Abstract

The French Transportable Laser Ranging Station (FTLRS) is a highly mobile satellite laser ranging (SLR) system unit that weighs 300 kg and is housed in eight containers. This telemetry laser station is dedicated to the tracking of geodetic satellites equipped with retroreflectors. There are fascinating uses in the geosciences for such a system: in tectonics, oceanography, terrestrial reference frames, and precise positioning. The idea is to use a very small 13-cm-diameter telescope installed on a motorized mount and derived from a geodetic motorized theodolite of high precision. The laser is also compact, and the use of an avalanche photodiode makes detection possible at a single photoelectron level. On-site installation of this new SLR system is fast, and the system’s routine operation is quite automated. It started its operational phase in late 1996. At present, it can track satellites at altitudes of as much as 3000 km and is designed to range to the Laser Geodynamic Earth Orientation Satellite (LAGEOS) at 6000 km in a further step. The standard error of individual measurements during the first observation campaign in Corsica is estimated to be of the order of 2–3 cm. Since then, significant improvements have been implemented. A technical description of the FTLRS is given, and the main results of the Corsica campaign are summarized.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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  8. P. Sperber, A. Boer, R. Dassing, H. Hase, W. Schlueter, R. Kilger, “TIGO project: concept, status, plans,” in Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Laser Ranging Instrumentation, Y. Fumin, C. Wanzhen, eds. (Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 1996), pp. 135–144.
  9. J. Degnan, J. McGarry, T. Zagwodzki, P. Titterton, H. Sweeney, H. Donovan, M. Perry, B. Conklin, W. Decker, J. Cheek, A. Mallama, P. Dunn, R. Ricklefs, “SLR2000: an inexpensive, fully automated, eyesafe satellite laser ranging system,” in Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Laser Ranging Instrumentation, Y. Fumin, C. Wanzhen, eds. (Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 1996), pp. 367–377.
  10. J. Bosworth, R. Coates, T. Fischeti, “The development of NASA’s Crustal Dynamics Project,” in Contributions to Geodynamics: Technology, D. E. Smith, D. L. Turcotte, eds., Vol. 25 of Geodynamics Series (American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 1–20.
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    [CrossRef]
  14. J. F. Crétaux, L. Soudarin, A. Cazenave, F. Bouillé, “Present-day tectonic plate motions and crustal deformations from the DORIS space system,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 30,167–30,181 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  15. At the First general meeting of the International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS), Deggendorf, Germany, 22 September 1998. Proceedings available on line from http://ilrs.gsfc.nasa.gov/9809_gen_minutes.html .
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  18. E. Samain, Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur, Avenue N. Copernic, F-06130 Grasse, France (personal communication, 1999).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  23. P. Bonnefond, P. Exertier, P. Schaeffer, S. Bruinsma, F. Barlier, “Satellite altimetry from a short-arc orbit technique: application to the Mediterranean,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 25,365–25,382 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  24. B. Haines, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, Calif. 91109-8099 (personal communication, 1996).
  25. M. Le Pape, Service Général du Nivellement, Groupe de Recherches de Geodesie Spatiale, 14 Avenue Edouard Belin, F-31400 Toulouse, France (personal communication, 1993).
  26. J. F. Crétaux, Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales, Institut Geographique National of France, 2 Avenue Pasteur, B.P. 68, F-94160 Saint Mandé, France (personal communication, 1996).
  27. E. J. Christensen, B. J. Haines, R. S. Nerem, “Calibration of TOPEX/Poseidon at platform Harvest,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 24,465–24,485 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  28. P. Bonnefond, P. Exertier, F. Barlier, “Geographically correlated errors determined from a laser-based short-arc technique,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 15,885–15,893 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  29. I. Prochazka, K. Hamal, B. Greene, “SPAD detectors for ranging with submillimeter bias,” in Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Laser Ranging Instrumentation, Y. Fumin, C. Wanzhen, eds., (Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 1996), pp. 287–292.

1999

P. Bonnefond, P. Exertier, F. Barlier, “Geographically correlated errors determined from a laser-based short-arc technique,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 15,885–15,893 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

E. Samain, P. Fridelance, “Time Transfer by Laser Link (T2L2) experiment on Mir,” Metrologia 35, 151–159 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Vermaat, J. Degnan, P. Dunn, R. Noomen, A. Sinclair, “Satellite laser ranging, status and impact for Wegener,” J. Geodynam. 25, 195–212 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Crétaux, L. Soudarin, A. Cazenave, F. Bouillé, “Present-day tectonic plate motions and crustal deformations from the DORIS space system,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 30,167–30,181 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

P. Schwintzer, Ch. Reigber, A. Bode, Z. Kang, S. Y. Zhu, F.-H. Massmann, J. C. Raimondo, R. Biancale, G. Balmino, J. M. Lemoine, B. Moynot, J. C. Marty, F. Barlier, Y. Boudon, “Long-wavelength global gravity field models: GRIM4–S4, GRIM4–C4,” J. Geod. 71, 189–208 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. Perosanz, J. C. Marty, G. Balmino, “Dynamic orbit determination and gravity field model improvement from GPS, DORIS and laser measurements on TOPEX/POSEIDON satellite,” J. Geod. 71, 160–170 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Fridelance, E. Samain, C. Veillet, “T2L2—Time Transfer by Laser Link: a new optical time transfer generation,” Exp. Astron. 7, 193–207 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

B. Barotto, J. P. Berthias, “First results of reduced dynamics with DORIS on TOPEX/Poseidon and SPOT,” J. Guidance Control Dynam. 19, 1296–1302 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

P. Bonnefond, P. Exertier, P. Schaeffer, S. Bruinsma, F. Barlier, “Satellite altimetry from a short-arc orbit technique: application to the Mediterranean,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 25,365–25,382 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Argus, M. Heflin, “Plate motion and crustal deformation estimated with geodetic data from the Global Positioning System,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1973–1976 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

E. J. Christensen, B. J. Haines, R. S. Nerem, “Calibration of TOPEX/Poseidon at platform Harvest,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 24,465–24,485 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Abele, M.

M. Abele, J. Balodis, A. Kalnis, A. Rubans, J. Vjaters, O. West, A. Zarinjsh “Portable satellite laser ranging system,” in Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Laser Ranging Instrumentation, J. Luck, ed. (Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 1994), pp. 160–166.

Argus, D.

D. Argus, M. Heflin, “Plate motion and crustal deformation estimated with geodetic data from the Global Positioning System,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1973–1976 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Balmino, G.

F. Perosanz, J. C. Marty, G. Balmino, “Dynamic orbit determination and gravity field model improvement from GPS, DORIS and laser measurements on TOPEX/POSEIDON satellite,” J. Geod. 71, 160–170 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Schwintzer, Ch. Reigber, A. Bode, Z. Kang, S. Y. Zhu, F.-H. Massmann, J. C. Raimondo, R. Biancale, G. Balmino, J. M. Lemoine, B. Moynot, J. C. Marty, F. Barlier, Y. Boudon, “Long-wavelength global gravity field models: GRIM4–S4, GRIM4–C4,” J. Geod. 71, 189–208 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Balodis, J.

M. Abele, J. Balodis, A. Kalnis, A. Rubans, J. Vjaters, O. West, A. Zarinjsh “Portable satellite laser ranging system,” in Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Laser Ranging Instrumentation, J. Luck, ed. (Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 1994), pp. 160–166.

Barlier, F.

P. Bonnefond, P. Exertier, F. Barlier, “Geographically correlated errors determined from a laser-based short-arc technique,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 15,885–15,893 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Schwintzer, Ch. Reigber, A. Bode, Z. Kang, S. Y. Zhu, F.-H. Massmann, J. C. Raimondo, R. Biancale, G. Balmino, J. M. Lemoine, B. Moynot, J. C. Marty, F. Barlier, Y. Boudon, “Long-wavelength global gravity field models: GRIM4–S4, GRIM4–C4,” J. Geod. 71, 189–208 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Bonnefond, P. Exertier, P. Schaeffer, S. Bruinsma, F. Barlier, “Satellite altimetry from a short-arc orbit technique: application to the Mediterranean,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 25,365–25,382 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Cazenave, P. Gegout, L. Soudarin, K. Dominh, F. Barlier, P. Exertier, Y. Boudon, “Geodetic results from LAGEOS 1 and DORIS satellite data,” in Contributions of Space Geodesy to Geodynamics: Crustal Dynamics, D. E. Smith, D. L. Turcotte, eds., Vol. 23 of Geodynamics Series (American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 81–98.
[CrossRef]

Barotto, B.

B. Barotto, J. P. Berthias, “First results of reduced dynamics with DORIS on TOPEX/Poseidon and SPOT,” J. Guidance Control Dynam. 19, 1296–1302 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Berthias, J. P.

B. Barotto, J. P. Berthias, “First results of reduced dynamics with DORIS on TOPEX/Poseidon and SPOT,” J. Guidance Control Dynam. 19, 1296–1302 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Biancale, R.

P. Schwintzer, Ch. Reigber, A. Bode, Z. Kang, S. Y. Zhu, F.-H. Massmann, J. C. Raimondo, R. Biancale, G. Balmino, J. M. Lemoine, B. Moynot, J. C. Marty, F. Barlier, Y. Boudon, “Long-wavelength global gravity field models: GRIM4–S4, GRIM4–C4,” J. Geod. 71, 189–208 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bode, A.

P. Schwintzer, Ch. Reigber, A. Bode, Z. Kang, S. Y. Zhu, F.-H. Massmann, J. C. Raimondo, R. Biancale, G. Balmino, J. M. Lemoine, B. Moynot, J. C. Marty, F. Barlier, Y. Boudon, “Long-wavelength global gravity field models: GRIM4–S4, GRIM4–C4,” J. Geod. 71, 189–208 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Boer, A.

P. Sperber, A. Boer, R. Dassing, H. Hase, W. Schlueter, R. Kilger, “TIGO project: concept, status, plans,” in Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Laser Ranging Instrumentation, Y. Fumin, C. Wanzhen, eds. (Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 1996), pp. 135–144.

Bonnefond, P.

P. Bonnefond, P. Exertier, F. Barlier, “Geographically correlated errors determined from a laser-based short-arc technique,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 15,885–15,893 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Bonnefond, P. Exertier, P. Schaeffer, S. Bruinsma, F. Barlier, “Satellite altimetry from a short-arc orbit technique: application to the Mediterranean,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 25,365–25,382 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Nicolas, P. Exertier, P. Bonnefond, F. Pierron, J. Haase, “First results with the French Transportable Laser Ranging Station” in Proceedings of the 11th International Workshop on Laser Ranging Instrumentation, Bundesamt für Kartographie und Geodäsie, eds. (Universität Munchen, Deggendorf, Germany, to be published).

Bosworth, J.

J. Bosworth, R. Coates, T. Fischeti, “The development of NASA’s Crustal Dynamics Project,” in Contributions to Geodynamics: Technology, D. E. Smith, D. L. Turcotte, eds., Vol. 25 of Geodynamics Series (American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 1–20.

Boudon, Y.

P. Schwintzer, Ch. Reigber, A. Bode, Z. Kang, S. Y. Zhu, F.-H. Massmann, J. C. Raimondo, R. Biancale, G. Balmino, J. M. Lemoine, B. Moynot, J. C. Marty, F. Barlier, Y. Boudon, “Long-wavelength global gravity field models: GRIM4–S4, GRIM4–C4,” J. Geod. 71, 189–208 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Cazenave, P. Gegout, L. Soudarin, K. Dominh, F. Barlier, P. Exertier, Y. Boudon, “Geodetic results from LAGEOS 1 and DORIS satellite data,” in Contributions of Space Geodesy to Geodynamics: Crustal Dynamics, D. E. Smith, D. L. Turcotte, eds., Vol. 23 of Geodynamics Series (American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 81–98.
[CrossRef]

Bouillé, F.

J. F. Crétaux, L. Soudarin, A. Cazenave, F. Bouillé, “Present-day tectonic plate motions and crustal deformations from the DORIS space system,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 30,167–30,181 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bruinsma, S.

P. Bonnefond, P. Exertier, P. Schaeffer, S. Bruinsma, F. Barlier, “Satellite altimetry from a short-arc orbit technique: application to the Mediterranean,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 25,365–25,382 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cazenave, A.

J. F. Crétaux, L. Soudarin, A. Cazenave, F. Bouillé, “Present-day tectonic plate motions and crustal deformations from the DORIS space system,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 30,167–30,181 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Cazenave, P. Gegout, L. Soudarin, K. Dominh, F. Barlier, P. Exertier, Y. Boudon, “Geodetic results from LAGEOS 1 and DORIS satellite data,” in Contributions of Space Geodesy to Geodynamics: Crustal Dynamics, D. E. Smith, D. L. Turcotte, eds., Vol. 23 of Geodynamics Series (American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 81–98.
[CrossRef]

Cheek, J.

J. Degnan, J. McGarry, T. Zagwodzki, P. Titterton, H. Sweeney, H. Donovan, M. Perry, B. Conklin, W. Decker, J. Cheek, A. Mallama, P. Dunn, R. Ricklefs, “SLR2000: an inexpensive, fully automated, eyesafe satellite laser ranging system,” in Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Laser Ranging Instrumentation, Y. Fumin, C. Wanzhen, eds. (Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 1996), pp. 367–377.

Christensen, E. J.

E. J. Christensen, B. J. Haines, R. S. Nerem, “Calibration of TOPEX/Poseidon at platform Harvest,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 24,465–24,485 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Coates, R.

J. Bosworth, R. Coates, T. Fischeti, “The development of NASA’s Crustal Dynamics Project,” in Contributions to Geodynamics: Technology, D. E. Smith, D. L. Turcotte, eds., Vol. 25 of Geodynamics Series (American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 1–20.

Conklin, B.

J. Degnan, J. McGarry, T. Zagwodzki, P. Titterton, H. Sweeney, H. Donovan, M. Perry, B. Conklin, W. Decker, J. Cheek, A. Mallama, P. Dunn, R. Ricklefs, “SLR2000: an inexpensive, fully automated, eyesafe satellite laser ranging system,” in Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Laser Ranging Instrumentation, Y. Fumin, C. Wanzhen, eds. (Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 1996), pp. 367–377.

Crétaux, J. F.

J. F. Crétaux, L. Soudarin, A. Cazenave, F. Bouillé, “Present-day tectonic plate motions and crustal deformations from the DORIS space system,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 30,167–30,181 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Crétaux, Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales, Institut Geographique National of France, 2 Avenue Pasteur, B.P. 68, F-94160 Saint Mandé, France (personal communication, 1996).

Dassing, R.

P. Sperber, A. Boer, R. Dassing, H. Hase, W. Schlueter, R. Kilger, “TIGO project: concept, status, plans,” in Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Laser Ranging Instrumentation, Y. Fumin, C. Wanzhen, eds. (Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 1996), pp. 135–144.

Decker, W.

J. Degnan, J. McGarry, T. Zagwodzki, P. Titterton, H. Sweeney, H. Donovan, M. Perry, B. Conklin, W. Decker, J. Cheek, A. Mallama, P. Dunn, R. Ricklefs, “SLR2000: an inexpensive, fully automated, eyesafe satellite laser ranging system,” in Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Laser Ranging Instrumentation, Y. Fumin, C. Wanzhen, eds. (Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 1996), pp. 367–377.

Degnan, J.

E. Vermaat, J. Degnan, P. Dunn, R. Noomen, A. Sinclair, “Satellite laser ranging, status and impact for Wegener,” J. Geodynam. 25, 195–212 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Degnan, J. McGarry, T. Zagwodzki, P. Titterton, H. Sweeney, H. Donovan, M. Perry, B. Conklin, W. Decker, J. Cheek, A. Mallama, P. Dunn, R. Ricklefs, “SLR2000: an inexpensive, fully automated, eyesafe satellite laser ranging system,” in Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Laser Ranging Instrumentation, Y. Fumin, C. Wanzhen, eds. (Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 1996), pp. 367–377.

J. Degnan, “Millimeter accuracy satellite laser ranging—a review,” in Contributions to Geodynamics: Technology, D. E. Smith, D. L. Turcotte, eds., Vol. 25 of Geodynamics Series (American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 133–162.

Dominh, K.

A. Cazenave, P. Gegout, L. Soudarin, K. Dominh, F. Barlier, P. Exertier, Y. Boudon, “Geodetic results from LAGEOS 1 and DORIS satellite data,” in Contributions of Space Geodesy to Geodynamics: Crustal Dynamics, D. E. Smith, D. L. Turcotte, eds., Vol. 23 of Geodynamics Series (American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 81–98.
[CrossRef]

Donovan, H.

J. Degnan, J. McGarry, T. Zagwodzki, P. Titterton, H. Sweeney, H. Donovan, M. Perry, B. Conklin, W. Decker, J. Cheek, A. Mallama, P. Dunn, R. Ricklefs, “SLR2000: an inexpensive, fully automated, eyesafe satellite laser ranging system,” in Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Laser Ranging Instrumentation, Y. Fumin, C. Wanzhen, eds. (Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 1996), pp. 367–377.

Dunn, P.

E. Vermaat, J. Degnan, P. Dunn, R. Noomen, A. Sinclair, “Satellite laser ranging, status and impact for Wegener,” J. Geodynam. 25, 195–212 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Degnan, J. McGarry, T. Zagwodzki, P. Titterton, H. Sweeney, H. Donovan, M. Perry, B. Conklin, W. Decker, J. Cheek, A. Mallama, P. Dunn, R. Ricklefs, “SLR2000: an inexpensive, fully automated, eyesafe satellite laser ranging system,” in Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Laser Ranging Instrumentation, Y. Fumin, C. Wanzhen, eds. (Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 1996), pp. 367–377.

Exertier, P.

P. Bonnefond, P. Exertier, F. Barlier, “Geographically correlated errors determined from a laser-based short-arc technique,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 15,885–15,893 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Bonnefond, P. Exertier, P. Schaeffer, S. Bruinsma, F. Barlier, “Satellite altimetry from a short-arc orbit technique: application to the Mediterranean,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 25,365–25,382 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Cazenave, P. Gegout, L. Soudarin, K. Dominh, F. Barlier, P. Exertier, Y. Boudon, “Geodetic results from LAGEOS 1 and DORIS satellite data,” in Contributions of Space Geodesy to Geodynamics: Crustal Dynamics, D. E. Smith, D. L. Turcotte, eds., Vol. 23 of Geodynamics Series (American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 81–98.
[CrossRef]

J. Nicolas, P. Exertier, P. Bonnefond, F. Pierron, J. Haase, “First results with the French Transportable Laser Ranging Station” in Proceedings of the 11th International Workshop on Laser Ranging Instrumentation, Bundesamt für Kartographie und Geodäsie, eds. (Universität Munchen, Deggendorf, Germany, to be published).

Fischeti, T.

J. Bosworth, R. Coates, T. Fischeti, “The development of NASA’s Crustal Dynamics Project,” in Contributions to Geodynamics: Technology, D. E. Smith, D. L. Turcotte, eds., Vol. 25 of Geodynamics Series (American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 1–20.

Fridelance, P.

E. Samain, P. Fridelance, “Time Transfer by Laser Link (T2L2) experiment on Mir,” Metrologia 35, 151–159 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Fridelance, E. Samain, C. Veillet, “T2L2—Time Transfer by Laser Link: a new optical time transfer generation,” Exp. Astron. 7, 193–207 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gegout, P.

A. Cazenave, P. Gegout, L. Soudarin, K. Dominh, F. Barlier, P. Exertier, Y. Boudon, “Geodetic results from LAGEOS 1 and DORIS satellite data,” in Contributions of Space Geodesy to Geodynamics: Crustal Dynamics, D. E. Smith, D. L. Turcotte, eds., Vol. 23 of Geodynamics Series (American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 81–98.
[CrossRef]

Goupil, B.

M. Kasser, B. Goupil, “The polarization behaviour of cube corner retroreflectors used in SLR satellites,” in Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Laser Ranging Instrumentation, Y. Fumin, C. Wanzhen, eds., (Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 1996), pp. 263–268.

Greene, B.

I. Prochazka, K. Hamal, B. Greene, “SPAD detectors for ranging with submillimeter bias,” in Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Laser Ranging Instrumentation, Y. Fumin, C. Wanzhen, eds., (Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 1996), pp. 287–292.

Haase, J.

J. Nicolas, P. Exertier, P. Bonnefond, F. Pierron, J. Haase, “First results with the French Transportable Laser Ranging Station” in Proceedings of the 11th International Workshop on Laser Ranging Instrumentation, Bundesamt für Kartographie und Geodäsie, eds. (Universität Munchen, Deggendorf, Germany, to be published).

Haines, B.

B. Haines, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, Calif. 91109-8099 (personal communication, 1996).

Haines, B. J.

E. J. Christensen, B. J. Haines, R. S. Nerem, “Calibration of TOPEX/Poseidon at platform Harvest,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 24,465–24,485 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hamal, K.

I. Prochazka, K. Hamal, B. Greene, “SPAD detectors for ranging with submillimeter bias,” in Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Laser Ranging Instrumentation, Y. Fumin, C. Wanzhen, eds., (Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 1996), pp. 287–292.

Hase, H.

P. Sperber, A. Boer, R. Dassing, H. Hase, W. Schlueter, R. Kilger, “TIGO project: concept, status, plans,” in Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Laser Ranging Instrumentation, Y. Fumin, C. Wanzhen, eds. (Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 1996), pp. 135–144.

Heflin, M.

D. Argus, M. Heflin, “Plate motion and crustal deformation estimated with geodetic data from the Global Positioning System,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1973–1976 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Herring, T.

T. Herring, M. Pearlman, “Future developments and synergism of space geodetic measurement techniques,” in Contributions to Geodynamics: Technology, D. E. Smith, D. L. Turcotte, eds., Vol. 25 of Geodynamics Series (American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 21–25.

Kalnis, A.

M. Abele, J. Balodis, A. Kalnis, A. Rubans, J. Vjaters, O. West, A. Zarinjsh “Portable satellite laser ranging system,” in Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Laser Ranging Instrumentation, J. Luck, ed. (Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 1994), pp. 160–166.

Kang, Z.

P. Schwintzer, Ch. Reigber, A. Bode, Z. Kang, S. Y. Zhu, F.-H. Massmann, J. C. Raimondo, R. Biancale, G. Balmino, J. M. Lemoine, B. Moynot, J. C. Marty, F. Barlier, Y. Boudon, “Long-wavelength global gravity field models: GRIM4–S4, GRIM4–C4,” J. Geod. 71, 189–208 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kasser, M.

M. Kasser, B. Goupil, “The polarization behaviour of cube corner retroreflectors used in SLR satellites,” in Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Laser Ranging Instrumentation, Y. Fumin, C. Wanzhen, eds., (Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 1996), pp. 263–268.

Kilger, R.

P. Sperber, A. Boer, R. Dassing, H. Hase, W. Schlueter, R. Kilger, “TIGO project: concept, status, plans,” in Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Laser Ranging Instrumentation, Y. Fumin, C. Wanzhen, eds. (Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 1996), pp. 135–144.

Kirchner, G.

G. Kirchner, F. Koidl, “Automatic SPAD time walk compensation,” in Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Laser Ranging Instrumentation, Y. Fumin, C. Wanzhen, eds. (Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 1996), pp. 293–296.

Koidl, F.

G. Kirchner, F. Koidl, “Automatic SPAD time walk compensation,” in Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Laser Ranging Instrumentation, Y. Fumin, C. Wanzhen, eds. (Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 1996), pp. 293–296.

Le Pape, M.

M. Le Pape, Service Général du Nivellement, Groupe de Recherches de Geodesie Spatiale, 14 Avenue Edouard Belin, F-31400 Toulouse, France (personal communication, 1993).

Lemoine, J. M.

P. Schwintzer, Ch. Reigber, A. Bode, Z. Kang, S. Y. Zhu, F.-H. Massmann, J. C. Raimondo, R. Biancale, G. Balmino, J. M. Lemoine, B. Moynot, J. C. Marty, F. Barlier, Y. Boudon, “Long-wavelength global gravity field models: GRIM4–S4, GRIM4–C4,” J. Geod. 71, 189–208 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mallama, A.

J. Degnan, J. McGarry, T. Zagwodzki, P. Titterton, H. Sweeney, H. Donovan, M. Perry, B. Conklin, W. Decker, J. Cheek, A. Mallama, P. Dunn, R. Ricklefs, “SLR2000: an inexpensive, fully automated, eyesafe satellite laser ranging system,” in Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Laser Ranging Instrumentation, Y. Fumin, C. Wanzhen, eds. (Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 1996), pp. 367–377.

Marebby, M.

P. Sperber, R. Motz, P. Schotz, M. Marebby, R. Zane, “Test and developments at the MTLRS-1 receiving system,” in Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Laser Ranging Instrumentation, J. Luck, ed. (Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 1994), pp. 400–406.

Marty, J. C.

F. Perosanz, J. C. Marty, G. Balmino, “Dynamic orbit determination and gravity field model improvement from GPS, DORIS and laser measurements on TOPEX/POSEIDON satellite,” J. Geod. 71, 160–170 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Schwintzer, Ch. Reigber, A. Bode, Z. Kang, S. Y. Zhu, F.-H. Massmann, J. C. Raimondo, R. Biancale, G. Balmino, J. M. Lemoine, B. Moynot, J. C. Marty, F. Barlier, Y. Boudon, “Long-wavelength global gravity field models: GRIM4–S4, GRIM4–C4,” J. Geod. 71, 189–208 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Massmann, F.-H.

P. Schwintzer, Ch. Reigber, A. Bode, Z. Kang, S. Y. Zhu, F.-H. Massmann, J. C. Raimondo, R. Biancale, G. Balmino, J. M. Lemoine, B. Moynot, J. C. Marty, F. Barlier, Y. Boudon, “Long-wavelength global gravity field models: GRIM4–S4, GRIM4–C4,” J. Geod. 71, 189–208 (1997).
[CrossRef]

McGarry, J.

J. Degnan, J. McGarry, T. Zagwodzki, P. Titterton, H. Sweeney, H. Donovan, M. Perry, B. Conklin, W. Decker, J. Cheek, A. Mallama, P. Dunn, R. Ricklefs, “SLR2000: an inexpensive, fully automated, eyesafe satellite laser ranging system,” in Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Laser Ranging Instrumentation, Y. Fumin, C. Wanzhen, eds. (Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 1996), pp. 367–377.

Motz, R.

P. Sperber, R. Motz, P. Schotz, M. Marebby, R. Zane, “Test and developments at the MTLRS-1 receiving system,” in Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Laser Ranging Instrumentation, J. Luck, ed. (Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 1994), pp. 400–406.

Moynot, B.

P. Schwintzer, Ch. Reigber, A. Bode, Z. Kang, S. Y. Zhu, F.-H. Massmann, J. C. Raimondo, R. Biancale, G. Balmino, J. M. Lemoine, B. Moynot, J. C. Marty, F. Barlier, Y. Boudon, “Long-wavelength global gravity field models: GRIM4–S4, GRIM4–C4,” J. Geod. 71, 189–208 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nerem, R. S.

E. J. Christensen, B. J. Haines, R. S. Nerem, “Calibration of TOPEX/Poseidon at platform Harvest,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 24,465–24,485 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nicolas, J.

J. Nicolas, P. Exertier, P. Bonnefond, F. Pierron, J. Haase, “First results with the French Transportable Laser Ranging Station” in Proceedings of the 11th International Workshop on Laser Ranging Instrumentation, Bundesamt für Kartographie und Geodäsie, eds. (Universität Munchen, Deggendorf, Germany, to be published).

Noomen, R.

E. Vermaat, J. Degnan, P. Dunn, R. Noomen, A. Sinclair, “Satellite laser ranging, status and impact for Wegener,” J. Geodynam. 25, 195–212 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pearlman, M.

T. Herring, M. Pearlman, “Future developments and synergism of space geodetic measurement techniques,” in Contributions to Geodynamics: Technology, D. E. Smith, D. L. Turcotte, eds., Vol. 25 of Geodynamics Series (American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 21–25.

Perosanz, F.

F. Perosanz, J. C. Marty, G. Balmino, “Dynamic orbit determination and gravity field model improvement from GPS, DORIS and laser measurements on TOPEX/POSEIDON satellite,” J. Geod. 71, 160–170 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Perry, M.

J. Degnan, J. McGarry, T. Zagwodzki, P. Titterton, H. Sweeney, H. Donovan, M. Perry, B. Conklin, W. Decker, J. Cheek, A. Mallama, P. Dunn, R. Ricklefs, “SLR2000: an inexpensive, fully automated, eyesafe satellite laser ranging system,” in Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Laser Ranging Instrumentation, Y. Fumin, C. Wanzhen, eds. (Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 1996), pp. 367–377.

Pierron, F.

J. Nicolas, P. Exertier, P. Bonnefond, F. Pierron, J. Haase, “First results with the French Transportable Laser Ranging Station” in Proceedings of the 11th International Workshop on Laser Ranging Instrumentation, Bundesamt für Kartographie und Geodäsie, eds. (Universität Munchen, Deggendorf, Germany, to be published).

Prochazka, I.

I. Prochazka, K. Hamal, B. Greene, “SPAD detectors for ranging with submillimeter bias,” in Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Laser Ranging Instrumentation, Y. Fumin, C. Wanzhen, eds., (Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 1996), pp. 287–292.

Raimondo, J. C.

P. Schwintzer, Ch. Reigber, A. Bode, Z. Kang, S. Y. Zhu, F.-H. Massmann, J. C. Raimondo, R. Biancale, G. Balmino, J. M. Lemoine, B. Moynot, J. C. Marty, F. Barlier, Y. Boudon, “Long-wavelength global gravity field models: GRIM4–S4, GRIM4–C4,” J. Geod. 71, 189–208 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Reigber, Ch.

P. Schwintzer, Ch. Reigber, A. Bode, Z. Kang, S. Y. Zhu, F.-H. Massmann, J. C. Raimondo, R. Biancale, G. Balmino, J. M. Lemoine, B. Moynot, J. C. Marty, F. Barlier, Y. Boudon, “Long-wavelength global gravity field models: GRIM4–S4, GRIM4–C4,” J. Geod. 71, 189–208 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ricklefs, R.

J. Degnan, J. McGarry, T. Zagwodzki, P. Titterton, H. Sweeney, H. Donovan, M. Perry, B. Conklin, W. Decker, J. Cheek, A. Mallama, P. Dunn, R. Ricklefs, “SLR2000: an inexpensive, fully automated, eyesafe satellite laser ranging system,” in Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Laser Ranging Instrumentation, Y. Fumin, C. Wanzhen, eds. (Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 1996), pp. 367–377.

Rubans, A.

M. Abele, J. Balodis, A. Kalnis, A. Rubans, J. Vjaters, O. West, A. Zarinjsh “Portable satellite laser ranging system,” in Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Laser Ranging Instrumentation, J. Luck, ed. (Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 1994), pp. 160–166.

Samain, E.

E. Samain, P. Fridelance, “Time Transfer by Laser Link (T2L2) experiment on Mir,” Metrologia 35, 151–159 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Fridelance, E. Samain, C. Veillet, “T2L2—Time Transfer by Laser Link: a new optical time transfer generation,” Exp. Astron. 7, 193–207 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. Samain, Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur, Avenue N. Copernic, F-06130 Grasse, France (personal communication, 1999).

Schaeffer, P.

P. Bonnefond, P. Exertier, P. Schaeffer, S. Bruinsma, F. Barlier, “Satellite altimetry from a short-arc orbit technique: application to the Mediterranean,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 25,365–25,382 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schlueter, W.

P. Sperber, A. Boer, R. Dassing, H. Hase, W. Schlueter, R. Kilger, “TIGO project: concept, status, plans,” in Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Laser Ranging Instrumentation, Y. Fumin, C. Wanzhen, eds. (Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 1996), pp. 135–144.

Schotz, P.

P. Sperber, R. Motz, P. Schotz, M. Marebby, R. Zane, “Test and developments at the MTLRS-1 receiving system,” in Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Laser Ranging Instrumentation, J. Luck, ed. (Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 1994), pp. 400–406.

Schwintzer, P.

P. Schwintzer, Ch. Reigber, A. Bode, Z. Kang, S. Y. Zhu, F.-H. Massmann, J. C. Raimondo, R. Biancale, G. Balmino, J. M. Lemoine, B. Moynot, J. C. Marty, F. Barlier, Y. Boudon, “Long-wavelength global gravity field models: GRIM4–S4, GRIM4–C4,” J. Geod. 71, 189–208 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sinclair, A.

E. Vermaat, J. Degnan, P. Dunn, R. Noomen, A. Sinclair, “Satellite laser ranging, status and impact for Wegener,” J. Geodynam. 25, 195–212 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Soudarin, L.

J. F. Crétaux, L. Soudarin, A. Cazenave, F. Bouillé, “Present-day tectonic plate motions and crustal deformations from the DORIS space system,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 30,167–30,181 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Cazenave, P. Gegout, L. Soudarin, K. Dominh, F. Barlier, P. Exertier, Y. Boudon, “Geodetic results from LAGEOS 1 and DORIS satellite data,” in Contributions of Space Geodesy to Geodynamics: Crustal Dynamics, D. E. Smith, D. L. Turcotte, eds., Vol. 23 of Geodynamics Series (American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 81–98.
[CrossRef]

Sperber, P.

P. Sperber, R. Motz, P. Schotz, M. Marebby, R. Zane, “Test and developments at the MTLRS-1 receiving system,” in Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Laser Ranging Instrumentation, J. Luck, ed. (Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 1994), pp. 400–406.

P. Sperber, A. Boer, R. Dassing, H. Hase, W. Schlueter, R. Kilger, “TIGO project: concept, status, plans,” in Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Laser Ranging Instrumentation, Y. Fumin, C. Wanzhen, eds. (Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 1996), pp. 135–144.

Sweeney, H.

J. Degnan, J. McGarry, T. Zagwodzki, P. Titterton, H. Sweeney, H. Donovan, M. Perry, B. Conklin, W. Decker, J. Cheek, A. Mallama, P. Dunn, R. Ricklefs, “SLR2000: an inexpensive, fully automated, eyesafe satellite laser ranging system,” in Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Laser Ranging Instrumentation, Y. Fumin, C. Wanzhen, eds. (Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 1996), pp. 367–377.

Titterton, P.

J. Degnan, J. McGarry, T. Zagwodzki, P. Titterton, H. Sweeney, H. Donovan, M. Perry, B. Conklin, W. Decker, J. Cheek, A. Mallama, P. Dunn, R. Ricklefs, “SLR2000: an inexpensive, fully automated, eyesafe satellite laser ranging system,” in Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Laser Ranging Instrumentation, Y. Fumin, C. Wanzhen, eds. (Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 1996), pp. 367–377.

Veillet, C.

P. Fridelance, E. Samain, C. Veillet, “T2L2—Time Transfer by Laser Link: a new optical time transfer generation,” Exp. Astron. 7, 193–207 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vermaat, E.

E. Vermaat, J. Degnan, P. Dunn, R. Noomen, A. Sinclair, “Satellite laser ranging, status and impact for Wegener,” J. Geodynam. 25, 195–212 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vjaters, J.

M. Abele, J. Balodis, A. Kalnis, A. Rubans, J. Vjaters, O. West, A. Zarinjsh “Portable satellite laser ranging system,” in Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Laser Ranging Instrumentation, J. Luck, ed. (Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 1994), pp. 160–166.

West, O.

M. Abele, J. Balodis, A. Kalnis, A. Rubans, J. Vjaters, O. West, A. Zarinjsh “Portable satellite laser ranging system,” in Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Laser Ranging Instrumentation, J. Luck, ed. (Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 1994), pp. 160–166.

Zagwodzki, T.

J. Degnan, J. McGarry, T. Zagwodzki, P. Titterton, H. Sweeney, H. Donovan, M. Perry, B. Conklin, W. Decker, J. Cheek, A. Mallama, P. Dunn, R. Ricklefs, “SLR2000: an inexpensive, fully automated, eyesafe satellite laser ranging system,” in Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Laser Ranging Instrumentation, Y. Fumin, C. Wanzhen, eds. (Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 1996), pp. 367–377.

Zane, R.

P. Sperber, R. Motz, P. Schotz, M. Marebby, R. Zane, “Test and developments at the MTLRS-1 receiving system,” in Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Laser Ranging Instrumentation, J. Luck, ed. (Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 1994), pp. 400–406.

Zarinjsh, A.

M. Abele, J. Balodis, A. Kalnis, A. Rubans, J. Vjaters, O. West, A. Zarinjsh “Portable satellite laser ranging system,” in Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Laser Ranging Instrumentation, J. Luck, ed. (Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 1994), pp. 160–166.

Zhu, S. Y.

P. Schwintzer, Ch. Reigber, A. Bode, Z. Kang, S. Y. Zhu, F.-H. Massmann, J. C. Raimondo, R. Biancale, G. Balmino, J. M. Lemoine, B. Moynot, J. C. Marty, F. Barlier, Y. Boudon, “Long-wavelength global gravity field models: GRIM4–S4, GRIM4–C4,” J. Geod. 71, 189–208 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Exp. Astron.

P. Fridelance, E. Samain, C. Veillet, “T2L2—Time Transfer by Laser Link: a new optical time transfer generation,” Exp. Astron. 7, 193–207 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett.

D. Argus, M. Heflin, “Plate motion and crustal deformation estimated with geodetic data from the Global Positioning System,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1973–1976 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Geod.

F. Perosanz, J. C. Marty, G. Balmino, “Dynamic orbit determination and gravity field model improvement from GPS, DORIS and laser measurements on TOPEX/POSEIDON satellite,” J. Geod. 71, 160–170 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Schwintzer, Ch. Reigber, A. Bode, Z. Kang, S. Y. Zhu, F.-H. Massmann, J. C. Raimondo, R. Biancale, G. Balmino, J. M. Lemoine, B. Moynot, J. C. Marty, F. Barlier, Y. Boudon, “Long-wavelength global gravity field models: GRIM4–S4, GRIM4–C4,” J. Geod. 71, 189–208 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Geodynam.

E. Vermaat, J. Degnan, P. Dunn, R. Noomen, A. Sinclair, “Satellite laser ranging, status and impact for Wegener,” J. Geodynam. 25, 195–212 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

P. Bonnefond, P. Exertier, P. Schaeffer, S. Bruinsma, F. Barlier, “Satellite altimetry from a short-arc orbit technique: application to the Mediterranean,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 25,365–25,382 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Christensen, B. J. Haines, R. S. Nerem, “Calibration of TOPEX/Poseidon at platform Harvest,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 24,465–24,485 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Bonnefond, P. Exertier, F. Barlier, “Geographically correlated errors determined from a laser-based short-arc technique,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 15,885–15,893 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Crétaux, L. Soudarin, A. Cazenave, F. Bouillé, “Present-day tectonic plate motions and crustal deformations from the DORIS space system,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 30,167–30,181 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Guidance Control Dynam.

B. Barotto, J. P. Berthias, “First results of reduced dynamics with DORIS on TOPEX/Poseidon and SPOT,” J. Guidance Control Dynam. 19, 1296–1302 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Metrologia

E. Samain, P. Fridelance, “Time Transfer by Laser Link (T2L2) experiment on Mir,” Metrologia 35, 151–159 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. Degnan, “Millimeter accuracy satellite laser ranging—a review,” in Contributions to Geodynamics: Technology, D. E. Smith, D. L. Turcotte, eds., Vol. 25 of Geodynamics Series (American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 133–162.

P. Sperber, R. Motz, P. Schotz, M. Marebby, R. Zane, “Test and developments at the MTLRS-1 receiving system,” in Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Laser Ranging Instrumentation, J. Luck, ed. (Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 1994), pp. 400–406.

M. Abele, J. Balodis, A. Kalnis, A. Rubans, J. Vjaters, O. West, A. Zarinjsh “Portable satellite laser ranging system,” in Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Laser Ranging Instrumentation, J. Luck, ed. (Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 1994), pp. 160–166.

P. Sperber, A. Boer, R. Dassing, H. Hase, W. Schlueter, R. Kilger, “TIGO project: concept, status, plans,” in Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Laser Ranging Instrumentation, Y. Fumin, C. Wanzhen, eds. (Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 1996), pp. 135–144.

J. Degnan, J. McGarry, T. Zagwodzki, P. Titterton, H. Sweeney, H. Donovan, M. Perry, B. Conklin, W. Decker, J. Cheek, A. Mallama, P. Dunn, R. Ricklefs, “SLR2000: an inexpensive, fully automated, eyesafe satellite laser ranging system,” in Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Laser Ranging Instrumentation, Y. Fumin, C. Wanzhen, eds. (Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 1996), pp. 367–377.

J. Bosworth, R. Coates, T. Fischeti, “The development of NASA’s Crustal Dynamics Project,” in Contributions to Geodynamics: Technology, D. E. Smith, D. L. Turcotte, eds., Vol. 25 of Geodynamics Series (American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 1–20.

At the First general meeting of the International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS), Deggendorf, Germany, 22 September 1998. Proceedings available on line from http://ilrs.gsfc.nasa.gov/9809_gen_minutes.html .

See CSTG SLR/LLR Subcomission 1998 Annual Report, available on line from http://ilrs.gsfc.nasa.gov/CSTG_report_1998.html .

M. Kasser, B. Goupil, “The polarization behaviour of cube corner retroreflectors used in SLR satellites,” in Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Laser Ranging Instrumentation, Y. Fumin, C. Wanzhen, eds., (Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 1996), pp. 263–268.

E. Samain, Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur, Avenue N. Copernic, F-06130 Grasse, France (personal communication, 1999).

J. Nicolas, P. Exertier, P. Bonnefond, F. Pierron, J. Haase, “First results with the French Transportable Laser Ranging Station” in Proceedings of the 11th International Workshop on Laser Ranging Instrumentation, Bundesamt für Kartographie und Geodäsie, eds. (Universität Munchen, Deggendorf, Germany, to be published).

T. Herring, M. Pearlman, “Future developments and synergism of space geodetic measurement techniques,” in Contributions to Geodynamics: Technology, D. E. Smith, D. L. Turcotte, eds., Vol. 25 of Geodynamics Series (American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 21–25.

A. Cazenave, P. Gegout, L. Soudarin, K. Dominh, F. Barlier, P. Exertier, Y. Boudon, “Geodetic results from LAGEOS 1 and DORIS satellite data,” in Contributions of Space Geodesy to Geodynamics: Crustal Dynamics, D. E. Smith, D. L. Turcotte, eds., Vol. 23 of Geodynamics Series (American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 81–98.
[CrossRef]

G. Kirchner, F. Koidl, “Automatic SPAD time walk compensation,” in Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Laser Ranging Instrumentation, Y. Fumin, C. Wanzhen, eds. (Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 1996), pp. 293–296.

I. Prochazka, K. Hamal, B. Greene, “SPAD detectors for ranging with submillimeter bias,” in Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Laser Ranging Instrumentation, Y. Fumin, C. Wanzhen, eds., (Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 1996), pp. 287–292.

B. Haines, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, Calif. 91109-8099 (personal communication, 1996).

M. Le Pape, Service Général du Nivellement, Groupe de Recherches de Geodesie Spatiale, 14 Avenue Edouard Belin, F-31400 Toulouse, France (personal communication, 1993).

J. F. Crétaux, Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales, Institut Geographique National of France, 2 Avenue Pasteur, B.P. 68, F-94160 Saint Mandé, France (personal communication, 1996).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

FTLRS at Ajaccio (Corsica, France), 1996–1997.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the FTLRS: VME, ●●●.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of the FTLRS laser bench.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic of the optical path in the FTLRS mount. The avalanche photodiode shown here is replaced by an optical fiber leading to the timing unit for the T2L2 mode.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Temporal evolution of the short-arc standard deviation laser residual per pass (for number of arcs as labeled) for the FTLRS TOPEX/Poseidon observations during the Corsica campaign. Several passes (i.e. 52–53 and 59–63) gave aberrant residuals, a situation that is expected to improve with the recent modifications.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Positioning results of collocated measurements of the FTLRS, GPS, and DORIS stations at Aspretto, Corsica Island. The GPS–IGN solution corresponds to a campaign carried out in 1993 and the GPS–JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory) and DORIS measurements were made simultaneously with the FTLRS observation during the Corsica campaign. The CERGA (Dyn) points correspond to a dynamic orbitography solution whereas the CERGA SA (short-arc) points were obtained by a SA technique. CERGA from OCA stands for Centre d’Etudes et de Recherches en Géodésie et Astrométrie.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summary of the Main Characteristics of the FTLRS

Metrics