-Valverde, F. J. Martín-Torres, G. Shved, R. O. Manuilova, A. A. Kutepov, O. Gusev, T. von Clarmann, A. Linden, G. Stiller, A. Wegner, H. Oelhaf, J.-M. Flaud, “Evaluation of non-LTE effects in MIPAS pressure, temperature and volume mixing ratio retrievals (non-NLE study),” (European Space Agency, Paris, 1996).

Harrold, C.

T. von Clarmann, A. Dudhia, G. Echle, J.-M. Flaud, C. Harrold, B. Kerridge, A. Koutoulaki, A. Linden, M. López-Puertas, M. Á. López-Valverde, F. J. Martín-Torres, J. Reburn, J. Remedios, C. D. Rodgers, R. Siddans, R. J. Wells, G. Zaragoza, “Study on the simulation of atmospheric infrared spectra,” (European Space Agency, Paris, 1998).

Hase, F.

M. Kuntz, M. Höpfner, G. P. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, F. Hase, H. Kemnitzer, S. Zorn, “The Karlsruhe optimized and precise radiative transfer algorithm. III. ADDLIN and TRANSF algorithms for modeling spectral transmittance and radiance,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds AE01, J. Wang, B. Wu, T. Ogawa, Z. Guan, eds., Proc. SPIE3501, 247–256 (1998).
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M. Höpfner, G. P. Stiller, M. Kuntz, T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, F. Hase, H. Kemnitzer, S. Zorn, “The Karlsruhe optimized and precise radiative transfer algorithm. Part II: Interface to retrieval applications,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds AE01, J. Wang, B. Wu, T. Ogawa, Z. Guan, eds., Proc. SPIE3501, 186–195 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Stiller, M. Höpfner, M. Kuntz, T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, H. Fischer, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, F. Hase, H. Kemnitzer, S. Zorn, “The Karlsruhe optimized and precise radiative transfer algorithm. I. Requirements, justification, and model error estimation,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds AE01, J. Wang, B. Wu, T. Ogawa, Z. Guan, eds., Proc. SPIE3501, 257–268 (1998).
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Höpfner, M.

M. Ridolfi, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, B. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. Höpfner, P. E. Morris, P. Raspollini, G. Stiller, R. J. Wells, “Optimized forward model and retrieval scheme for MIPAS near-real-time data processing,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1323–1340 (2000).
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M. Kuntz, M. Höpfner, G. P. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, F. Hase, H. Kemnitzer, S. Zorn, “The Karlsruhe optimized and precise radiative transfer algorithm. III. ADDLIN and TRANSF algorithms for modeling spectral transmittance and radiance,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds AE01, J. Wang, B. Wu, T. Ogawa, Z. Guan, eds., Proc. SPIE3501, 247–256 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Stiller, M. Höpfner, M. Kuntz, T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, H. Fischer, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, F. Hase, H. Kemnitzer, S. Zorn, “The Karlsruhe optimized and precise radiative transfer algorithm. I. Requirements, justification, and model error estimation,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds AE01, J. Wang, B. Wu, T. Ogawa, Z. Guan, eds., Proc. SPIE3501, 257–268 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Höpfner, G. P. Stiller, M. Kuntz, T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, F. Hase, H. Kemnitzer, S. Zorn, “The Karlsruhe optimized and precise radiative transfer algorithm. Part II: Interface to retrieval applications,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds AE01, J. Wang, B. Wu, T. Ogawa, Z. Guan, eds., Proc. SPIE3501, 186–195 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jucks, K. W.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
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Kemnitzer, H.

M. Kuntz, M. Höpfner, G. P. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, F. Hase, H. Kemnitzer, S. Zorn, “The Karlsruhe optimized and precise radiative transfer algorithm. III. ADDLIN and TRANSF algorithms for modeling spectral transmittance and radiance,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds AE01, J. Wang, B. Wu, T. Ogawa, Z. Guan, eds., Proc. SPIE3501, 247–256 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Höpfner, G. P. Stiller, M. Kuntz, T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, F. Hase, H. Kemnitzer, S. Zorn, “The Karlsruhe optimized and precise radiative transfer algorithm. Part II: Interface to retrieval applications,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds AE01, J. Wang, B. Wu, T. Ogawa, Z. Guan, eds., Proc. SPIE3501, 186–195 (1998).
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G. P. Stiller, M. Höpfner, M. Kuntz, T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, H. Fischer, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, F. Hase, H. Kemnitzer, S. Zorn, “The Karlsruhe optimized and precise radiative transfer algorithm. I. Requirements, justification, and model error estimation,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds AE01, J. Wang, B. Wu, T. Ogawa, Z. Guan, eds., Proc. SPIE3501, 257–268 (1998).
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Kerridge, B.

T. von Clarmann, A. Dudhia, G. Echle, J.-M. Flaud, C. Harrold, B. Kerridge, A. Koutoulaki, A. Linden, M. López-Puertas, M. Á. López-Valverde, F. J. Martín-Torres, J. Reburn, J. Remedios, C. D. Rodgers, R. Siddans, R. J. Wells, G. Zaragoza, “Study on the simulation of atmospheric infrared spectra,” (European Space Agency, Paris, 1998).

Kneizys, F. X.

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, G. P. Anderson, “Atmospheric radiance and transmittance: FASCOD2,” in Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Atmospheric Radiation (American Meteorological Society, Boston, Mass., 1986), pp. 141–146.

Koutoulaki, A.

T. von Clarmann, A. Dudhia, G. Echle, J.-M. Flaud, C. Harrold, B. Kerridge, A. Koutoulaki, A. Linden, M. López-Puertas, M. Á. López-Valverde, F. J. Martín-Torres, J. Reburn, J. Remedios, C. D. Rodgers, R. Siddans, R. J. Wells, G. Zaragoza, “Study on the simulation of atmospheric infrared spectra,” (European Space Agency, Paris, 1998).

Kuntz, M.

M. Höpfner, G. P. Stiller, M. Kuntz, T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, F. Hase, H. Kemnitzer, S. Zorn, “The Karlsruhe optimized and precise radiative transfer algorithm. Part II: Interface to retrieval applications,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds AE01, J. Wang, B. Wu, T. Ogawa, Z. Guan, eds., Proc. SPIE3501, 186–195 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Kuntz, M. Höpfner, G. P. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, F. Hase, H. Kemnitzer, S. Zorn, “The Karlsruhe optimized and precise radiative transfer algorithm. III. ADDLIN and TRANSF algorithms for modeling spectral transmittance and radiance,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds AE01, J. Wang, B. Wu, T. Ogawa, Z. Guan, eds., Proc. SPIE3501, 247–256 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Stiller, M. Höpfner, M. Kuntz, T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, H. Fischer, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, F. Hase, H. Kemnitzer, S. Zorn, “The Karlsruhe optimized and precise radiative transfer algorithm. I. Requirements, justification, and model error estimation,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds AE01, J. Wang, B. Wu, T. Ogawa, Z. Guan, eds., Proc. SPIE3501, 257–268 (1998).
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Kutepov, A. A.

M. López-Puertas, G. Zaragoza, M. López-Valverde, F. J. Martín-Torres, G. Shved, R. O. Manuilova, A. A. Kutepov, O. Gusev, T. von Clarmann, A. Linden, G. Stiller, A. Wegner, H. Oelhaf, J.-M. Flaud, “Evaluation of non-LTE effects in MIPAS pressure, temperature and volume mixing ratio retrievals (non-NLE study),” (European Space Agency, Paris, 1996).

Linden, A.

M. López-Puertas, G. Zaragoza, M. López-Valverde, F. J. Martín-Torres, G. Shved, R. O. Manuilova, A. A. Kutepov, O. Gusev, T. von Clarmann, A. Linden, G. Stiller, A. Wegner, H. Oelhaf, J.-M. Flaud, “Evaluation of non-LTE effects in MIPAS pressure, temperature and volume mixing ratio retrievals (non-NLE study),” (European Space Agency, Paris, 1996).

T. von Clarmann, A. Dudhia, G. Echle, J.-M. Flaud, C. Harrold, B. Kerridge, A. Koutoulaki, A. Linden, M. López-Puertas, M. Á. López-Valverde, F. J. Martín-Torres, J. Reburn, J. Remedios, C. D. Rodgers, R. Siddans, R. J. Wells, G. Zaragoza, “Study on the simulation of atmospheric infrared spectra,” (European Space Agency, Paris, 1998).

T. von Clarmann, A. Linden, G. Echle, A. Wegner, H. Fischer, “Retrieval of pressure and temperature from MIPAS-ENVISAT limb emission spectra,” in Satellite Remote Sensing and Modeling of Clouds and the Atmosphere, J. Fischer, ed., Proc. SPIE2961, 128–135 (1996).
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T. von Clarmann, A. Linden, G. Echle, A. Wegner, H. Fischer, M. López-Puertas, “The retrieval of pressure and temperature from MIPAS-ENVISAT limb emission spectra,” in IRS ’96: Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation, W. L. Smith, K. Stamnes, eds., (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1997), pp. 557–560.

T. von Clarmann, A. Linden, G. Echle, “The retrieval of pressure and temperature from MIPAS limb emission spectra,” tech. rep., final rep. of ESA purchase order 142957 (European Space Agency, Paris, 1995).

López-Puertas, M.

D. P. Edwards, M. López-Puertas, M. Á. López-Valverde, “Non-local thermodynamic equilibrium studies of the 15 µm bands of CO2 for atmospheric remote sensing,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 14,955–14,977 (1993).
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T. von Clarmann, A. Linden, G. Echle, A. Wegner, H. Fischer, M. López-Puertas, “The retrieval of pressure and temperature from MIPAS-ENVISAT limb emission spectra,” in IRS ’96: Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation, W. L. Smith, K. Stamnes, eds., (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1997), pp. 557–560.

M. López-Puertas, G. Zaragoza, M. López-Valverde, F. J. Martín-Torres, G. Shved, R. O. Manuilova, A. A. Kutepov, O. Gusev, T. von Clarmann, A. Linden, G. Stiller, A. Wegner, H. Oelhaf, J.-M. Flaud, “Evaluation of non-LTE effects in MIPAS pressure, temperature and volume mixing ratio retrievals (non-NLE study),” (European Space Agency, Paris, 1996).

T. von Clarmann, A. Dudhia, G. Echle, J.-M. Flaud, C. Harrold, B. Kerridge, A. Koutoulaki, A. Linden, M. López-Puertas, M. Á. López-Valverde, F. J. Martín-Torres, J. Reburn, J. Remedios, C. D. Rodgers, R. Siddans, R. J. Wells, G. Zaragoza, “Study on the simulation of atmospheric infrared spectra,” (European Space Agency, Paris, 1998).

López-Valverde, M.

M. López-Puertas, G. Zaragoza, M. López-Valverde, F. J. Martín-Torres, G. Shved, R. O. Manuilova, A. A. Kutepov, O. Gusev, T. von Clarmann, A. Linden, G. Stiller, A. Wegner, H. Oelhaf, J.-M. Flaud, “Evaluation of non-LTE effects in MIPAS pressure, temperature and volume mixing ratio retrievals (non-NLE study),” (European Space Agency, Paris, 1996).

López-Valverde, M. Á.

D. P. Edwards, M. López-Puertas, M. Á. López-Valverde, “Non-local thermodynamic equilibrium studies of the 15 µm bands of CO2 for atmospheric remote sensing,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 14,955–14,977 (1993).
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T. von Clarmann, A. Dudhia, G. Echle, J.-M. Flaud, C. Harrold, B. Kerridge, A. Koutoulaki, A. Linden, M. López-Puertas, M. Á. López-Valverde, F. J. Martín-Torres, J. Reburn, J. Remedios, C. D. Rodgers, R. Siddans, R. J. Wells, G. Zaragoza, “Study on the simulation of atmospheric infrared spectra,” (European Space Agency, Paris, 1998).

Mandin, J.-Y.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
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Manuilova, R. O.

M. López-Puertas, G. Zaragoza, M. López-Valverde, F. J. Martín-Torres, G. Shved, R. O. Manuilova, A. A. Kutepov, O. Gusev, T. von Clarmann, A. Linden, G. Stiller, A. Wegner, H. Oelhaf, J.-M. Flaud, “Evaluation of non-LTE effects in MIPAS pressure, temperature and volume mixing ratio retrievals (non-NLE study),” (European Space Agency, Paris, 1996).

Martín-Torres, F. J.

T. von Clarmann, A. Dudhia, G. Echle, J.-M. Flaud, C. Harrold, B. Kerridge, A. Koutoulaki, A. Linden, M. López-Puertas, M. Á. López-Valverde, F. J. Martín-Torres, J. Reburn, J. Remedios, C. D. Rodgers, R. Siddans, R. J. Wells, G. Zaragoza, “Study on the simulation of atmospheric infrared spectra,” (European Space Agency, Paris, 1998).

M. López-Puertas, G. Zaragoza, M. López-Valverde, F. J. Martín-Torres, G. Shved, R. O. Manuilova, A. A. Kutepov, O. Gusev, T. von Clarmann, A. Linden, G. Stiller, A. Wegner, H. Oelhaf, J.-M. Flaud, “Evaluation of non-LTE effects in MIPAS pressure, temperature and volume mixing ratio retrievals (non-NLE study),” (European Space Agency, Paris, 1996).

Massie, T.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
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McCann, A.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
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Morris, P. E.

Nemtchinov, V.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
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Oelhaf, H.

G. Echle, H. Oelhaf, A. Wegner, “On the potential of I.R. limb emission spectroscopy for the measurement of the stratospheric composition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 253–265 (1994).
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G. Echle, H. Oelhaf, A. Wegner, “Measurement of atmospheric parameters with MIPAS,” (European Space Agency, Paris, 1992).

M. López-Puertas, G. Zaragoza, M. López-Valverde, F. J. Martín-Torres, G. Shved, R. O. Manuilova, A. A. Kutepov, O. Gusev, T. von Clarmann, A. Linden, G. Stiller, A. Wegner, H. Oelhaf, J.-M. Flaud, “Evaluation of non-LTE effects in MIPAS pressure, temperature and volume mixing ratio retrievals (non-NLE study),” (European Space Agency, Paris, 1996).

G. Echle, H. Oelhaf, T. von Clarmann, M. Schmidt, “Definition of spectral intervals for the retrieval of trace gas concentrations from MIPAS limb emission spectra,” (European Space Agency, Paris, 1995).

G. P. Adrian, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, H. Oelhaf, “Trace gas measurements with the ground-based MIPAS experiment during the arctic winters 1990 to 1992,” in IRS ’92: Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation, S. Keevallik, O. Kärner, eds. (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1993), pp. 359–362.

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
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Raspollini, P.

Reburn, J.

T. von Clarmann, A. Dudhia, G. Echle, J.-M. Flaud, C. Harrold, B. Kerridge, A. Koutoulaki, A. Linden, M. López-Puertas, M. Á. López-Valverde, F. J. Martín-Torres, J. Reburn, J. Remedios, C. D. Rodgers, R. Siddans, R. J. Wells, G. Zaragoza, “Study on the simulation of atmospheric infrared spectra,” (European Space Agency, Paris, 1998).

Remedios, J.

T. von Clarmann, A. Dudhia, G. Echle, J.-M. Flaud, C. Harrold, B. Kerridge, A. Koutoulaki, A. Linden, M. López-Puertas, M. Á. López-Valverde, F. J. Martín-Torres, J. Reburn, J. Remedios, C. D. Rodgers, R. Siddans, R. J. Wells, G. Zaragoza, “Study on the simulation of atmospheric infrared spectra,” (European Space Agency, Paris, 1998).

Remedios, J. J.

J. J. Remedios, “Extreme atmospheric constituent profiles for MIPAS,” in Proceedings of the European Symposium on Atmospheric Measurements from Space, ESAMS’99, (European Space Agency, Paris, 1999), pp. 779–782.

Ridolfi, M.

Rinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rodgers, C. D.

C. D. Rodgers, “Information content and optimisation of high spectral resolution remote measurements,” Adv. Space Res. 21, 361–367 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. L. Bennett, A. Dudhia, C. D. Rodgers, “Microwindow selection for MIPAS using information content,” in Proceedings of the European Symposium on Atmospheric Measurements from Space, ESAMS ’99 (European Space Agency, Munich, 1999), pp. 265–270.

T. von Clarmann, A. Dudhia, G. Echle, J.-M. Flaud, C. Harrold, B. Kerridge, A. Koutoulaki, A. Linden, M. López-Puertas, M. Á. López-Valverde, F. J. Martín-Torres, J. Reburn, J. Remedios, C. D. Rodgers, R. Siddans, R. J. Wells, G. Zaragoza, “Study on the simulation of atmospheric infrared spectra,” (European Space Agency, Paris, 1998).

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, M.

G. Echle, H. Oelhaf, T. von Clarmann, M. Schmidt, “Definition of spectral intervals for the retrieval of trace gas concentrations from MIPAS limb emission spectra,” (European Space Agency, Paris, 1995).

Schroeder, J.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shannon, C. E.

C. E. Shannon, W. Weaver, The Mathematical Theory of Communication (U. Illinois Press, Champaign, Ill., 1949).

Shettle, E. P.

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, G. P. Anderson, “Atmospheric radiance and transmittance: FASCOD2,” in Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Atmospheric Radiation (American Meteorological Society, Boston, Mass., 1986), pp. 141–146.

Shved, G.

M. López-Puertas, G. Zaragoza, M. López-Valverde, F. J. Martín-Torres, G. Shved, R. O. Manuilova, A. A. Kutepov, O. Gusev, T. von Clarmann, A. Linden, G. Stiller, A. Wegner, H. Oelhaf, J.-M. Flaud, “Evaluation of non-LTE effects in MIPAS pressure, temperature and volume mixing ratio retrievals (non-NLE study),” (European Space Agency, Paris, 1996).

Siddans, R.

T. von Clarmann, A. Dudhia, G. Echle, J.-M. Flaud, C. Harrold, B. Kerridge, A. Koutoulaki, A. Linden, M. López-Puertas, M. Á. López-Valverde, F. J. Martín-Torres, J. Reburn, J. Remedios, C. D. Rodgers, R. Siddans, R. J. Wells, G. Zaragoza, “Study on the simulation of atmospheric infrared spectra,” (European Space Agency, Paris, 1998).

Stiller, G.

M. Ridolfi, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, B. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. Höpfner, P. E. Morris, P. Raspollini, G. Stiller, R. J. Wells, “Optimized forward model and retrieval scheme for MIPAS near-real-time data processing,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1323–1340 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. López-Puertas, G. Zaragoza, M. López-Valverde, F. J. Martín-Torres, G. Shved, R. O. Manuilova, A. A. Kutepov, O. Gusev, T. von Clarmann, A. Linden, G. Stiller, A. Wegner, H. Oelhaf, J.-M. Flaud, “Evaluation of non-LTE effects in MIPAS pressure, temperature and volume mixing ratio retrievals (non-NLE study),” (European Space Agency, Paris, 1996).

Stiller, G. P.

G. P. Stiller, M. Höpfner, M. Kuntz, T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, H. Fischer, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, F. Hase, H. Kemnitzer, S. Zorn, “The Karlsruhe optimized and precise radiative transfer algorithm. I. Requirements, justification, and model error estimation,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds AE01, J. Wang, B. Wu, T. Ogawa, Z. Guan, eds., Proc. SPIE3501, 257–268 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Höpfner, G. P. Stiller, M. Kuntz, T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, F. Hase, H. Kemnitzer, S. Zorn, “The Karlsruhe optimized and precise radiative transfer algorithm. Part II: Interface to retrieval applications,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds AE01, J. Wang, B. Wu, T. Ogawa, Z. Guan, eds., Proc. SPIE3501, 186–195 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Kuntz, M. Höpfner, G. P. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, F. Hase, H. Kemnitzer, S. Zorn, “The Karlsruhe optimized and precise radiative transfer algorithm. III. ADDLIN and TRANSF algorithms for modeling spectral transmittance and radiance,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds AE01, J. Wang, B. Wu, T. Ogawa, Z. Guan, eds., Proc. SPIE3501, 247–256 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Varanasi, P.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wattson, R. B.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Weaver, W.

C. E. Shannon, W. Weaver, The Mathematical Theory of Communication (U. Illinois Press, Champaign, Ill., 1949).

Wegner, A.

G. Echle, H. Oelhaf, A. Wegner, “On the potential of I.R. limb emission spectroscopy for the measurement of the stratospheric composition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 253–265 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. Echle, H. Oelhaf, A. Wegner, “Measurement of atmospheric parameters with MIPAS,” (European Space Agency, Paris, 1992).

M. López-Puertas, G. Zaragoza, M. López-Valverde, F. J. Martín-Torres, G. Shved, R. O. Manuilova, A. A. Kutepov, O. Gusev, T. von Clarmann, A. Linden, G. Stiller, A. Wegner, H. Oelhaf, J.-M. Flaud, “Evaluation of non-LTE effects in MIPAS pressure, temperature and volume mixing ratio retrievals (non-NLE study),” (European Space Agency, Paris, 1996).

T. von Clarmann, A. Linden, G. Echle, A. Wegner, H. Fischer, “Retrieval of pressure and temperature from MIPAS-ENVISAT limb emission spectra,” in Satellite Remote Sensing and Modeling of Clouds and the Atmosphere, J. Fischer, ed., Proc. SPIE2961, 128–135 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. von Clarmann, A. Linden, G. Echle, A. Wegner, H. Fischer, M. López-Puertas, “The retrieval of pressure and temperature from MIPAS-ENVISAT limb emission spectra,” in IRS ’96: Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation, W. L. Smith, K. Stamnes, eds., (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1997), pp. 557–560.

Wells, R. J.

M. Ridolfi, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, B. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. Höpfner, P. E. Morris, P. Raspollini, G. Stiller, R. J. Wells, “Optimized forward model and retrieval scheme for MIPAS near-real-time data processing,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1323–1340 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. von Clarmann, A. Dudhia, G. Echle, J.-M. Flaud, C. Harrold, B. Kerridge, A. Koutoulaki, A. Linden, M. López-Puertas, M. Á. López-Valverde, F. J. Martín-Torres, J. Reburn, J. Remedios, C. D. Rodgers, R. Siddans, R. J. Wells, G. Zaragoza, “Study on the simulation of atmospheric infrared spectra,” (European Space Agency, Paris, 1998).

Yoshino, K.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zaragoza, G.

T. von Clarmann, A. Dudhia, G. Echle, J.-M. Flaud, C. Harrold, B. Kerridge, A. Koutoulaki, A. Linden, M. López-Puertas, M. Á. López-Valverde, F. J. Martín-Torres, J. Reburn, J. Remedios, C. D. Rodgers, R. Siddans, R. J. Wells, G. Zaragoza, “Study on the simulation of atmospheric infrared spectra,” (European Space Agency, Paris, 1998).

M. López-Puertas, G. Zaragoza, M. López-Valverde, F. J. Martín-Torres, G. Shved, R. O. Manuilova, A. A. Kutepov, O. Gusev, T. von Clarmann, A. Linden, G. Stiller, A. Wegner, H. Oelhaf, J.-M. Flaud, “Evaluation of non-LTE effects in MIPAS pressure, temperature and volume mixing ratio retrievals (non-NLE study),” (European Space Agency, Paris, 1996).

Zorn, S.

M. Kuntz, M. Höpfner, G. P. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, F. Hase, H. Kemnitzer, S. Zorn, “The Karlsruhe optimized and precise radiative transfer algorithm. III. ADDLIN and TRANSF algorithms for modeling spectral transmittance and radiance,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds AE01, J. Wang, B. Wu, T. Ogawa, Z. Guan, eds., Proc. SPIE3501, 247–256 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Höpfner, G. P. Stiller, M. Kuntz, T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, F. Hase, H. Kemnitzer, S. Zorn, “The Karlsruhe optimized and precise radiative transfer algorithm. Part II: Interface to retrieval applications,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds AE01, J. Wang, B. Wu, T. Ogawa, Z. Guan, eds., Proc. SPIE3501, 186–195 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Stiller, M. Höpfner, M. Kuntz, T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, H. Fischer, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, F. Hase, H. Kemnitzer, S. Zorn, “The Karlsruhe optimized and precise radiative transfer algorithm. I. Requirements, justification, and model error estimation,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds AE01, J. Wang, B. Wu, T. Ogawa, Z. Guan, eds., Proc. SPIE3501, 257–268 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Space Res. (1)

C. D. Rodgers, “Information content and optimisation of high spectral resolution remote measurements,” Adv. Space Res. 21, 361–367 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

ESA Bull. (1)

M. Endemann, H. Fischer, “Envisat’s high-resolution limb sounder: mipas,” ESA Bull. 76, 47–52 (1993).

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

D. P. Edwards, M. López-Puertas, M. Á. López-Valverde, “Non-local thermodynamic equilibrium studies of the 15 µm bands of CO2 for atmospheric remote sensing,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 14,955–14,977 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (2)

G. Echle, H. Oelhaf, A. Wegner, “On the potential of I.R. limb emission spectroscopy for the measurement of the stratospheric composition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 253–265 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (17)

V. L. Bennett, A. Dudhia, C. D. Rodgers, “Microwindow selection for MIPAS using information content,” in Proceedings of the European Symposium on Atmospheric Measurements from Space, ESAMS ’99 (European Space Agency, Munich, 1999), pp. 265–270.

C. E. Shannon, W. Weaver, The Mathematical Theory of Communication (U. Illinois Press, Champaign, Ill., 1949).

G. Echle, H. Oelhaf, A. Wegner, “Measurement of atmospheric parameters with MIPAS,” (European Space Agency, Paris, 1992).

J. J. Remedios, “Extreme atmospheric constituent profiles for MIPAS,” in Proceedings of the European Symposium on Atmospheric Measurements from Space, ESAMS’99, (European Space Agency, Paris, 1999), pp. 779–782.

T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, “The Karlsruhe Occupation Matrix Algorithm (KOMA),” (European Space Agency, Paris, 1998).

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, G. P. Anderson, “Atmospheric radiance and transmittance: FASCOD2,” in Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Atmospheric Radiation (American Meteorological Society, Boston, Mass., 1986), pp. 141–146.

G. P. Adrian, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, H. Oelhaf, “Trace gas measurements with the ground-based MIPAS experiment during the arctic winters 1990 to 1992,” in IRS ’92: Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation, S. Keevallik, O. Kärner, eds. (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1993), pp. 359–362.

G. P. Stiller, M. Höpfner, M. Kuntz, T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, H. Fischer, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, F. Hase, H. Kemnitzer, S. Zorn, “The Karlsruhe optimized and precise radiative transfer algorithm. I. Requirements, justification, and model error estimation,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds AE01, J. Wang, B. Wu, T. Ogawa, Z. Guan, eds., Proc. SPIE3501, 257–268 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Höpfner, G. P. Stiller, M. Kuntz, T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, F. Hase, H. Kemnitzer, S. Zorn, “The Karlsruhe optimized and precise radiative transfer algorithm. Part II: Interface to retrieval applications,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds AE01, J. Wang, B. Wu, T. Ogawa, Z. Guan, eds., Proc. SPIE3501, 186–195 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Kuntz, M. Höpfner, G. P. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, F. Hase, H. Kemnitzer, S. Zorn, “The Karlsruhe optimized and precise radiative transfer algorithm. III. ADDLIN and TRANSF algorithms for modeling spectral transmittance and radiance,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds AE01, J. Wang, B. Wu, T. Ogawa, Z. Guan, eds., Proc. SPIE3501, 247–256 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Beer, T. A. Glavich, “Remote sensing of the troposphere by infrared emission spectroscopy,” in Advanced Optical Instrumentation for Remote Sensing of the Earth’s Surface from Space, G. Duchossois, F. L. Herr, R. Zander, eds., Proc. SPIE1129, 42–51 (1989).
[CrossRef]

G. Echle, H. Oelhaf, T. von Clarmann, M. Schmidt, “Definition of spectral intervals for the retrieval of trace gas concentrations from MIPAS limb emission spectra,” (European Space Agency, Paris, 1995).

T. von Clarmann, A. Linden, G. Echle, “The retrieval of pressure and temperature from MIPAS limb emission spectra,” tech. rep., final rep. of ESA purchase order 142957 (European Space Agency, Paris, 1995).

T. von Clarmann, A. Linden, G. Echle, A. Wegner, H. Fischer, M. López-Puertas, “The retrieval of pressure and temperature from MIPAS-ENVISAT limb emission spectra,” in IRS ’96: Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation, W. L. Smith, K. Stamnes, eds., (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1997), pp. 557–560.

T. von Clarmann, A. Linden, G. Echle, A. Wegner, H. Fischer, “Retrieval of pressure and temperature from MIPAS-ENVISAT limb emission spectra,” in Satellite Remote Sensing and Modeling of Clouds and the Atmosphere, J. Fischer, ed., Proc. SPIE2961, 128–135 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. López-Puertas, G. Zaragoza, M. López-Valverde, F. J. Martín-Torres, G. Shved, R. O. Manuilova, A. A. Kutepov, O. Gusev, T. von Clarmann, A. Linden, G. Stiller, A. Wegner, H. Oelhaf, J.-M. Flaud, “Evaluation of non-LTE effects in MIPAS pressure, temperature and volume mixing ratio retrievals (non-NLE study),” (European Space Agency, Paris, 1996).

T. von Clarmann, A. Dudhia, G. Echle, J.-M. Flaud, C. Harrold, B. Kerridge, A. Koutoulaki, A. Linden, M. López-Puertas, M. Á. López-Valverde, F. J. Martín-Torres, J. Reburn, J. Remedios, C. D. Rodgers, R. Siddans, R. J. Wells, G. Zaragoza, “Study on the simulation of atmospheric infrared spectra,” (European Space Agency, Paris, 1998).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optimized microwindows for CH4 VMR retrieval. Each horizontal bar represents a single microwindow, with shading within that bar indicating ranges of estimated retrieval error: gray shading, less than 20%; dense hatching, less than 40%; sparse hatching, less than 100%; open bars, more than 100%.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Consolidated microwindows for CH4 VMR retrieval. Black bars represent spectral grid points included (for details see text).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Error estimates (left) and masks of true grid points (right) for a H2O main microwindow at 1416.825–1419.800 cm-1. Black bars represent spectral grid points included. Systematic errors include all errors except random noise and nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium error (nonite error).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Error estimates (left) and number of grid points used (right) for H2O occupation matrices: costfct, cost function; nonite error, nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium error.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Error estimates (left) and number of grid points used for CH4 occupation matrices for first generation (1st gener. mwbase) and FAD microwindows (FAD mwbase); nonite error, nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium error.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Sample Occupation Matrix of CH4 Microwindowsa

Tables Icon

Table 2 Average Line-Reduction Efficiency for the Six Target Gases, Database Version 1998

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Stotal,nmax=n=1nmaxSx,n-1-1+j=1jmaxn=1nmaxSx,n-1-1n=1nmaxSx,n-1Δxj,nn=1nmaxSx,n-1-1n=1nmaxSx,n-1Δxj,nτ+n=1nmaxSx,n-1-1n=1nmaxSx,n-1l=1lmax Δxl,nn=1nmaxSx,n-1-1n=1nmaxSx,n-1l=1lmax Δxl,nτ,
cn=un×gn+a,
L=BT1×1-exp-k1T1, p1×M1×exp-k2T2, p2×M2+BT2×1-exp-k2T2, p2×M2,

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