Abstract

A compact antiresonant-reflecting-optical-waveguide- (ARROW-) type vertical coupler for three-dimensional optical interconnects was demonstrated. The coupler consists of stacked ARROW’s channeled by the stripe lateral confinement structure, and each waveguide is completely separated by a thin metal film in the separation region. In the coupling region the intermediate cladding of a previous coupler was made of the same material as that of the first cladding or the core. However, we had to overcome the problem that both the high coupling efficiency and the large fabrication tolerance cannot be achieved simultaneously. Thus we incorporated an intermediate cladding made of a material different from that of the core and the first cladding. The refractive index and the thickness of the intermediate cladding were optimally designed to achieve large fabrication tolerance and a short coupling length with a high coupling efficiency. The coupling length was reduced from 4.1 to 0.8 mm, and a high coupling efficiency of 96% was experimentally demonstrated.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. A. Duguay, Y. Kokubun, T. L. Koch, L. Pfeiffer, “Antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides in SiO2–Si multi-layer structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 13–15 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  2. B. Pezeshki, F. F. Tong, J. A. Kash, D. W. Kisker, “Vertical cavity devices as wavelength selective waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1791–1801 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Baba, Y. Kokubun, T. Sasaki, K. Iga, “Loss reduction of an ARROW waveguide in shorter wavelength and its stack configuration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1440–1445 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Mann, U. Trustshel, C. Wächter, L. Leine, F. Lederer, “Directional coupler based on an antiresonant refracting optical waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 16, 805–807 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. B. Pezeshki, J. A. Kash, D. W. Kisker, F. Tong, “Multiple wavelength light source using an asymmetric waveguide coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 138–140 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  6. U. Trutshel, F. Ouellette, V. Delisle, M. A. Duguay, G. Fogarty, F. Lederer, “Polarization splitter based on antiresonant reflecting optical waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 239–243 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Asakawa, Y. Kokubun, M. Ohyama, T. Baba, “Three-dimensional optical interconnects by stacked ARROW waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1485–1486 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Ohyama, Y. Kokubun, E. Ohta, “Compact three-dimensional optical interconnects with large tolerance by stacked ARROW-type waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 30, 951–952 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. T. Chu, Y. Kokubun, M. Miura, “Versatile stacked ARROW crossconnects for three-dimensional optical interconnects,” Electron. Lett. 31, 33–35 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Ikuta, S. Kubota, W. Pan, S. T. Chu, Y. Kokubun, “Stacked ARROW vertical coupler with large tolerance and short coupling length for three-dimensional interconnects,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1851–1852 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. Baba, Y. Kokubun, Y. Mera, “Novel 3-D ARROW by thin film patterning: stripe lateral confinement of ARROW,” in Integrated Guided Wave Optics, Vol. 4 of 1989 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), paper TuBB5.

1998 (1)

S. Ikuta, S. Kubota, W. Pan, S. T. Chu, Y. Kokubun, “Stacked ARROW vertical coupler with large tolerance and short coupling length for three-dimensional interconnects,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1851–1852 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

U. Trutshel, F. Ouellette, V. Delisle, M. A. Duguay, G. Fogarty, F. Lederer, “Polarization splitter based on antiresonant reflecting optical waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 239–243 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (4)

M. Ohyama, Y. Kokubun, E. Ohta, “Compact three-dimensional optical interconnects with large tolerance by stacked ARROW-type waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 30, 951–952 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Chu, Y. Kokubun, M. Miura, “Versatile stacked ARROW crossconnects for three-dimensional optical interconnects,” Electron. Lett. 31, 33–35 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. Pezeshki, F. F. Tong, J. A. Kash, D. W. Kisker, “Vertical cavity devices as wavelength selective waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1791–1801 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. Pezeshki, J. A. Kash, D. W. Kisker, F. Tong, “Multiple wavelength light source using an asymmetric waveguide coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 138–140 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

S. Asakawa, Y. Kokubun, M. Ohyama, T. Baba, “Three-dimensional optical interconnects by stacked ARROW waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1485–1486 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

1988 (1)

T. Baba, Y. Kokubun, T. Sasaki, K. Iga, “Loss reduction of an ARROW waveguide in shorter wavelength and its stack configuration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1440–1445 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

M. A. Duguay, Y. Kokubun, T. L. Koch, L. Pfeiffer, “Antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides in SiO2–Si multi-layer structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 13–15 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Asakawa, S.

S. Asakawa, Y. Kokubun, M. Ohyama, T. Baba, “Three-dimensional optical interconnects by stacked ARROW waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1485–1486 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Baba, T.

S. Asakawa, Y. Kokubun, M. Ohyama, T. Baba, “Three-dimensional optical interconnects by stacked ARROW waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1485–1486 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Baba, Y. Kokubun, T. Sasaki, K. Iga, “Loss reduction of an ARROW waveguide in shorter wavelength and its stack configuration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1440–1445 (1988).
[CrossRef]

T. Baba, Y. Kokubun, Y. Mera, “Novel 3-D ARROW by thin film patterning: stripe lateral confinement of ARROW,” in Integrated Guided Wave Optics, Vol. 4 of 1989 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), paper TuBB5.

Chu, S. T.

S. Ikuta, S. Kubota, W. Pan, S. T. Chu, Y. Kokubun, “Stacked ARROW vertical coupler with large tolerance and short coupling length for three-dimensional interconnects,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1851–1852 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Chu, Y. Kokubun, M. Miura, “Versatile stacked ARROW crossconnects for three-dimensional optical interconnects,” Electron. Lett. 31, 33–35 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Delisle, V.

U. Trutshel, F. Ouellette, V. Delisle, M. A. Duguay, G. Fogarty, F. Lederer, “Polarization splitter based on antiresonant reflecting optical waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 239–243 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Duguay, M. A.

U. Trutshel, F. Ouellette, V. Delisle, M. A. Duguay, G. Fogarty, F. Lederer, “Polarization splitter based on antiresonant reflecting optical waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 239–243 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Duguay, Y. Kokubun, T. L. Koch, L. Pfeiffer, “Antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides in SiO2–Si multi-layer structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 13–15 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Fogarty, G.

U. Trutshel, F. Ouellette, V. Delisle, M. A. Duguay, G. Fogarty, F. Lederer, “Polarization splitter based on antiresonant reflecting optical waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 239–243 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Iga, K.

T. Baba, Y. Kokubun, T. Sasaki, K. Iga, “Loss reduction of an ARROW waveguide in shorter wavelength and its stack configuration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1440–1445 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ikuta, S.

S. Ikuta, S. Kubota, W. Pan, S. T. Chu, Y. Kokubun, “Stacked ARROW vertical coupler with large tolerance and short coupling length for three-dimensional interconnects,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1851–1852 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kash, J. A.

B. Pezeshki, F. F. Tong, J. A. Kash, D. W. Kisker, “Vertical cavity devices as wavelength selective waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1791–1801 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. Pezeshki, J. A. Kash, D. W. Kisker, F. Tong, “Multiple wavelength light source using an asymmetric waveguide coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 138–140 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kisker, D. W.

B. Pezeshki, J. A. Kash, D. W. Kisker, F. Tong, “Multiple wavelength light source using an asymmetric waveguide coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 138–140 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. Pezeshki, F. F. Tong, J. A. Kash, D. W. Kisker, “Vertical cavity devices as wavelength selective waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1791–1801 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Koch, T. L.

M. A. Duguay, Y. Kokubun, T. L. Koch, L. Pfeiffer, “Antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides in SiO2–Si multi-layer structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 13–15 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Kokubun, Y.

S. Ikuta, S. Kubota, W. Pan, S. T. Chu, Y. Kokubun, “Stacked ARROW vertical coupler with large tolerance and short coupling length for three-dimensional interconnects,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1851–1852 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Chu, Y. Kokubun, M. Miura, “Versatile stacked ARROW crossconnects for three-dimensional optical interconnects,” Electron. Lett. 31, 33–35 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Ohyama, Y. Kokubun, E. Ohta, “Compact three-dimensional optical interconnects with large tolerance by stacked ARROW-type waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 30, 951–952 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Asakawa, Y. Kokubun, M. Ohyama, T. Baba, “Three-dimensional optical interconnects by stacked ARROW waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1485–1486 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Baba, Y. Kokubun, T. Sasaki, K. Iga, “Loss reduction of an ARROW waveguide in shorter wavelength and its stack configuration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1440–1445 (1988).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Duguay, Y. Kokubun, T. L. Koch, L. Pfeiffer, “Antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides in SiO2–Si multi-layer structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 13–15 (1986).
[CrossRef]

T. Baba, Y. Kokubun, Y. Mera, “Novel 3-D ARROW by thin film patterning: stripe lateral confinement of ARROW,” in Integrated Guided Wave Optics, Vol. 4 of 1989 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), paper TuBB5.

Kubota, S.

S. Ikuta, S. Kubota, W. Pan, S. T. Chu, Y. Kokubun, “Stacked ARROW vertical coupler with large tolerance and short coupling length for three-dimensional interconnects,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1851–1852 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lederer, F.

U. Trutshel, F. Ouellette, V. Delisle, M. A. Duguay, G. Fogarty, F. Lederer, “Polarization splitter based on antiresonant reflecting optical waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 239–243 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Mann, U. Trustshel, C. Wächter, L. Leine, F. Lederer, “Directional coupler based on an antiresonant refracting optical waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 16, 805–807 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leine, L.

Mann, M.

Mera, Y.

T. Baba, Y. Kokubun, Y. Mera, “Novel 3-D ARROW by thin film patterning: stripe lateral confinement of ARROW,” in Integrated Guided Wave Optics, Vol. 4 of 1989 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), paper TuBB5.

Miura, M.

S. T. Chu, Y. Kokubun, M. Miura, “Versatile stacked ARROW crossconnects for three-dimensional optical interconnects,” Electron. Lett. 31, 33–35 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ohta, E.

M. Ohyama, Y. Kokubun, E. Ohta, “Compact three-dimensional optical interconnects with large tolerance by stacked ARROW-type waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 30, 951–952 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ohyama, M.

M. Ohyama, Y. Kokubun, E. Ohta, “Compact three-dimensional optical interconnects with large tolerance by stacked ARROW-type waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 30, 951–952 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Asakawa, Y. Kokubun, M. Ohyama, T. Baba, “Three-dimensional optical interconnects by stacked ARROW waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1485–1486 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ouellette, F.

U. Trutshel, F. Ouellette, V. Delisle, M. A. Duguay, G. Fogarty, F. Lederer, “Polarization splitter based on antiresonant reflecting optical waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 239–243 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pan, W.

S. Ikuta, S. Kubota, W. Pan, S. T. Chu, Y. Kokubun, “Stacked ARROW vertical coupler with large tolerance and short coupling length for three-dimensional interconnects,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1851–1852 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pezeshki, B.

B. Pezeshki, J. A. Kash, D. W. Kisker, F. Tong, “Multiple wavelength light source using an asymmetric waveguide coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 138–140 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. Pezeshki, F. F. Tong, J. A. Kash, D. W. Kisker, “Vertical cavity devices as wavelength selective waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1791–1801 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pfeiffer, L.

M. A. Duguay, Y. Kokubun, T. L. Koch, L. Pfeiffer, “Antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides in SiO2–Si multi-layer structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 13–15 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, T.

T. Baba, Y. Kokubun, T. Sasaki, K. Iga, “Loss reduction of an ARROW waveguide in shorter wavelength and its stack configuration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1440–1445 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Tong, F.

B. Pezeshki, J. A. Kash, D. W. Kisker, F. Tong, “Multiple wavelength light source using an asymmetric waveguide coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 138–140 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tong, F. F.

B. Pezeshki, F. F. Tong, J. A. Kash, D. W. Kisker, “Vertical cavity devices as wavelength selective waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1791–1801 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Trustshel, U.

Trutshel, U.

U. Trutshel, F. Ouellette, V. Delisle, M. A. Duguay, G. Fogarty, F. Lederer, “Polarization splitter based on antiresonant reflecting optical waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 239–243 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wächter, C.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

M. A. Duguay, Y. Kokubun, T. L. Koch, L. Pfeiffer, “Antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides in SiO2–Si multi-layer structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 13–15 (1986).
[CrossRef]

B. Pezeshki, J. A. Kash, D. W. Kisker, F. Tong, “Multiple wavelength light source using an asymmetric waveguide coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 138–140 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (4)

S. Asakawa, Y. Kokubun, M. Ohyama, T. Baba, “Three-dimensional optical interconnects by stacked ARROW waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1485–1486 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Ohyama, Y. Kokubun, E. Ohta, “Compact three-dimensional optical interconnects with large tolerance by stacked ARROW-type waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 30, 951–952 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Chu, Y. Kokubun, M. Miura, “Versatile stacked ARROW crossconnects for three-dimensional optical interconnects,” Electron. Lett. 31, 33–35 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Ikuta, S. Kubota, W. Pan, S. T. Chu, Y. Kokubun, “Stacked ARROW vertical coupler with large tolerance and short coupling length for three-dimensional interconnects,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1851–1852 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

B. Pezeshki, F. F. Tong, J. A. Kash, D. W. Kisker, “Vertical cavity devices as wavelength selective waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1791–1801 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Baba, Y. Kokubun, T. Sasaki, K. Iga, “Loss reduction of an ARROW waveguide in shorter wavelength and its stack configuration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1440–1445 (1988).
[CrossRef]

U. Trutshel, F. Ouellette, V. Delisle, M. A. Duguay, G. Fogarty, F. Lederer, “Polarization splitter based on antiresonant reflecting optical waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 239–243 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (1)

T. Baba, Y. Kokubun, Y. Mera, “Novel 3-D ARROW by thin film patterning: stripe lateral confinement of ARROW,” in Integrated Guided Wave Optics, Vol. 4 of 1989 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), paper TuBB5.

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Cross-sectional structure of stacked ARROW vertical coupler.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Effect of intermediate cladding on the modal field and propagation constant of each mode.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calculated fabrication tolerance of core thickness and index.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Calculated fabrication tolerance of intermediate cladding thickness.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Calculated coupling efficiency versus length of coupling region.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Result of analysis by beam propagation method. (a) Completely strong coupling structure, (b) this paper.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Lift-off process used for the planarization of waveguide surface.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Measured output ratio versus length of coupling region. (a) TE mode, (b) TM mode

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Definition of output powers and coupling efficiencies.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Wavelength dependence of output power ratio.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Cross-sectional view of the coupler. The unit of all numbers is micrometers. (a) Designed structure, (b) scanning electron microscope image of the device.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Observed near-field images at different lengths of coupling region.

Equations (1)

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R=ηcPcηcPc+ηtPt,

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